CADWALLADER AND JANE COLDEN IN NEW YORK HISTORY  –  A CHRONOLOGY

 

17th C

Isaac Newton’s Period is in full swing by the late 1670s.

1687/8 – Cadwallader Colden’s Birthdate.  Colden’s birthdate appears as at least two days in the biographies published about him.  <Family>

18th C.

1700 – 1704

1702 – (14 years old) — Cadwallader begins attending programs at Edinburgh, for a Master of Arts Degree. <Family, Profession>

1705 – 1709

1705 – (17 years old) — “Cadwalladerus” graduates from Edinburgh <Family, Profession>

1705/6 – (17-18 years old)  Cadwallader initiated a 3 year apprentice in London in Medicine and/or Surgery.  This was more than likely an apprenticeship not affiliated with the two hospitals that offered medical training. <Family, Profession>

1708 – (20 years old) — Cadwallader completed his medical apprenticeship.  He soonafter removed to North America, probably to Philadelphia first (some contemporary and authors of Colden’s time cite 1710 as this year). <Family, Profession>

1710 – 1714

171(4) – Cadwallader returned to Great Britain. <Family>

1715 – 1719

1715 – Cadwallader is married, and soonafter returns to North America to settle in the New Jersey/New York area  <Family>

1720 – 1724

1725 – 1729

1729 – Governor Burnet, Alexander and Colden worked on a project in which they determined the Latitude and Longitude of “Fort St. Charles” (New York), basing this information on the positions and movements of the 4 moons of Jupiter.  See Phil. Trans. No. 385.  Biblioth. Angl. Tom. 14, le part. p 19.   <Astronomy> <Mathematics>  [Article posted at this site]

1730 – 1734

1730 – “Pseudo-ipecacuanha Novaboracensis” is added to the Chelsea Garden in England.  this plant is noted in Mr. Isaac Rand’s A Catalogue of Plants, a list of the garden’s flora published in Phil. Trans. 1719-1733, Abridged, vol. 6 Publ 1744, p. 381, Art. XXXI.see p. 397, item 445. Republished as well in Abregee des Transactions Philosophiques de la Societe Royal de Londres (Fr.) , 1790, p. 191.  this plant appears on the garden list as ‘[Item] 1825. [Item] 445.’   <Botany> <Medicine>

1732 – Pseudo-ipecacuanha Novaboracensis description published by Cad Colden, Phil. Trans. No 422, p. 226.  Jan-Feb-Mar Phil. Trans. No. 422.  Announced in Commercium Litterarium 1734, p 189.  <Botany> <Medicine>

1735 – 1739

1739 –  Horti Medici Chelseiani,  p. 202: “749.  TriosteospermumHort. Elt. 394 . . . Pseudo-ipecacuanha Novaboracensis  D. Cold.  Act. Phil.”  This plant is possibly the first to be made famous by Colden, resulting in its mention in a publication other than Plantae Coldenghamiae<Botany> <Medicine> 

1740 

1741

1742

1743

1743 – Cad. Colden completed Plantae Coldenghamia<Botany>

1744

1744  – Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Upsalensis [Upsalensis].  1740.  Publ 1744.  1743.  Publ. 1749.  “Plantae Coldenghamiae . . . anno 1742 & observavit & descripsit C. Colden”, pp. 81 – 136. <Botany>   

1745

1746

1746 – Nov. –  The Gentleman’s Magazine p 616.  Advt for ‘Miscellaneous’ section: “19. An Explanation for the first causes of action in matter and of the cause of gravitation.  By. Cadw. Colden of New York.  Pr 1 s.”  Also advertised in The Scot’s Magazine, Nov. 1746, p. 552.  Price 1 s.  <Metaphysics>

1747

1748

1749

1749 — Amoenitates  Academicae, Car. Magn. Dassau.  “Nova Plantarum Generum.” Pp. 110-143.  See p. 119 (fn), bibliographical footnote/description of  Cad. Colden, in association with text on page for Coldenia.  In Addenda section ( pp 581 –  ), see ‘Corollarium’, p. 584, for Continens nova . . . Codwald.(sic) Colden (‘p. 143 addenda’ or intended insert for end page of article), on Rumex species notes.   <Botany>

1749 [Nurenberg, Paris] —Grands Globes – Terrestres & Celestes . . . [Nurenberg]  Colden’s map is noted to be at a library in Paris.  (This map was detailed further by another bibliographic author.)  <Political History>

1750 

1750— Advt at end of book by Edmond Hoyle. A Short Treatise on the Game of Whist. Printer T. Osborn, at Gray’s Inn.  Found on p. 237:  “Title: The Natural History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada . . .”   <Political History>

1750 [London, Paris] – M. Needham, Nouvelles Observationes Microscopiques . . . Author notes in Preface (xj – xij) that in July 1748, while touring with some friends in London, they came upon Colden’s pamphlet or “petite brochure” entitled “Explication des premieres causes de l’action dans la matiere, & de la cause de la gravitation”;  reading this encouraged student Needham to continue the research needed to produce Nouvelles Observationes Microscopiques, stating Colden’s pamphlet demonstrated that ‘the God of Religion is the same as the God of Nature, and that all Christians must profess this belief.’  Needham is of the Royal Society of London.   This is the first well documented evidence supporting the facts that Colden had a profound influence on theologians, philosophers and scientists devoted to natural theology and its evolution in natural philosophy during the 1700s, the conversion of the mechanical theories of the universe as stated by Newton to the metaphysical theories as stated by Colden and his followers. [Paris.]  <Metaphysics>

1750 [Upsalia] – Plantae Rariores Camschatsense . . .,  a dissertation presented by Jonas P Halenius, refers to Gronovius and Coldenus as examples of some primary authors referred to for fundamental knowledge of taxonomic presentation.  Dracontium foliis lanceolatis (skunk weed) cites Colden’s taxonomic work in Colden. Novebor. (p. 29).  The diagnostic odor is noted (knowledge of this smell, of course, may or may not be due to Colden’s work). <Botany>  <Medicine>

1751 

1751 [England] —Introduction to the Doctrine of Fluxions.  John Roe (and Colden).  [England]  Fluxions is essentially the study of mathematics, focusing primarily upon the complex math associated with calculus and trigonometry, the former invented by Newton. <Mathematics>

1751 – Medicina Britannica . . . Thomas Short, with Appendix on plants by John Bartram.   Colden is noted in section on “Chelidonium, or Sanguinaria.”  Author’s identification is slightly confusing (Chelidonium and Sanguinaria are distinctly different plants); according to uses: Sanguinaria is suggested by mention of use as a snake bite remedy (published elsewhere as well); the cure for Jaundice suggests Chelidonium due to yellow latex of this plant.  Basing an identification on the common names, Red Root suggests Sanguinaria, Tumerick suggests Chelidonium.  <Botany><Medicine>

1751— Bibliotecha Botanica. Regional “Florists” and their works are briefly bibliographed.  Colden’s “region” is noted as “Coldingham.” Listed as part of the ‘Floristae Extranei’ section.  Linnaeus described his skills as “Consiliarius regius, & Geometra generalis.”  Plantae Coldenghamiae is noted as the title, with Stockholm as the publication city and 1740 as the year, suggesting this to be the year the handwritten document (manuscript) was officially completed and submitted by Gronovius or Collinson.  <Botany>

1751— Hermann Boerhaave’s Methodus Studii Medici . . . is published in Amsterdam, editor Albertus Haller.  Colden’s Plantae Coldinghamiae is recommended (p. 1050). <Botany>

1752 

1752 – Nov. – Gottingische …von Galerhten SachenActa Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Upsaliensis is reviewed.   Dr. Colden’s article is briefly described.  His mention of the Orchis is especially noted.  <Botany>

1752 [London] – Nov. – The London Magazine or Monthly Intelligencer.  A succinct account of The Principles of Action in Matter, the Gravitation of Bodies, and the Motion of Planets explained from those Principles.  Pages 498 –  .  This issue also includes an advertisement for the book, p 532, Price is 5s.  Distributed through Dodsley. <Metaphysics>

1752 – Dec. –  Ibid.  “An Account of a New System of PHILOSOPHY.”  (Response to book, ) pp. 560-562.  The Writer’s/Editor’s theory is presented about the book in a personal sense. <Metaphysics>

1752 – Dec. –  Monthly Review or Literary Journal, vol. 7, pp. 459 – .  Article LXIII.  The Principles of Action in Matter . . . by Colden is reviewed. <Metaphysics>

1753 

1753 – Bibliotheque Raisonee  Des Ouvrages des Savants de L’Europe.  Vol. 15.  April-May-June number, p. 457.  Note on The Principles of Action in Matter . . . by Colden.  The “Aether” theory is explained and related to action-matter relationships.  In French. <Metaphysics>

1753 – Apr. – Memorie per Servir All ‘Istoria Letteraria.  Vol 1, part 4, April 1753.  Colden’s work is attributed to promoting “a new method of thinking developed by Linnaeus” (p.35). <Botany>

1753 – Bibliotheque Annuelle et Universalle. v. 3, part 2. [Paris]  pp 597-598.  Brief note on History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada . . . <Political History>

1753 – June 2 — Incrementa Botanices, by Jacobus Biuur,  the nature and history of the new classification system.  Overview of Linnaeus’s taxonomic groupings of types of botanists.  On page 16, the 1743 publication by Colden is noted as important reference. <Botany>

1753 – July-Aug-Sept – Slutet af Herr Kalms berattles om Skaler-ormen och de lakemedel, som i Norra Amerika . . . (Kalm’s review of Rattle Snake medicines). Pages 185-194.  Colden noted in coverage of Fagus foliis . . . [or] Castanea sativa. <Botany> <Medicine>

1753 – Oct. 1/Dec. 24.  “Extract of a Letter from Cadwallader Colden, Esq., to Dr. Fothergill, concerning the Throat-Distemper, Read Dec. 24, 1753.”  Medical Observations and Inquiries, p. 211 – . <Medicine>

1754 

1754 – Nov. 4 –  Letter, Alexander Garden to Cadwallader Colden, related to Jane Colden’s interests, skills and performance in botany. <Botany>

1754 – Dec. –  Monthly Review.  Details on communications between Benjamin Franklin/Peter Collinson, Abbe Nollet and Colden are provided.  This is Part III of a lengthy series of communications related to electricity and medical electricity. <Metaphysics> <Medicine>

1754 – Nov. – Dec. –  Journal Britannique. (Maty, ed.) [Haye], p. 236.  [transl: New Experiences and Observations on Electricity]  Franklin by Canton of London-Colden communication.  In defense of Franklin-Nollet-Colden exchange.  Note esp. p 249, citation on Franklin’s invention of concept of negative and positive electricity.  See also on page 450, listing has essay title  for Mr. Colden’s “Ses experiences et observations sur l’Electricite”. <Metaphysics> <Medicine>

1754 – Catalogue Raisonee de Librairie d’Etienne de Bourdeaux.  V. 2, p. 107. [Berlin]  Journal Etranger table of contents description provided; paragraphed note includes: “Nouveaux systeme de Philosophie, par le P. Cadwallader Colden, trad de l’Anglois.” <Metaphysics>

1755 

1755 [Edinburgh] – An Enquiry after Philosophy and Theology . . . by Robert Spearman.  Spearman writes: “Mr. Cadwallader Colden saw the inconsistency of Sir Isaac Newton’s scheme . . .”<Metaphysics> <Medicine>

1755 – Bibliotheca Smithiana sue Catalogus Librorum.  [Venetiis.]  Josephi Smithii (ed.).  page xx, Colden’s History of the Five Nations included in bibliographic listing. <Political History>

1755 – The Gentleman’s magazine and Historical Chronicle.  V. 26, p. 403.  Colden’s writing on ‘Five Nations’ cited in passing.  This is part of an essay on the various political changes taking place between tribes and Nations due to changes in settlement patterns between middle Virginia, Pennsylvania and New York and Ohio.  <Political History>

1755 – Feb.  The Gentleman’s and London Magazine, “An Account of the Five Indian Nations”, pp. 80-85, 127-131. <Political History>

1755 – Nov. 18 –  the effects of the Earthquake experienced on the east coast on this date was described and published in Philosophical Transactions.  Colden’s letter is the last item published in this section of the magazine, Vol. 49, p 443-444.  <Metaphysics>

1756 

1756 – French and Indian War officially began

1757 

1757 – Des Herren Peter Kalms . . . Befschreibung der Kiefe die er nach dem nordlichen Amerika . . . [5ed] [Gottingen].  The writings for Kalm’s December 1748 experiences (p 548) referred to Dr. Colden–yet, there are no footnotes with reference to Colden in this version of Kalm’s writing.  <Botany>

1757 –  Colden’s family removed to Manhattan due to problems related to war excursions in the nearby forests. <Family>

1757 – Philosophische Bibliothef.  Christian Ernst von Windheim.  [Nurnberg] vol. 9. “Das zweite [5th] Stud.”  Pages 1218-137.  This is a re-publication of Franklin-Nollet-Colden interaction, 1753/4, with June and July 1755 additions involving correspondence with J. Canton, as a form of an additional defense for Colden’s claims. <Metaphysics>

1757 – June – The Monthly Review has a review of Colden’s article on Throat Distemper.  Criticisms are mixed, with statements questioning Colden’s theory for this epidemic (Colden related it to a “small pox” epidemic from Africa due to the presentation as an inflammatory and “nervous” case).  This demonstrates Colden’s influences upon medicine in terms of epidemiology and the early examples of disease theory.  During this time, there was a philosophy which stated that one disease may transgress to another, thereby effecting different parts of an individual’s body.  This was based on the premise that there was one cause for disease, but multiple manifestations.  One common cause for the time in the physical world was the alkaline theory for disease, related to an imbalance in body (imbalance in the “humors”) induced by this alkalinity.  Colden’s philosophy was more metaphysically based than the parts of this iatrochemical theory for disease (A Hermann Boerhaave invention).  Colden’s philosophy focused on the metaphysical reasoning that helped to define his theory.  In this way, a nervous syndrome resulting in inflammation in Africa could be related to the eruption of small pox in the Colony of New York.  Thus this publication.   <Medicine>

1757/8 – Cover date is July 1757.  The Critical Review or Annals of Literature.  By a Society of Gentlemen.  Vol. 4.  “Art. VIII. Medical Observations and Inquiries , By a Society of Physician in London.” p. 35 – .  On pages 36-37, the discussion begins about Colden’s Article 20 in this journal (Letter to Fothergill concerning Throat-Distemper).  Throat Distemper, in its most common form is a simple sore throat; in its moderate to severe form is a case of adenoiditis or tonsillitis, supported by the age group of the patients Colden noted to be most afflicted by this malady (children and young adults).   There is also the possibility that diphtheria case may be occasionally interpreted as Throat Distemper, which is often a very deadly illness.  The reviewers are supportive of Colden’s recommendations for treatment of this problem, but are fairly critical of his philosophical points as to how and why the disease ensues and can progress.   <Medicine>

1757 – July to August – Bibliotheque Impartiale, vol. 16, part 1.  Gottingue and Leide.  Pasges 291-2 have brief reference to Colden and others as writers of their experience in the New World, information which became part of the History of New York just published.  <Government> <Political History>

1757 – Annales Typographiques, ou Notice du Progress, des Conoissances Humaines.   No. 12, 1757, p. 94 has note on William Smith’s History of the Province of New York, from its first discovery to the year 1732.  Notes reference to the works of Colden and others to produce this work. <Government> <Political History> 

1758 

1758 –  Bremisches Magazin sur Ausbreitung der Wissenschaften Kunste und Lugend. . . pages 391-397. [Bremen and Leipzig]  Another review of  the article on a Throat Distemper Epidemic in Kingston, published in Gentleman’s Magazine, 1757. <Medicine>

1758 – Des Herrn Benjamin Franklins Esq. Brief von der Electricitat.  J C Wilde. [Leipzig, Stockholm].  Pages 143-4, brief discussion; pp. 170-186, lengthy discussion with recapitulation of letters involving Franklin, Nollet and Colden. Pages 243-4 and 323-324, brief continuations of this topic as informal discussion/editorializing. <Metaphysics>

1758 – April 25 – Ellis to Linne: Fibra aurea sent to Dr. Fothergill by Jane Colden.  The letter included a ColdeniaColdenella discussion.   This is the documentation confirming the influences of both Cadwallader and his daughter on the field of Botany.  <Botany>

1758 – June 15 – Letter from B. Clemont of Isleworth to Mr. Urban, editor Gentleman’s Magazine. . . pages 272-275.  Published in journal in June 1758.  Article reviews Genera of Kalmia and Rhododendron.  Colden’s review of Coldenghamiae Flora, Noveboracensis, is cited for second Kalmia species.  Colden refers to it as “Andromeda nostratibus, Dwarf Laurel” From page 123 of Cold. Novebor. Act. Ups. Ann., 1753.  This is followed by a monograph entitled “Mountain Laurel or Tup tree.  So called by the Americas.” (p. 274).  In the section entitled Observ[atio] Hist[oria], Colden’s details on this plant and its severe toxicity to sheep are briefly mentioned: “Mr Colden recommends the forcing a round lump of butter down the throat of such sheep as have been hurt by eating that plant.  This, he says, is an immediate remedy, as he asserts from his experience.”  The philosophy beneath this treatment is uncertain.  There are some metaphysical components that may have played a role in helping Colden come up with this recommendation, or it could just be a result of common sense and folklore-related domestic medical experience. <Medicine><Botany>

1759 

1759 – [CAD. & JANE COLDEN]  Auctoris Botanica in Dissertatione Propositi . . . sub Praesido . . . Dn. Doct. Caroli Linnaei [Upsali].  Authors, their professorships, and their books are detailed in multicolumn array from pp. 4-14.   Colden noted as “COLDEN       Conval.         Nob. angl. amer.      Flor. Coddingham”  A regional breakdown of the authors listed is then provided, with Colden cited in “ANGLI.” listing.  A “FEMINAE” list is also provided, in which “Coldenia” was included, implying an association of this name with the daughter Jenny according to the author.  Three other Female botanists are listed as well: Hilldegard, Merlana and Blackwell.  <Botany>

1759 – Oct.Nov.Dec.— Der Koniglich Schwedischen Acadamie der Missenschaften Abhunglungen.  Page 274 had Colden and “Coldingham” notes. <Botany>

1759 — Nov. – Journal de Medicine, Chirurgie, Pharmacie, &c. p. 387 – .  “Medical Observations and inquiries by a society of physicians in London.”  On page 399-400, a review of Colden’s article on the Throat distemper is published.  This is probably a translation of the prior critique of the same journal, with much of the discussion focused on Fothergill. <Medicine>

1760 

1760 – Actuarium in Bibliothecum Botanicum.  Joanne Francisco Seguierio . . . prolatum . . .Gronovius.  [Lugduni batavorum].  Lectoribus Botanophila S. Bibliopola, p. 11 of the bibliography has “Conwallander  (sic) Colden.  Plantae Coldenghamiae. . .    1743. p 81, & 1750. p. 87.” <Botany>

1760 – Syn Theo. Phytographia Sacrae Generalis pars Practica Prior. . . Johanne Gesnero.  [Tiguri].  A detailed review of plant medicine in terms of gnosis and graphia (knowing and seeing in the form of signatures).  Strongly metaphysical and theological in its expressions.  Colden is noted for the review of Aralia racemosa (item 346 on p 22) in the listing.  Use for this plant states “Radix substituitur Sassaeparillae in Ptisanis, a Novaboracensibus.”  (Root used as a substitute for Sarsaparilla in Coughs, in New York.)   <Botany> <Medicine>

1760 – JANE COLDEN CITATION.  D. Christiani Gottleib Lvdwig Ord. Med. In Acad. Lips. Decani Definitiones  Generum Plantarum Olim in usvm Avditorivm Collectas nvnc avctas et emendates editit D. Georgius Rvdolphvs Boehmer.  [Lipsiae].  Compendia of citations has “Cold. Ess. In Edinb. IOANNA COLDEN in to Essays and Observations Physical and Literary read before a society in Edinburgh. Edinburg. 8. c.f.”  Page 292 has description of this plant: “727.  GARDENIA.  Auct.Colden.  Essays Edinb. 1756, vol. II, p. 1” [Note: “Auct. “= Auctor or author.]  Ends with “HYPERICO similis planta, sed numero staminum et imprimus nectariius diversa.” (Similar to Hypericum . . . .)   <Botany>

1760 – Cadwallader Colden’s pamphlet published: All Canada in the hands of the English: or, An authentick journal of the proceedings of the army, under General Amherst, from the time it embarked at Oswego, on the 10th of August (1760) to the happy reduction of Montreal, the 8th of September following: Together with several other particulars ... Printed and sold by B. Mecom, at the new printing office, under the Town-House, 1760. (17 pp.)  <Government>

1760 – Jan. – Suit de la Clef ou Journal Historique sur les Matieres Dutems. Vo. 87  [Paris]. Franklin-Nollet-Colden exchange. <Metaphysics>

1761 

1761 – Jan. – Memoires pour l’Historie des Science et Beaux Arts. [Paris].  Note on Colden-Nollet interaction involving electricity. <Metaphysics>

1762 

1762 – Flora Virginica exhibens Plantas . . . Claytonus . . . .Gronovius.  [Lugduni Batavorum.]  Like other copy previously noted; citations section with bibliography has Cold. Noveb. with dates for 1743 and 1744.  Colden cited in taxonomic section for Ceanothus (p. 33), Liriodendron (p. 83) and Asplenium (p 166). <Botany>

1762 – Jan 17 (Alice Colden’s death) – “List of Deaths for the Year 1762  // Lady of Cadwallader Colden, Esq.; Lieut. Gov. Of New York.”  This was the first entry on this list. Gentleman’s Magazine, page 145. <Family>

1762 (for 1761) – The Annual Register, or a Review of the History of Politicks, and Literature, of the Year 1761.  [London].  January, p. 99: April 14th note on Colden being appointed Lieutenant Governor, by the “His Majesty in council” at St. James’s.  Robert Moncton was appointed Governor of New York; Benjamin Pratt Chief Justice. <Government>

1762 (for 1761) – Philosophical Transactions . . . , Vol. 52, part 1.  P. 336 has “An Account of a Treatise in French . . . “ with communications on electricity involving Franklin, Nollet and “David Colden.” <Metaphysics>

1762 – The London Chronicle.  Tuesday March 16th, p. 254, bottom col. 1 to upper col. 2.  “New York.  Jan. 21. Sunday died Age 72 Mrs. Alice Colden, Lady of the Hon. Cadwallader Colden, Esq.; Lieutenant-Governor of this Province.”   <Family>

1762 – April 16 – Universal Evening Post.  Lt-Gov. Colden’s position announcement.  Also found in 1761 issue of Gentleman’s Magazine, p. 189.  Original from London Gazette. <Government>

1762 – August – Journal Etranger.  [Paris]  Page 218 has article on Medical Observations and Inquiries, &c.   Review of Throat-Distemper or ulceration article. <Medicine>

1762 – Oct. 23 – Gottingische Unzeigen von gelehrten Sachen . . . Electricity article, p. 668 reference to Colden. <Metaphysics>

1763 

1763 – Hymn to the Power of Harmony Humbly inscribed to the Right Honourable The Earl of Bute [Edinburgh].  Printed by A. Donaldson and J. Reid, for Alex. Donaldson.  Author: John Callander.  All prose and verse.  Page 20, verse 241: “[line 232] Nor less the feather-cinctured tribes that roam/ In savage liberty the sea-girt shores /  . . . . [238] Whether with sinewy arm he bend the bow, / and hurl the spear against embattled foes / Or, laid at ease amid his native shades / He bid the TREE OF PEACE to heaven ascend; / with martial song he tears the toil of war,/ or soothes the savage woods with accent mild.”  Footnote on page:  “Ver. 241 See Indian songs translated and published by Mr. Colden.”  Numbers also appear in text, but not added in this retype.  Numbers in brackets are added to ease review.  See image of text for details. <Political History>

1763 – Histoire de l’Academie Royale des Sciences.  [Paris].  Article, pages 439-482:  “Second Memoire sur l’Inoculation  de la petit verole, contenant la suite de l’Histoire de cette methode & ses progress, de 1754 a 1758.  Par M. de la Condamine.”  This is a review of the use of inoculation by Condamine, focused on the focus made to use the small variola for such attempts, 1754 to 1758.  The discovery of the fact that in specific stages, the variola produce less aggressive exacerbations of the disease, was an important improvement in this preventive medicine process.  This resulted in a reduction in mortalities linked to the inoculation process itself.  An important footnote appears on page440 referring to Colden’s claim that this disease may have come from Africa, relating the inoculation process to activities engaged in by families of servants or slaves arriving in this country years before.   The article dated October 1753 also relates to these experiences, and is perhaps doe to pock-like symptoms specific forms of throat distemper took on, as noted in his text.  This article refers to a 1733 epidemic in Kingston, which according to this footnote is what led Colden to link these events to the 1722 events in Boston regarding inoculation practices by negroes.  By now, Colden has had  strong influence upon public health and the establishment of inoculation as a potential preventive practice.  <Medicine>

1763/4 – Father Bonaventure, Member of the Royal Academy of the Belles Letters at Barcelona.  Philosophical Amusements in Several Branches of Science, particularly in natural Philosophy and the Mathematics.  [Amsterdam] 8vo.  Published in 1763.  Reviewed in 1764, article: “Amusemens Philosophiques sur diverse partes des Sciences, et principalement de la Physique et des Mathematiques.” Pages 499-502.  Colden’s Philosophical treatise had an impact on father Bonaventure’s book according to the reviewers.  Regarding Descartes’s and Newton’s details on the influences of the movement of planets through the universal fluids, and how this fluidic mass interacts with the movements and positioning of the planet, he writes: “Our Author might have received some lights on this subject, by consulting the tract on the principles of action in matter, by the very ingenious Mr. Cadwallader Colden.”  The criticism: Bonaventure imagined this fluid moving with the planets instead of existing as a distinct substance that did not move. <Metaphysics>

1764 

1764 – Peter Kalm’s German version of Travels in North America, later edition.  Dr. Colden noted, p. 145. <Botany>

1764 – Peter Kalm – another version.  “Doctor Colden” and “Coldingham” found on page 472, July 1749 entry, followed by reference to White Cedar and Juniper. <Botany>

1764 – Linne’s Genera Plantarum 6ed. [Holmiae] Page 519 has “1109.  Xanthoxylum” with reference to Colden followed by “Fagara du Hamel.”  An observation by Colden also appears in part of the plant description, “Obs.” section. <Botany>

1764 – Linne’s Species Planatarum 4 ed. [Vindobonae], vol. 1 has Colden listed along with 22 other botany authors categorized by Linne as “Differentias” (Differentiators using his method to differentiate species, he notes “each worked many species applying this form of evidence).  Colden’s Plant. Coldingh. Is noted in the “Reformatores” section for references. <Botany>

1765 

1765 – July – Memoires pour l’Histoire, des Sciences et beaux Arts.  Recherches sur l’epoque de l’equitation . . . p. 192 has Colden stating [rough translation on the fly] “one normally believes that the variole inoculation was invented by Circassians to guarantee beauty in women, but . . . more likely this practice is ancient, in that it is normally practiced by Africans with the illness.” <Medicine>

1765 – Nov. – Gentleman’s Magazine, p. 586, has published letter to Hbl. Cadwallader Colden, Esq. pertaining to dissatisfaction with Stamp Tax Act.  Followed by a second letter quoting the Bible (Luke 12: 16-20). <Government>

1766 

1766 – Apr.– Journal des Scavans. Extraits des mellieurs journaux de l’Europe.   P. 427 – .  Relations concise de l’Amerique septentrioniale . . . Book Review for Robert Rogers Atlas, from Monthly Review,  1766.  Page 441-2 mentions Colden’s writings in association with Msr. Timberlake and the political strength and success of the Iroquois.   Monthly review has a review for Timberlake’s writing. <Political History>

1766 – Monthly Review, v 34. P. 9, begins A Concise Account of North America by Rogers.  Page 14 has brief note on Colden. <Political History>

1767 

1767 – Carole von Linne.  Genera Plantarum.  [Vienna] .  Page 519 has Xanthoxylum entry attributed to Colden, item 1109. <Botany>

1767 – Mar. – Gentleman’s Magazine.  “A Letter from Mr. S—-y C —-y to Major-General Gage.”   Letter is dated December 15, 1767.  States very strong dissatisfaction by writer on how the Ministry has conducted itself with  the present issues.  American Merchants Defense communiqué noted in footnotes. <Government>

1767 – May — The Monthly Review.  Dr. Ferguson’s Essay on the History of Society.  Page 341 – .  Pages 345-6 discusses Iroquois politics, relating works of Lafitau , Charlesvoix and Colden.  War is considered the consequence of populations lacking a settled form of government. <Political History>

1768 

1768 – Recherches Philosophiques sur les Americains, ou Memoires Interessants pour Servir a l’Histoire. De l’Espece Humaine.  Cornelius de Pauw.    Review of Colden and Timberlake’s work, in association with Charlesvoix and La Potherie.   See p. 121 for brief note on this. <Political History>

1768 — L’Avantcoueur Feuille hebdomadaire.  [Paris] No. 5, p. 3.   Comment on Colden’s ‘Action and Matter’ essay. (Note misspelling of first name as ‘Calvalader’).  Related these to “la Pesanteur reside dans le corps.”  <Metaphysics>

1768 – An Essay on the History of Civil Society.  Adam Ferguson.  3ed.  Page 141, Lafitau, Charlesvoix and Colden again cited for very similar historical information related to areas lacking government.  Chapter/Section title has “Rude Nations” as key words. <Political History>

1769 

1769 – La France Literarie: content des Academies etablies a Paris . . . .  [Paris]  Colden’s Action-matter essay noted.  French version available, translated by Caster. This copy dated 1751.

1770 

1770 – Pflanzenreich nach dem nuesten Natursustem, Carl Friedrich Dieterichs. [Erfurt].  Page 1044, item 857 Zehrwurz (Dracontium).   Colden-Kalm note, including use as a lung remedy (pleurisy?), urinary problems (?), and scorbutus. <Botany> <Medicine>

1770 – Catalogue des Livres de la bibliotheque de fue M. D. Bourlamaque.  [Paris].  Page iii, item 1950 — Colden’s book on Five Nations cited.   <Political History>

1770 — A Catalogue of Upwards of Twenty Thousand Volumes of Books . . . of the valuable Library of . . . Newcastle.  James Robson.  “Miscellaneous books in Alphabetical Order” section, p. 163, item 5440 is Colden’s History of Five Nations. 2 vol. 4 s  1755. <Political History>

1770 – July — The Political Register, An Impartial Review.  V 7.  [London].  Pages 47-52.  “To the Printer . . . . From an eminent Counsellor, and Friend of Liberty, to his Correspondent at New-York.”   Colden’s roles in the political problems and the gaoling of someone are discussed. Related to trials of Mr. Almon and Mr. Woodfall by Capt. McDougall. <Government>

1770 – Feb. – The London magazine. Or Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer.  To the Betrayed Inhabitants of the City and Colony of New York.  Pages 76-79.  Letter is dated December 19, 1769, “New-York”.   Signed by “A Son of Liberty.”   This is followed by second letter “Of Prejudices, Political, Religious or National” (pp. 79-81). <Government>

1770 – Apr. – Gentleman’s Magazine.  Pages 177-180. “Some Account of the Late Peter Collinson, Fellow of the Royals Society, &c.”  English version from which French Translation was produced.  <Botany>

1770 – June – Journal Encyclopediques ou Universel, vol. 4.  Pages 292-297.  Peter Collinson’s biography (in French) .  Page 294 has Colden note in same phrase as Ben Franklin, and the mention of electricity. <Metaphysics>

1771

1771 – A Letter on the Perpetual Motion.  William Kenrick.   [London].  Colden is mentioned in several sections.  See pages 8. 19, 23 (fn), 25, 37. <Metaphysics>

1771 — Encyclopediae ou Dictionnaire Universale Raisonee des Consoissances Humanes.  M De Felice.  V. 7.   Has section titled “Caractre des Sauvages, (N), Morale.”  La Potherie, Charlevoix, Timberlake and Colden mentioned.  <Political History>

1771 – Sep. — Le Journal de Scavens.  La Columbiade. Poeme di Madame du Boccage.  Tradotto del Francis in Milano.  Pages 585-587.   Prose is followed by an essay discussing the meaning of the verses.  Colden’s and Lahontan’s views of the Iroquois are compared. <Political History>

1772

1772 — Francesco Algerotti, Oeuvres de, vol. 7. July 4, 1747 letter. pages 354-360, a M. LeComte Gaspard Gozzi a Venise.  Begins with a discussion of Colden’s history of the Iroquois after the mention of Montagne’s Chapter on “Cannibals”, referring to his book on the new worlds and indigenous cultures; the discussion continues and focuses on Grecian, Chinese, the Romans and then back to the individual Iroquois Nations, and the idea of “anciennes Republiques.” <Political History>

1772 — Bibliotheca Botanica.  Alberto van Haller. V. 2, pp. 327-9 is Peter Kalm’s bibliography; p. 329 has two of Colden’s pieces that were sent to Linne, namely the Coldinghamiae work and a short piece on Orchids, in the 1750 “Tomo ultimo . . . Catalogue” item 257.  <Botany>

1772 – Botanicus Universalis, et Hortulanus.  [The Universal Botanist and Nursery Man.].  [London].  Colden’s Plantae Coldinghamiae noted in blibliography (lxix) and chronological listing (lviii). <Botany>

1772 – Collectiones Academique.   Article by Peter Kalm.  Pages 362-7.  Culture & usages du mais dans l”Amerique Septentrionale.  (Culture and use of the Corn of North America).  Page 366 has note on Colden’s description for preparing the natural version of the corn called “le mais a grain nud”.  <Botany>

1772 – Peter Kalm’s Reis Door Noord Amerika [Utrecht].  (In Dutch).  Has typical mention of Colden within the text.  Page 82 has footnote with Colden, Franklin, Bartram and others cited. <Botany>

1772.  Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America.  Published in English.  One Column, brief text 250 word pages.  Footnote on page 129 refers to Colden’s Nova ebor. for identity of Aralia  erecta . . . flore luteo, questioning Colden’s claim that the flowers were yellow. <Botany>

1772 — The Annual Register , or  a Review of the History, Politics, and Literature for the Year 1771.  [London].  English version of part of Kalm’s Travels in North America.  Soonafter, this section that is presented is translated and quoted in other journals as well.  The section covered is Kalm’s stay at Colden’s with discussion of the Black Snake Root remedy, the use Snakebite remedies in general, and the behavior of animals when approached by a snake.  A much lengthier coverage of Kalm’s book is found in the Monthly Review for this year, pages 209-220. <Botany> <Medicine>

1773

1773 – Oeuvres de M. Franklin, Doctor Es Loix.  V. 2, p. 313.  Extraits de letters de M. Franklin.  Au sujet du Remede specifique du Cancer.  London, 17 Mar. 1773.  About the use of Phytolacca for Cancer.  Also includes the letter “Observations sur l’ecrit conerement les Meteores, envoyees a B. F. par M. This letter Cadwalader Colden, de la Nouvelle York (p. 59-62).  This letter is dated “Lues a la Societe Royale, le 4 Novembre 1756.”  It is followed up with Franklin’s reply (pp 63-65).  An April 1754 letter on the same is found as well, pp. 71-74. <Botany> <Medicine> <Astrology>

1773 – (Jenny Colden) Deliciae naturae Tal, Hallit uti Upsala Dom-kyrka Ar 1772 den 14 Decemb.   Carl Linne.  [Stockholm].  In the author’s discussion of important botanists and scientisits {“Mein Herrar”, pp. 3-7, he mentions several Naturalists who are women; they are “Lady Monsson i London, Anna Blackburne i Oxford, Froken Colden i Nya York”. <Botany>

1773 – Histoire de l’Inoculation de la petite Verole, ou Recueil de Memoires . . . Par M. de la Condamine  [Amsterdam].  <Medicine>

1773 – The Critical Review, or Annals of Literature.  V. 36.  [London].  Pages 22 – 27 have a Book review on The History of the British Dominions of North America by Roth; it mentions Colden (p. 26) and Pownal, in reference to their Five Nations or Indians work. <Political History>

1773 – Essay on the History of Civil Society.  Adam Ferguson.  [London].  Part Second, on the History of the Rude Nations (pp 123 – ), make mention of Colden on page 152, as part of a footnote linked to a quote in the text; quote pertains to “the greatest affront which can be offered to a prisoner . . . to refuse him the honours of a man, in the manner of his execution.”  <Political History>

1773/4 — Bibliotheque des Sciences . . . p. 158-185, Article Dixieme is “Reis door Noord America . . . “ by Peter Kalm.  The section from p. 180-185 mentions the works of Franklin, Colden and Bartram. <Botany>

1774

1774.   The Monthly review or Literary Journal.  V. 49. [London]. Pages 18-22, Book review on The History of the British Dominions of North America by Roth mentions Colden (p. 21), with reference to Five Nations work. <Political History>

1775

1775 – The Parliamentary Register or History of the Proceedings and Debates of the House of Commons . . . of Great Britain.  V. 1 [London].  Various letters compiled.  Pages 75 to 79 contain letters from Colden to Earl of Dartmouth, 7 Sep. 1774,  5 Oct. 1774, 2 Nov. 1774, and 7 Dec. 1774.  <Government>

1775 – Neuer Schauplatz der Natur . . . Gessellschaft von Gelehrten.  [Leipzig].  Pages 368 – 370 have section on Aralia.  Page 369 noted Colden’s importance.  (In Old German.) <Botany>

1775 – March —  The Gentleman’s Magazine.  Account of the Proceedings of the American Colonists. . . p. 145.  Mention of Colden and meeting of the New York General Assembly to discuss reconciliation regarding taxes. <Government>

1775 – Dec. – The London Magazine, or, Gentleman’s Monthly Intelligencer.  Pre-war Letters and political discussions involving Colden, p. 617.  Pertains to Dec. 1774 events. <Government>

1775 – Supplement to the Gentleman’s Magazine for the Year 1775.  Page 617, brief not on Colden in context with Mr. Hartley and interactions with Earl of Dartmouth in December 1774. <Government>

1775 – Histoire des Plantes de La Guinane Francoise.   V. 1.  [London, Paris].  Plantae Coldenghamiae in “Liste Des Livres de Botanique, cites dans cet Ouvrage”, found on page 30 – (or, xxx – ).  Colden Not assessed in text. <Botany>

1775 — Histoire des Progres de l’Esprit Humain dans les Sciences Naturelles et Dans les Arts qui en Dependent.  Par. M. Saverien.  [Paris].  “M. Calvader-Colden” noted on p. 49.  Topics pertains to the primary causes of the action of matter and the cause of gravitation. <Metaphysics>

1775 – Karl von Linne . . . Gattungen der Pflanzen und ihre naturliche Merkmale . . . Johann Jacob Planer.  [Gotha].  Pages 930-1,  has “Item 1208 . . . Zanthoxylum, has “1109. Colden. . . . Fagara.”  Colden detailed some specific morphologic features for this plant as well. <Botany>

1776

1776 – Sylloge Selectorivm Opvscvlorvm argvmenti Medico-Practici.  Collegit et Editit Ern. Godofr. Baldinger.  V. 1.  [Gottingae].  Essay that begins with page of “IX.  Mich. Frid. Boehm. Diff. varia Syphilidis therapia.  Arg. D. 29 Maii 1771.” (Translated: Mich, Frid. Boehm.  Differentiating the Various Syphilis Therapies.  Argued on the date of May 29, 1771).  A number of American plants are included in this essay, which reviews the treatment of this disease from ancient to contemporary literature.  Aristolochia is in Section II of this essay, along with many others.  A number of American plants are found scattered throughout the histories of treatment types provided.  “Colden apud Linnaeum” appears on p. 230, Section XIV., in reference to “Aralia Nudicaulem Sarsaparilla . . . “.  <Botany> <Medicine>

1776 – Hedendaagsche Vaderlandsche letter-Oefeningen, waar in de Boeken en Schriften . . . [Amsterdam].  “De Voornaamste Leevensgevallen van Mr. Peter Collinson.”  Translated from same in London.  Colden noted with Dr. Franklin. <Botany>

1776 – Bibliotheque Litteraire, Historique et Critique de la Medecine Ancienne et Moderne.  M. Joseph-Francois Carrere.  V 2. BOE-COI.  [Paris].  “Castet, (Dominique)” section, p. 411, refers to Colden’s Actions and matter essay, which Castet was the translator for. <Metaphysics>

1776 — Medical Observations and Inquiries.  V. 1, 4 ed.  Extract of a Letter from Cadwallader Colden, Esq., to Dr. Fothergill, concerning the Throat Distemper.  Read Dec. 24, 1753.  [From] Coldenham in New York, Oct. 1, 1753. <Medicine>

1776 – The Remembrancer, or Impartial Repository of Public Events, Part I, for the Year 1776.  [London].  “Part of a Letter to General Gage dated Boston July 20, 1770.”  Notes discord regarding lack of support between Majesty’s General Service and New York.  Previous letter sent to Colden was ineffective at producing change.  Thus this open letter was sent. <Government>

1776 – Annual Register or a View of the history, Politics and Literature for the Year 1775.  [London]  Page 206.  Death of Cadwallader’s son Alexander Colden Esq noted.  Cadwallader noted as “Post-master and Surveyor-General of New-York at New-York”.  Page 122 has paragraph on listings of ‘Governors in America’ with Colden noted as one of “the new Governors “. <Government>

1776 – Jan. – The London Magazine . . . “Memoirs of the Late Peter Collinson … “ Correspondence with Colden and Franklin noted (pp. 3-6).  <Botany>

1776 – Feb. – Scots Magazine, pages 57-60, Memoirs of Peter Collinson.  Correspondence with Colden and Franklin noted (p. 58). <Botany>

1776/7.  A New Edition . .. of the Court and City Register, or, gentleman’s Complete Annual Calendar, for the Year 1776.  [London]   Page 112 has Colden listed as NY Lieutenant-Governor of New York, subordinate to Gov. Wm. Tryon.  David Colden is noted as Surveyor General. <Government>

1776 – Memoirs of the Life, Time and Writings of The Reverend and Learned Thomas Boston, AM.  [Edinburgh]. Numerous references to Colden’s father Alexander are provided (ca. 35).  Much of this history pertains to the late 1690s to 1720s period.  Thomas Boston’s health was moderate to poor in overall status.  Numerous mentions are made of his problems, with some details about the conditions.  There is also mention made at times about the religious interpretation of these medical problems, and their cause (often due to quality of “air” and such).  It is possible this is part of the reason Cadwallader became interested in medicine, although such a claim is highly speculative.  It represents the status of medicine and philosophy pertaining to health at the time, and offers some insights into Alexander Colden’s life, which probably deviated little from traditional Theology in terms of Natural Theology thinking. <Family>

1777

1777 –  The History of America.  William Robertson.  [Dublin]  Pages 351, 360 and 385 mention Colden in footnotes, in reference to Iroquois and Midwestern Native American history. <Political History>

1777 – The Parliamentary Register; or, History of the Proceedings and Debates of the House of Commons . . . during the Third Session of the Fourteenth Parliament of Great Britain.  [London]  Debates section, p. 123– 1776 expenditures noted, costs incurred by Alexander Colden, Esq. noted, pertaining to governing New York.  Duty: “making up and dispatching the mails at New York”  46Pds 13s 4d was his annual earnings. <Government>

1777 – A Collection of Interesting, Authentic Papers relative to the Dispute between Great Britain and America, shewing the Causes and Progress of the Misunderstanding from 1764 to 1775.  [London].   Includes Extract of a Letter from Mr. Secretary Conway to Major-General Gage, dated Dec. 15, 1765 (p. 42), which refers to Colden.  Reference is to Stamp Act of course.  Second letter worth noting in Copy of a Letter from Mr. Secretary Conway to Lieutenant-Governor Colden, dated Dec. 15, 1765 (p. 45).  Third letter: Extract of a Letter from Lietenant-Governor Colden to Mr. Secretary Conway.  Dated June 24, 1766 (, pp99-100).  This is followed by a letter from Ben Franklin.  These letters typically contested the stamp act, and are numerous in many references bearing the collection of these papers. <Government>

1777/9 – Der Konigl. Schwed. Academia der Wissenschaften . . . Abraham Back.  (In Swedish-German).   Colden is listed as one fo the sources for information on page 107, footnote, along with several others  “In America”, including Clayton, Gaden, Logan, and Barthram (sic).  <Botany>

1778

1778 – Algemeen Huishoudelijk, Natuur-, Zedekundig- en Konst- Woordenboek. Door M. Noel Chomel.  Pages 1907 – 1911 have section entitled “RATEL- SLANGEN”.  This is an important overview of the history of the Rattlesnake natural history and natural philosophy.  Colden is mention on p. 1909, in reference to his interactions with Kalm, Gronovius, and his contributions to the history of the Snakeroot philosophy. <Botany> <Medicine>

1778 – Code de l’Humanite, or la Legislation Universelle, Naturell, Civil et Politique . . . par M. De Felice.   V. 2. [Yverdon]. Page 988 has section titled “CARACTERE, subst. m., Morale . . .”   An extensive 14 page essay on this topic (previously covered elsewhere, but with considerably more brevity), with Colden’s influences mentioned on page 394, along with La Potherie and Charlevoix, followed by a discourse on Timberlake’s influences. <Political History>

1778 – Neuer Schauplatz der Natur . . . [Leipzig], has two important sections.  “PUCCOON”, pp. 731-3, (a review of Sanguinaria canadensis) and “PHYTOLACCA”, pp. 591-6, a review of Phytolacca or Pokeweed.  Both make brief mention of Colden. <Botany> <Medicine>

1778 – Genera Plantarum.  New Ed.  [Frankfurt and Moenum]  Page 516, item 1213 is “Xanthoxylum .  Colden Fagara due Hamel.”  No new notes to add on this addition to the Flora records. <Botany>

1778/9.  Encyclopedie, ou, Dictionnaire raisonne des sciences, des arts, et . . . Vol. 19.  Page 87 has section entitled “IROQUOIS, (Geog.)”  Colden is mentioned as well as his book. <Political History>

1779

1779 – Histoire de l’Amerique.  Par M. Robertson . . . [Rotterdam].  New ed., v. 2.  Colden appears in footnote for pages 309.  Cited and quoted in text as in English edition, with quote on how prisoners are treated and murdered by tribes.  <Political History>

1779 – The History of the War in America,  between Great Britain and Her Colonies. 2 vols.  [Dublin]  Vol. 2, p. 66, has Copy of the letter from Conway to Colden, Dec. 15, 1765.  Numerous citations of Colden. <Political History>

1779 – Des Ritters Carl von Linne Koniglich Schweidischen Leibarztes . . . vollstandiges Pflanzensystem, nach der 13 . . . v. 5.  By Carl von Linne.  [Nurnberg].  Page 379-380 has item 617.  “Coldenie.  Coldenia”, this the one of the first famous attempts to name a plant for Dr. Colden.  This first use of Coldenia is noted in related publication on plants native to a part of Europe. <Botany>

1779 – Caroli a Linne.  Systema Plantarum.  Page iii has typical One line citation for ‘Colden. C. Plant. Coldingh. Act. Vps. 1743. Quarto.’ <Botany>

1779 – [Jenny Colden]. Natuurlyke Historie of Uitvoerige Deschryving der Dieren, Planten, en Mineralen, Volgens het Samenstel can der Heer Linnaeus.  [Amsterdam].   Article XIX is “HOOFDST.  Beschryving der Veel-Broederige Kruiden (Polyadelphia), dus genaamd om dat ds Meeldraadjes tot verscheide Voetstukken zyn vernnnigdl gelyk in ‘t St. jans Krld enx-plants heft. Bladr. 330.”   Related section  has lengthy review of Hypericum species.  Format of presentation typically has main text discussing each species, and footnotes citing sources.  Colden is noted on page 334 for item 19 considered representative of Virginica species.  The reference to Jane Colden appears thusly (p 335):  “Aan zeker jong Virginische Dame, Jenny Colden genaamd, warden, door Doktor Garden, de Kenmerken gezonden can ech Plant, niet ver van Nieuw Engeland, in ‘t jaar 1754 gevonden . . . “  <Botany>

1779 – The Parliamentary Register; or, History of the Proceedings and Debates of the House of Commons . . . during the Fifth Session of the Fourteenth Parliament of Great Britain.  Vol. xi [London].  No current communications from Colden are in this collection of letters of complaint, etc.  Colden’s letter(s) referred to on page 492 in “FORMER PAPERS” section, and are to be found in “Prior parts of the Parliamentary Register, which work began to be published in 1774.” <Government>

1779 – Annual Register, vol. 19.  “Memoirs of the late Mr. Peter Collinson . . .”  Colden’s interactions with Collinson briefly inferred or noted.  Pages 48-51. <Botany>

1779 – Letters on the American War.  David Hartley.  Assemblies mentioned (Loyalists?). <Government>

1779 – Oct. – The Scots Magazine.  Page 5521, “AMERICA” notes, mentions Colden, August 28, regarding Loyal Refugees concerns.  A meeting of the Refugees was held in New York, with Colden presiding. <Government>

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