John Josselyn. New England Rarities. London, 1673.
John Josselyn’s book on New England Rarities is one of a number of books produced during the 1600s that was of a strongly philosophical, promotional nature for the possible settlement of the colonies. Since many of the native plants he covered for the time in New England were scarcely rarities and very easy to find, the reference here to “Rarities” is more to the reader and not so much to anyone who already lives in the New World. The names Josselyn uses for plants are fairly unusual, some archaic, some possibly local or made up, and some almost impossible to trace. But nevertheless, Josselyn’s writings about these plants helped to promote further migration to the new world.
One issue with this book, based on my review of the plant list, is that part of these writings are possibly made up, they are difficult to trace. I state this knowing there may still be a plant name of two that cannot easily be found, and am willing to accept the possibility that the names are true, but because they were very local, other sources using these names cannot be found. One of the best sources out there for identifying plants in the original writings, even in other languages, is A. B. Lyon’s book on this topic–Plant Names. Scientific and Popular. (2ed. Detroit: Nelson, Baker & Co., 1907)– which I so often cite throughout my blog site. 2327 genera are covered by this book, representing perhaps about 15,000 to 20,000 species used in the past and cited in the letters, diaries, recollections, journals, travel books, herbals, etc. up until that time. Any books and/or plant names missed by Lyons are those with very limited knowledge and distribution. This is the single most important book for a researcher of plant medicine history to own, especially if he/she is relying upon primary references. (It is also recommended that readers use this book to test the identifications other writers are making; over the years I have caught numerous errors using this as my identification book when very obscure, foreign or shared multigenera or multispecies names are used.)
Relating all of this back to Josselyn’s nomenclature issues, a number of plants that Josselyn mentions are European in origin, but this is supposed to be a discussion of the plants of North America, with the goal of selling the idea of migrating to the New World. It is possible that he assigned European names to whatever new plants he saw in the New World, much like other early adventurers such as Adrian Vanderdonck were doing. It is also possible that these plants that he reported upon were growing fairly close to whatever European settlements were already well established. Since Josselyn did make this journey along popular migration and trade routes for the time, serving as tourism routes to the very few, this latter reason for his “discovery” of plants is very much possible. Supporting this further is the large number of garden herbs Josselyn refers to in his writings. (The 3 lists at the end of this page have the herbs separated into these separate sources.) However, all in all, these European born and bred plants are not the natives of the New World that Josselyn contests them to be. This is a very interesting observation for an otherwise important writing considered responsible for promoting future migrations to North America.
Another observation worth noting is that a significant number of these plants overlap with several other early renderings of flora for the Hudson Valley. Both Cadwallader Colden and his daughter Jane, and claimant to land later known as Yonkers, Adrian Vanderdonck, made mention of a number of these plants. Making this observation made it easier to identify some of these plants and determine which ones were wrongly identified and wrongly named by Josselyn. But the Coldens also identified a number of foreign plants, then possibly growing wild, escaped and/or temporarily native to the region, which have since been eliminated from the North American ecological settings. Many of these were New Spain plants from Middle and South America, examples of which that still thruive on the North American continent to this day are the Opuntium species cacti introduced to Long Island. A few other examples of these are mentioned in the detailed review of the Coldens’ Flora (http://brianaltonenmph.com/6-history-of-medicine-and-pharmacy/hudson-valley-medical-history/colonial-herbalism/the-coldens-flora-a-taxonomic-review/).
The following are the plants Josselyn noted. A number of these names have more than one option for identification. A careful review of the works of Cadwallader Colden, Jane Colden, Dr. Cornelius Osborn and Adrian Vanderdonck sould help to further clarify some of the identifications presented here.
- Alsine holostea (L.) Brit. Of Europe and northern Asia, and escaped into the United States. Also known as Adder’s Meat, Snake-grass, Snake-flower, Star-flower, Thunderflower and White Bird.
- Stellaria media Cyr., Chickweed.
- Iris spp. esp. I. germanica L. and I. versicolor L. Of these, the latter is more predominant in the Northeastern United States, found inhabiting the marshlands and lake and stream borders from Canada to Florida, and across to Arkansas and Manitoba. I. germanica, and the well known I. pseudoacorus L. (Yellow Flag) and I. florentina L. are originally from Europe. I. pseudoacorus is naturalized in the swamplands and watersides in the eastern United States.
- Related American Irises possibly of value as medicines include I. prismatica Pursh., from New Brunswick North Carolina, and I. verna L., Dwarf Iris, which is known to be “pungently spicy” and which grows between Pennsylvania and Georgia.
- Orchis and related species.
- Erythronium spp., esp. E. albidum L., Adder’s Tongue, Spring Lily, and E. americanum Ker., Yellow Snake-leaf. Reputed to be alterative and emetic. Genus name related to the flowers, which can have a DOS for Blood due to the red color in them.
- Scopolodendrium scopolodendrium (L.) Karst. [Polypodiaceae] Rare in the U.S. during the late 1800s. Widely distributed in the Old World. Other names: Harts Tongue, Fox-tongue, Snake Fern, Snake-leaves, Caterpillar Fern, and Seaweed Fern. Diuretic and expectorant.
- Ophiorhiza mungos L., Indian Snakeroot, Earth Gall. Of the West Indies. [Rubiaceae]
- Sagittaria spp., esp. S. sagittaefolia L. Other names: Tule Root, Wapato.
- Alisma plantago-aquatica L., of Europe, Asia and North America. Also called Mad-Dog Weed, Devil’s Spoon and Great Thrumwort. The leaves are acrid and were used as a counterirritant for wounds; internally they served as a lithontriptic.
- Veratrum album
- Either Nuphar advena or Nymphaea spp.
- Galium spp.
- Polygonatum sp.
Virginia Salomon’s Seal
- Smilacina bifolia var. canadensis A. Gray [Brit. Amer so. to N. Carol. and across to S. Dak.] False Solomon’s Seal.
- Smilacina racemosa Desf. [Brit. Amer. so. to Georgia, Missouri, Arizona] False Solomon’s Seal.
Known “Treacle” plants:
- Clown’s Treacle (Allium sativum L.)
- Countryman’s Treacle, Ruta graveolens L.
- English Treacle, Teucrium scordium L. Water Germander.
- Alliaria alliaria (L.) Brit, English or Poor Man’s Treacle/Theriac
- Treaclewort, Thlaspi arvense L. Also Mithridate Mustard.
Only the first of the options listed above is native to the United States. None of the above have berries. Possibly Allium sativum due to its bulbous tops in late autumn, which bear a purple color. This fits some of the description provided by Josselyn.
- Crowfoot? (Ranunculus acris and other spp.)
- Crow-toe? (Dentaria lacinata Muhl.)
- Crow-toe? (Lotus corniculatus L.)
Oak of Cappadocia
Oak of Hierusalem
- Jeruselum Oak (Chenopodium spp.)
Wormseed. (Chenopodium anthelminticum L.) Most likely.
Ambrose. (Chenopodium botrys L.)
Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)
Wormwood (Artemisia spp.)
Catmint (Nepeta cataria)
Sow Thistle Sonchus sp.
- Inula helenium. Also called Elecampane.
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and other species)
- Aniseed (Anethum sp.; Pimpinella sp.?)
sweet Fennel seed
- Foeniculum sp.
- Kalmia latifolia L. Also known as Sheep or Mountain Laurel. Of the northeastern United States and Canada.
Other closely related species possibly of the same use:
- K. angustifolia L., lives in the same territories, extending south to Georgia; called Calf or Lamb-kill, sheep poison, and Dwarf laurel.
- K. glauca Ait. In British American extending south to New Jersey, west to Michigan, southwest over to Colorado and even into California. Called Swamp Laurel and Pale Laurel.
- K. hirsuta Walt. Hairy Laurel, or Wicky; extends from Virginia to Florida. [See other entries for common plant name "Wicky".]
- Still another possibility: Daphne laureola L. of Central Europe. Also called Mezereon. The official Daphne medicine is the closely related Daphne mezereum L. Also known as mysterious plant, paradise plant, daffadowndilly, and spurge flax.
- Buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. Nothing about U.S. nativity is mentioned. Of Eastern Europe and w. Asia, and cult. in temperate regions. Also called Heath Corn, Saracen’s Corn, Brank, and Crap.
- Other species: F. cymosum Meissner of China, and F. tartaricum (L.) Gaertn, of Tartary.
- Note: Turkish Wheat is a name given to Zea mays.
Bastard Calamus Aromaticus
- Possibly one of the wild Irises, known during early colonial years in the Dutch settlements as Stinking Orris root. Iris verna L., Iris versicolor L., and Iris prismatica L. are the better known wild Irises then seen growing along the East Coast.
- True Calamus is Acorus calamus. Andropogon spp. are called Sweet Calamus by the ancients, such as Andropogon calamus Royle. Other bastard plants for Acorus are possibly members of the Aroideae or Liliaceae.
- Most likely Allium tricoccum Ait. grows wild from Canada to North Carolina, and west to Minnesota. It is called Wild Leek and Three-seeded Leek.
- Allium canadense is the common Wild or Meadow Garlic of the eastern United States. Allium ursinum L., from Europe produces a large bulb and is therefore more like Leek and is appropriately called Bear Garlic or Wild Leek.
“A Plant like Knavers/Knaves-Mustard”
- Possibly Alliaria alliaria (L.) Brit., Garlic-Mustard. Also called English Treacle, Poor Man’s Mustard, Hedge Garlic, Cardiacke, and Jack-by-the-Hedge.
- Nicotiana tabacum and other spp.
Hollow Leaved Lavendar
- Possibly Limonium carolianum (Walt.) Brit. or L. brasiliensis (Bois.) Lyons. Limonium limonium (L.) Lyons is the European species.
- Other names for these plants: Statice, Sea Lavendar, Marsh Beet, Canker Root, Sea Thrift. No common name seen suggesting a hollow leaf.
- Oenothera biennis L. [Onagra biennis (L.) Scop.] Evening Primrose. King’s Cure All, Large Rampion.
- Found growing from Labrador to Florida, west to the Rocky Mountains.
Maiden Hair or Capellus veneris verus
- Adiantum capillus-veneris L., of the warmer parts of the U.S.; in both hemispheres. Adiantum pedatum L. or American Maidenhair is of Canada, Northeastern U.S., Alaska and parts of western Asia.
- Also called Venus’s Hair, Lady’s Hair and Capillaire de Montpelier [Codex]. Some species exist in Mexico which are used as medicines.
- P. elliptica Nutt. In British America, south the Maryland, and west into Illinois and New Mexico. Also called Shinleaf and Wild-Lily-of-the-Valley.
- P. chlorantha Swz., Shinleaf.
- P. minor L., Shinleaf.
- P. rotundifolia L. Of Eurasia and America, south to Georgia and west into Minnesota. False Wintergreen, Larger Wintergreen, Pear-leaved Wintergreen, Canker Weed, Copper leaf, Dollar leaf, Consumption Weed, and Canker Lettuce.
Another possibility is a plant bearing Pyrola as the common name, i.e.:
- Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Extends from Ontario to Georgia, west to Minnesota. Common names include Spotted Wintergreen, Dragon’s Tongue, Ratsbane, Wild Arsenic, and Rheumatism Root.
- Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt. Of Eurasia, North America, and in the U.S. from Maine to Georgia, west to California. Later used to produce the offical medicine Chimaphila, U.S.P., which served as a diuretic, tonic and astringent.
- Moneses uniflora (L.) Gray, One-flowering Pyrola and One-flowering Wintergreen; of Eurasia and a similar zone as Chimaphila within the United States.
- Sea-Blite? (Dondia sp.?; Syn. for which in past writings have included Suaeda, Salsola, and Chenopodium) About 11 species in the U.S.
- Catalpa catalpa (L.) Karst. Southeastern United States. Also called Smoking Tree, Bean Tree, Cigar Tree, Catawba, and Candle Tree. Bark is anthelminthic and alterative.
- Another with similar use, C. speciosa Warder, is indigenous to the region extending from Illinois to Arkansas. Called Catawba, Shawnee-Wood, and Larger Indian Bean. Same medicinal properties.
Citrullus (see Briony of Peru discussion of Squash)
New England Daysie, or Primrose
- Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., of Europe, Asia and North America. The other Chrysanthemum species are European.
- Bellis perennis L., Ox-eye Diasy., of Europe and Asia, and an escapee in North America. Used as a vulnerary.
Umbellicus veneris. Navelwort, pennywort, Milk-the-cows, Kidney Wort. Mucilaginous leaves used as a vulnerary. 75 sp. in genus, with about 15 in the United States [Lyon].
Briony of Peru
- If truly a Briony of Peru, possibly one of the Cayaponia spp. The two listed in Lyons are Cayaponia americana (Lam.) Cogn. or C. ficifolia Cogn.; the first is from the West Indies, the second is from Brazil. Syn. Trianospermum, 1843. 65 species of Cayaponia grow in Tropical America.
- Cucumis spp. are also called Bryony, but are Eurasian in origin.
- Several other American Cucurbitaceae members may have been called this common name by Josselyn, which seems very likely to be the case. This is not his only journey to the New World and so he might have first seen the Briony of Peru during a South American trip, and related that to look-alikes growing in New England. In this case, the most likely candidates are Echinocystis lobata (bur cucumber), Sicyos angulatus (squirting cucumber), Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), Cucurbita pepo (wild pumpkin), and Cucurbita maxima (winter squash).
Wild Damask Roses
Sweet Fern (Comptonia peregrina)
Sarsaparilla (2 plants)
North American Vaccinium spp. to note:
- V. arboreum Marsh. [SE U.S.] Farkleberr, Sparkelberry, Tree Huckleberry.
- V. atrococcum (Gray) Heller, Lowbush Blueberry.
- V. canadense Rich. Lowbush Blueberry.
- V. corymbosum L. [Canada to Va., La., w. to Minn.] Swamp or High Buch Blueberry, Giant Whortleberry, Seedy Deer Berry.
- V. nigrum (Wood) Brit. Black Blueberry.
- V. ovatum Pursh. California Whortleberry.
- V. pallidum Ait. The widely cultivated and sold Pale or Mountain Blueberry, orig. of Va. to So. Carol.
- V. penduliflorum Gaud. [Also V. penduliflora Nutt.]
- V. reticulatum S., [Hawaiian Islands.]
- V. pennsylvanicum Lam. British America, so. to N.J., w. to IL. Dwarf or Low Bush Blueberry, Sugar Huckleberry, Strawberry Blueberry. An early Spring marketing berry.
- V. stamineum L. [Ontario to e. U.S.] Deer Berry, Squaw-berry, Dangle-berry.
- V. uliginosum L. Bog Bilberrym Great Bilberry, Bog Whortleberry, Bog Blueberry.
- V. vacillans Kalm Lowbush Blueberry.
- V. vitis-ideae L. Northern No. Amer. Rock-Cranberry, Mountain Cranberry, Ling-berry, Red Bilberry, Red Whortleberry, Wine-berry, Wind-berry.
- V. arctostaphylos L.
- V. myrtillus L. [Eurasian] Whortleberry, Bilberry, Wineberry, Whortle, Whort, European Huckleberry.
Sumach (Rhus spp.)
Wild Cherry (Prunus spp.)
Sassafras, or Ague Tree (Sassafras albidum)
Cran Berry, or Bear Berry
Viburnum opulus L. (formerly V. trilobum Marsh.)
Other North American Viburnum spp.:
- V. alnifolium Marsh.
- V. cassinoides L.
- V. lentago L.
- V. prunifolium L.
- V. obovatum Walt.
- V. rufo-tomentosum Small
- V. acerifolium L.
- V. dentatum L.
- V. molle Michx.
- V. nudum L.
- V. pauciflorum Pylaie
kind of Pirola–Goodyera pubescens
Clownes all heal of New England…another Wound Herb not Inferiour to ours, but rather beyond it.”
Verbena hastata (Vervain)
- Verbena hastata L., Blue Vervain, Wild Hyssop, Iron-weed, of Canada and the eastern to central U.S. Used as a sudorific.
- Verbena officinalis L., Blue Vervain, of Europe and Asia is naturalized in the United States; it serves as the official Vervain herbal medicine. V. var. columbariaea, and var. sanguinalis served as astringents and vulneraries.
Other medicinal relatives:
- V. canadensis (L.) Brit., of se U.S. and Mexico.
- V. bipinnatifida Nutt., of south-central U.S.
- V. stricta Vent., Hoary or Mullein-Leaved Vervain
- V. urticifolia L., of Canada and e. U.S., White or Nettle-leaved Vervain.
Humming Bird Tree (Impatiens fulva)
Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)
Snake-weed (Nabalus alba L.) [Cichoriaceae]
- Syn. Prenanthes. DOS is the flower, which is open like the gaping mouth of a rattler(?)
- Other names: White Lettuce, Cancer-weed, White Canker weed. Root served as a bitter tonic, and as a reputed antidote for snake poisoning.
- Other Nabalus spp. are Rattlesnake root as well, including N. altisimus (L.) Hook. (Tall White Lettuce) and N. serpentarius (Pursh) Hook, distributed from Ontario to Florida, and also known as Gall-of the earth, Lion’s Foot, Snake Gentian, White Lettuce and Canker Weed.
- Also possible: Chelone glabra. Other names: Turtle-head, Bitter-herb, Turtle-bloom, Cod-head, Fish-mouth, Balmony, Salt-Rheum Weed, Snake-head.
- Uses: DOS for this plant is the head-face-mouth shape of its flower, which resembles a gaping mouth of a snake or fish. Used by Natives to treat snakebites. Later came to be valued as a laxative, cholagogue amd anthelminthic. The anthelminthic use may be related to the resemblances to fish, since spirit invasion from such fish as cods has been suggested as a cause for epilepsy.
variegated Herb Paris
- Probably a Trillium species (see Colden’s flora).
- This plant name is also used in Colden’s flora. Paris is not native to the New England region, but it’s look-alike Trillium is.
- Paris quadrifolia L. [Convallariaceae], of Europe. Also called Herb Truelove, Devil-in-a-Bush, Fox Grape, One Berry, Leopard’s Bane, and Four-leaved Grass. All parts of the plant are in four. Paris was felt to be a narcotic.
The Cornus canadensis L. it was identified as is the Dwarf Cornel, Dwarf Honeysuckle, or Bunchberry of British America, extending south into New Jersey, and west to Minnesota and California. C. succica L., a related plant, is found growing as far north as the arctic. It produces small red berries.
FLORA INTRODUCED BY ENGLAND
- Holcus mollis or Triticum repens Couch Grass
- Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s Purse
- Dandelion Taraxacum des leonis
- Groundsel (Senecio spp.)
- Senecio vulgaris L. is from Europe, and has nat. in the U.S. Commonly called Groundsel, Birdseed, Chickenweed, Fleawort, Simson, Swichen, Jacobskraut. Uses include as a mild astringent, vulnerary and discutient. Other European species include S. cineraria DC., and S. jacobaea L.
Indigenous Senecio spp:
- S. aureus L., of Canada and the eastern U.S. Also called Squaw-root, Cough-weed, Female-regulator, Golden Snakeroot, False Valerian. Uses: emollient, anodyne and emmenagogue.
- S. obovatus Muhl., which ahs similar uses as S. aureus.
- S. balsamitae Muhl., or Groundsel Balsam.
- S. lobatus, of the southeastern U.S., also called Butter-weed or Cress-leaved Groundsel.
- S. palustris (L.) Hook., circumpolar species, also called Pale or Marsh Fleawort and Marsh Groundsel.
- S. tomentosus Michx. of the se U.S., called Wooly Ragweed, Rag-woolwort and Ash-wort.
- Mention is made of Sonchus oleraceus or Chenopodium atriplex. Most likely Atriplex hastata L. or Atriplex hortensis L. Atriplex hortensis L.. Atriplex hastata is native to Europe and possibly America; A. hortensis is of Asia and Europe; Garden Orach. Other common names include Areche, Arach, Orage, Orach, Butter Leaves, Mountain Spinach. The Seeds were used as an emetic by the late 1800s. The entire plant was eaten as Spinach.
- Other Atriplex spp. are A. canescens (Pursh) James, found in the Far West and Mexico, and A. hastata L. a wild variety found growing along shorelines in Europe and North America.
Nightshade Solanum nigrum
Nettlestinging Urtica dioica and other species.
Mallowes Malva sylvestris
Plantain, English Man’s Foot (Indian name) Plantago major
Black Henbane Hyoscyamus niger
Wormwood Artemisia absynthium
Sharp-pointed Dock Rumex crispus
Rumex sanguineus L., of Europe, is Bloodwort, Red-Veined Dock, or Bloody Dock. The related R. patientia L. is Patience Dock, Passions, Monk’s Rhubarb or Garden Patience. It was brought over from Europe for cultivation. Both of these Rumex are adventitious and have escaped.
Adder’s Tongue Ophioglossum botyroides
Knot Grass Polygonum aviculare
Cheekweed Stellaria media
Compherie Symphytum officinale
May weed, or Iron Wort Maruta (Anthemis) cotula
The great Clot Bur
- Gives Lappa major, referring to what is now Arctium lappa.
Another likely candidate is a Xanthium spp., such as:
- X. canadense Mill. widely distributed from Canada to North Carolina, and across into Nevada and Mexico. These are all known as Bur-Weed, Cockle Bur, and Bur-Weed. X. spinosum leaves served as a remedy against hydrophobia and as an antiperiodic. X. strumarium was an anti-syphilitic and alterative.
- X. spinosum L., of South America, from where it spread into the United States,
- X. strumarium L. of Europe and Asia, and also widely naturalized in the U.S.
Mullin Verbascum lychnitis
John Josselyn. New England Rarities. London, 1673.
Native Plants (more than likely native)
- Stichwort (Alsine holostea (L.) Brit./Stellaria media Cyr.)
- Blew Flower-de-luce [Iris spp. esp. I. germanica L. and I. versicolor L.]
- Orchis and related species.
- Adder’s Tongue (Erythronium spp., esp. E. albidum L.)
- Water Plantane (Alisma plantago-aquatica L.)
- White Hellebore (Veratrum album)
- Water Lily (Either Nuphar advena or Nymphaea spp.)
- Woodbine (Galium spp.)
- Salomon’s-Seal (Polygonatum sp.)
- Virginia Salomon’s Seal (Smilacina bifolia var. canadensis A. Gray, or Smilacina racemosa Desf.)
- Treacle Berries (Allium sativum L.)
- Raven’s Claw ??Crowfoot?? (Ranunculus acris and other spp.)
- Oak of Cappadocia
- Oak of Hierusalem/Jeruselum Oak (Chenopodium anthelminticum L.)
- Sassafras (Sassafras albidum)
- Wormwood (Artemisia spp.)
- Catmint (Nepeta cataria)
- Sow Thistle (Sonchus sp.)
- Enula Campane/Elecampane (Inula helenium)
- Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and other species)
- Anny-seed/Aniseed (Pimpinella sp.)
- sweet Fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare)
- Spurge Laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.)
- Indian Wheat/Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.)
- Bastard Calamus Aromaticus (Stinking Orris root. Iris verna L., Iris versicolor L.)
- Wild-Leekes (A. tricoccum Ait.)
- “A Plant like Knavers/Knaves-Mustard” (Alliaria alliaria (L.) Brit.)
- Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum and other spp.)
- Hollow Leaved Lavendar (Limonium carolianum (Walt.) Brit. or L. brasiliensis (Bois.) Lyons?)
- Tree Primerose (Oenothera biennis L.)
- Maiden Hair or Capellus veneris verus (Adiantum capillus-veneris L., or Adiantum pedatum L; only some Adiantum spp. are native to North America.)
- Pirola (Pyrola spp.: esp. P. elliptica Nutt.; P. chlorantha Swz.; P. minor L., and P. rotundifolia L.)
- Sea-Tears (Sea-Blite? (Dondia sp.?)
- Indian Beans (Catalpa catalpa (L.) Karst., or C. speciosa Warder)
- New England Daysie, or Primrose (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., of Europe, Asia and North America, or Bellis perennis L., Ox-eye Daisy.)
- Umbellicus veneris
- Briony of Peru (Cayaponia spp. esp. Cayaponia americana (Lam.) Cogn. or C. ficifolia Cogn.)
- Wild Damask Roses
- Sweet Fern (Comptonia peregrina)
- Sarsaparilla (2 plants: Aralia racemosa and other spp.; Smilax sp.?)
- Bill Berries (Vaccinium spp.)
- Sumach (Rhus spp.)
- Wild Cherry (Prunus spp.)
- Sassafras, or Ague Tree (Sassafras albidum)
- Cran Berry, or Bear Berry (Viburnum opulus L. and other spp.)
- kind of Pirola–Goodyera pubescens
- Clownes all heal of New England…another Wound Herb not Inferiour to ours, but rather beyond it.”
- Verbena hastata L.
- Symplocarpus foetidus
- Humming Bird Tree (Impatiens fulva)
- Snake-weed (Nabalus alba L.)
- Chelone glabra
- Herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia L.)
- Holcus mollis or Triticum repens Couch Grass
- Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s Purse
- Dandelion Taraxacum des leonis
- Groundsel (Senecio vulgaris L.)
- Wild Arrach (Atriplex hortensis L.)
- Nightshade Solanum nigrum
- Nettlestinging Urtica dioica and other species.
- Mallowes Malva sylvestris
- Plantain, English Man’s Foot (Indian name) Plantago major
- Black Henbane Hyoscyamus niger
- Wormwood Artemisia absynthium
- Sharp-pointed Dock Rumex crispus
- Patience Bloodwort (Rumex sanguineus L., is Bloodwort. R. patientia L. is Patience Dock)
- Adder’s Tongue Ophioglossum botyroides
- Knot Grass Polygonum aviculare
- Cheekweed Stellaria media
- Compherie Symphytum officinale
- May weed, or Iron Wort Maruta (Anthemis) cotula
- The great Clot Bur (X. canadense Mill., X. strumarium L., X. strumarium, or X. spinosum L.)
- Mullin Verbascum lychnitis
- Cabbidge Brassica oleracea
- Lettice Lactuca sativa
- Sorrel Rumex acetosa
- Parsley Petroselinium hortense
- Marygold Calendula officinalis
- French Mallowes Malva crispa
- Chervel Anthriscus cerefolium
- Burnet Poterium sanguisorba
- Winter Savory Satureja montana
- Summer Savory Satureja hortensis
- Time Thymus vulgaris
- Sage Salvia officinalis
- Carrats Daucus carota
- Parships Pastinaca sativa
- Red Beetes Beta vulgaris
- Radishes Raphanus sativus
- Turnips Brassica rapa
- Purslain Portulaca oleracea
- Wheat Triticum aestivum
- Rye Secale cereale
- Barley Hordeum vulgare
- Oats Avena sativa
- Pease Pisum sativum
- Garden beans Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris
- Naked Oats Avena nuda
- Spear Mint Mentha viridis
- Rew Ruta graveolens
- Fetherfew Chrysanthemum parthenium
- Southern Wood Artemisia abrotanum
- Rosemary Rosmarinum officinale
- Bayes Laurus
- White Satten Lauria rediviva
- Lavender Cotton Santolina chamaecyparissus
- Lavendar Lavendula vera
- Penny Royal Mentha pulegium
- Smalledge (Parsley) Petroselinum hortense
- Ground Ivy, or Ale Hoof Glechoma hederacaea
- Gilly Flowers Dianthus caryophyllus
- Fennel Foeniculum vulgare
- Houseleek Sempervivum tectorum
- Holly hocks Althea rosea
- Enula Campana Inula helenium
- Comferie Symphytum officinale
- Coriander Coriandrum sativum
- Dill Anethum graveolens
- Annis Pimpinella anisum
- Clary Salvia sclarea
- Sparagus Asparagus officinalis
- Garden Sorrel Rumex acetosa
- Sweet Bryer, or Eglantine Rosa eglanteria
- Bloodwort Rumex sanguineus
- Patience Rumex patientia