Post-humous Offerings of Respect
The following bibliographed items represent the impact Cadwallader and Jane Colden were having on a variety of science and engineering fields. Whereas during his earlier years, Cadwallader seemed to have strong influences upon numerous fields outside the Natural Sciences realm, his influences now have become focused upon Botany and Natural Philosophy. Likewise, his daughter Jane (Jenny) had a tremendous impact on the field of Botany and the Arts related to Botany, namely plant illustration using a technique of producing drawings that were just invented by Benjamin Franklin. (Note: the use of leaves and leaf skeletons as a part of the printing process; a review Loudon’s early Fishkill dollars and the Philadelphia bills that were produced demonstrate this use of the leaf, employing a Sage leaf to make many of the bills and thereby subvert ongoing attempts at counterfeiting.)
Cadwallader’s influences and Jane’s influences by now are taking different routes as they become more and more popular. Some of Jane’s work gets attributed to Cadwallader on several occasions. This would worsen with time and be prevalent in some of the plant taxonomy writers on the New York are published between 1810 and 1825 (reviewed elsewhere). Cadwallader’s influences took several avenus, each in need of of its own summarization and review at some point. The major route Colden’s works seems to have taken, (aside from the influences of his History of Five Nations work, which is a stand-alone), are along the paths towards the development of the Maiz or Corn Food Industry, the development of a number of new botanical medicines (i.e. the local Orchids), the addition of local specimens to European gardens, and the first documentation of a local ethnobotany history for the Hudson Valley, both Indigenous and Hudsonian in form and content.
Two other completely separate routes that Colden’s work took were related to the studies of Natural philosophy and medicine. The first of these two routes related to the the ongoing discussions between Benjamin Franklin, Colden and others regarding electricity and its relationship with life and the practice of a growing field of science referred to here as medical electricity. The second route Colden’s teachings took was along a philosophical path. Many Christian writers related electricity to God and the activities of the Universe as a whole. Whereas the teachings of Isaac Newton, Franklin and others often appears to be fairly non-metaphysical or mechanical in nature, Colden’s rephrasing these same findings and teachings in a metaphysical sense attracted many theological writers and theology-based young students to his way of interpreting this part of God’s Nature. Such an interpretation took place after the concepts of the evolving earth were questioned and brought to light by such writers as Ray, who believed in the Great Flood, and the new thinkers who believes in Floods more as a recurring process, not necessarily of Godly origin even. One author’s essay on the microscopic view of living organisms pulled utilized Colden’s teachings on life’s energies to serve as a place to start with the Christian view of small organisms the resulting thesis then presented. Both Cadwallader and Alexander Colden, along with several other religious writers, contested the non-theological view of all of the scientific teachings published during the last few years of Cadwallader Colden’s life, and the first decade or so that followed. This too is evident from the mention of Colden’s work in their writings.
The increasing numbers of items referring to Colden, many not in English at this point in time, demonstrate the Coldens’s important influences throughout Europe and globally. By reviewing the following publications, we can also see that Great Britain contributed little to this important period in the Colden family history and its various influences upon science, religion, medicine and the world as a whole. The reasons for this prejudicial behavior by British scientists and scholars is implied in their reviews of Colden’s writings, published by various magazines in Europe, but also by the events that took place after this part of Colden’s biographical history, especially ca. 1800-1815.
1780 — The Sovereignty and Wisdom of God displayed in the Afflictions of Men … Henry DAVIDSON (Minister at Galashiels.), Gabriel WILSON – 1780 – 240 pages. Alexander Colden, Gabriel Wilson, Henry Davidson.
1780 – William Robertson. The History of America. Colden’s History of Five Nations referred to four times (see footnotes on pages 150, 163, 199, and 239). Topics: leadership, wars, revenge or torture.
1780 – Geschichte von Amerika von dessen Endechtung . . . William Russell. [Leipzig].
“Geschichte und Beschreibung von Nord-Amerika” (TOC) has “Erste Reisin und Neiderlaffungen dur Europaer nach und in Nord-Amerika”, pages 89 to 146, and “Geschichte der Colonie Neu-England von ihrem Ursprung bis zu dem neuen Gnadenbriefe van 1691”, pages 147-307, and “Geschichte und Beschreibung der Colinien Neu-York, New-Jersey, und Pennsylvanien, pages 356-398.
Colden is referred to on p. 86, in discussion of Iroquois, Mohawk, and Cherokee. Main topic appears to be “Civil Society.”
1780 — Oeconomische Encyclopadie. V. 20. Johann Georg Krunik. Section entitles “Brittanische Grind-wurzel” is a discussion of Rumex Brittanica, from Colden’s Plantae Nova-boracensis. Colden is mentioned on p. 108. This is part of a much longer treatise on the same plant.
1780 – Memoires sur les Fievres, et sur la Contagion. Henri Fouquet. [Montpellier]. Reference to Colden’s work on the especially malignant “mal de gorge” of the temperate climate or throat distemper [of Kingston].
1780 – Grunde fur und Wider die Pockeninoculation. Johann August Meinsius. [Gorau]. Colden’s discussion in 1753 with Fothergill about the throat Distemper of the Coldenham area is the main topic. Colden has drawn an association between several other diseases with Pox or Pox-like symptoms and African culture. This again is the topic of discussion. The Boston 1722 inoculation event is mentioned.
1781 – A Complete Collection of the Medical and Physical Works of Doctor John Fothergill. Has a Supplement chapter on the Late Peter Collinson (607-634), with mention of Colden on page 617. This is in reference to his communications with Benjamin Franklin about electricity. Collinson’s main communications with Colden were in relation to Botany, equally as often if not more; yet this is not mentioned.
1781 – Verhandling ober de Drentsche Slangen en Adders . . . door Mr. Ivan Lier. Has important treatise on Snakes entitled Traite des Serpens et des Viperes qu’on trouve dans le Pays de Drenthe . . . par J. van Lier. [Amsterdam, Groningen]. Book is written with two columns of text per page: left is Dutch, right is French. Colden is mentioned on p 174. This follows mention of Linne, with Radix Senega and Lignum Columbrinum discussed. There was a bit of bickering regarding the use of Olive Oil, which Colden recommended be used warm to treat the bites of “Viperes”.
1781 — Beschrebung einiger Nordamericanischen Holz-und Buscharten, mit Anwendung auf Teutsche Forsten. Frederick Adam Julius von Wangenheim. Page 28 mentions Colden in association with Gronovius. Colden noted for his work on the plants of the Province of New York. Wangenheim soonafter became one of the most influential scientists responsible for the documentation and publication of Jane Colden’s successes in botany. Linnaeus had already noted several time that he appreciated her work and success in this science, but little evidence existed in the press about the history and whereabouts of Jane’s work until about 1783. Wangenheim is possibly very familiar with Jane’s work by this time.
1782 – A General History of Connecticut refers to Colden’s attempts to claim lands in CT and VT for NY. Page 108 mentions Colden.
1782 — A Treatise on the Study of Antiquities . . . . by Thomas Pownhall. Pages 177 to 294 has A treatise on Picture Writing, Hieroglyphics and Elementary Writings . . . . Letter to Thomas Astle, Esq., Oct. 25, 1778. Read before the Society of Antiquaries, Jan. 18, 1781. Pages 188-9 mention Colden’s History of Five Nations, with extensive section quoted about Indian images such a beaver, fox, etc. carved onto trees, and “castles” or homes.
1782 – Anecdotes of William Bowyer. Pages 384 – 392 have extensive (almost full page footnotes on the history of science, 1730s – 1750s, ending with letter from Alexander Garden regarding Colden’s work in botany. Colden is considered a chief source of knowledge in this field along with Bartram and Clayton.
1782 – Dissertations on the Foederal (sic) Transactions between God and His Church . . . John Muirhead. Alexander Colden is a Subscriber.
1782 – Leer der Plantkunde, door D. De Gorter. [Amsterdam]. In the Forward on p 29, Colden’s work on Coldenham is noted. This is a book on plant form.
1782 – Linne’s Pflanzensystem . . . [Nurnberg]. Page 783-4, Hypericum Virginicum, has “Jenny Colden” citation, with mention of Alexander Garden and Gardenia.
1782 – Algemeene Vadeerlandsche letter-oefeningen, waar in de Boeken en Schriften. . . Benevens Mengelwerk. [Amsterdam]. Naturrluke Historie, of uitvoerige beschryving der Dieren, Planten en Mineraalen, volgens het Samenstel van den Heer Linnaeus. Met nauuwkeurige Asbeeldingen. Tweeded Deels, Dieriende Stuk. Te Amsterdam, by ‘de Erven van F. Houttyn, 1782. Book Review. The beginning of a true taxonomic review of Corn, which is referred to as Zea and a “Graasplanten”. The Zea of Spanish “Tarw” is discussed, along with Turkish Koorn and Groote Mays (Maiz). Reference also made to Kalm. Referring to Colden, the author mentions Colden’s “naakie Mays” used to brew beer and “blauwe Mays.” Until this publication, limited reference was made to the history of “Mays” (corn) as it appeared in Colden’s work. The usefullness and value of corn as a farm staple has by now become well documented and is about to take off with the development of a new agricultural industry.
1782—Mechanische und Hydrodynamische Untersuchungen nebst vollstandiger Andwendung auf das Maschinenwesen bei Salzwerzen. Von Christian Langsdorf. [Altenberg]. Colden referred to on page (entry number?) 15 of mechanics section. Text not found.
1782(?)—March 23 —Beitrage zur naturkunde. Article 8: “Zweite Fortsetzung des Versuches eines Verzeichniffes der um Hannover wild wachfenden Pflanzen.” Pages 32-37. Begins with reference to Hannover Magazin article, from 1780. The important women in the fields of science, natural history and art are Caroline, Blackwel, Dorrien, Colden, and Du Gage de Pommereull.
1783 – Der Konigl. Schwedischen Academia der Wissenschaften Abdandlungen, aus der Naturlehre, haushaltungstunst und Mechanif, auf das Jahr 1778. Abraham Gotthelz Raftner. Pages 18-19 have “Beschreibung der Hudsonia ericoides” by Peter Jonas Bergius. Bergius begins with opening statement on the important works of Catesby, Clayton, Gronovius, Colden, Kalm and Linne (in this order). This herb was grown in the Academic Garden. In the same binding, perhaps Vol. 40, there is also a lengthy treatise in this journal on Hickory in Nord Amerika by Pehr Kalm (p. 255 – 270).
1783 — Essai sur l”Histoire de la Societe Civile. . . par M. Bergier. Universitie de Edimbourgh (sic). Pages 234, and 236 have Colden in the footnotes, with standard reference to History of Five Nations, and some related works by Lafitau and Charlevoix. Superiority and inequality were key words in this discussion, which refers to History of Five Nations. The settlement of the region from St. Lawrence to Mississippi is topic with reference to Colden, Lafitau and Charlevoix.
1783 — Opera del Conte Algarotti. V. 9. [Cremona] Published Letter, Al Signor Conte, a Venezia. 4 Luglio 1757. Pages 199-123. Letter about the Iroquois and Colden’s History of Five Nations, and interactions between the English and the French.
1783 – Dictionaire Universel des Sciences, Morale, Economique, Politique, et Diplomatique, ou Bibliotheque de l’Homme-d’Etat et du Cotoyen. Robinet. 28 v. [London]. Section entitled “Sauvage” begins on p. 129. The writings and viewpoints provided by La Poterie, Charlevoix and Colden are referred to in the first paragraph, second sentence. 4 page essay.
1783 – Pflanzensystem . . . by Linne. [Nurnberg]. Page 305 begins “1167te Gattung. Germer. Veratrum.” Colden is noted on page 309, in end discussion about “Gelber Germer. Veratrum luteum.” Clayton referred to this as a rattlesnake root medicine plant (“Ratelslang-Wortel”), Colden called it “Eenhoorns-Noorn” (Unicorn Horn).
1783/4 – Colden noted as member of the Society of the New York Hospital. See Reports of the Humane Society Instituted in the year 1774, for the Recovery of Persons apparently Drowned. [New York]. Page 118. He is marked as deceased in this publication.
1784 – Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek. (Johann Albrecht Heinrich?). [Berlin und Stettin]. This reference has a section on ‘Naturlehre und Naturgeschichte’ with sections on the works of botanists. Page 144 commences a review of A.W.Roth’s Bentrage zur Botaniste . . . . (Bremen, 1783); the works of Linne follow. On page 148, in the context of a discussion of the numerous countries reviewed and important authors covered, Colden is noted in text along with numerous other botanists.
1784 – Bibliotheca Loimica. By Pauli Adami, MD. [Vindobonae.] Colden cited on page 31 in essay XVIII entitled “Memoria Pestium et Epidemiarum Saeculi.” Colden noted on page 31 of this work. The pathology of the problem referred to by Colden is Paedanchone carbunculoso epidemic. This infected individual in the age range of infants to “young juveniles” in New England, and is discussed in Medical Observ- and Inquir. 174, with a brief review also provided in Vogel neue medic. Bibl. 4ten Bandes 4tes Sr. S. 305-7. This item is essentially a chronologic listing of references pertaining to severe epidemics.
1784 – Nord-America nach den Friedensschluffen vom Jahr 1783. Nebst 1. Einem Borbericht von America uberhaupt . . . Johann Jacob Moser. [Leipzig]. Second section: “Bon dem Indianischen ober National-Nord-America” (pp. 267-696), has section that covers the history of the New York area, 1725 to 1748, with mention of Missions. On page 354, Colden is cited; the time is ca. 1745-1753; mention is made of the progress of these missions at “Schule” and “Kinder” levels (the children). This is a fairly lengthy discussion of missions for about this time in New York and other colonies. Famous chemist Boyle is mentioned in reference to activities that he and many other scientists engaged in while trying to convert the natives (p. 357)—he was a member of a Society that had developed during the 17th C devoted to the conversion of American Indians.
1784 – June – The Political Magazine. Page 507 – Act of the State on New York . . . Passed May 1784. A portion of this act was passed to respect the rights of the loyalists. Colden was included (see p. 508).
1784—Allgemeines Schwedisches Gelehrsamfeits-Urchin unter Gustafs des Dritten Regierung. Christoph Wilhelm Ludere. [Leipzig]. Zwenter Theil fur das Jahr 1773. The ‘Universitats Dissertationen zu Lund’ section (pp. 110-170) has “Dritter hauptabschnitt. Kurzgefaste Recensionen nach den verschiedenen Wissenschaften” section with various essays discussed as abstracts. Arzenetunde (sp?) [beg. on page 156] section has book, work or essay reviews, including Deliciae naturae by “v. Linne” [Stockholm] Presented in Upsal on Dec. 12, 1772 . . . Printed in 1773. Begins with rhetoric on a classic medical writer (Morgan), followed by a discussion of the ‘Rites of Nature’ He claims that in the books on this topic there are lessons to be learned, even from women writers. After mentioning this he goes on to mention Lady Monsson of London, Anna Blackburne of Oxford, and “Fraulein Colden zu Neuyork.” They are defined as onlookers (learners) of “the Temple of nature” and its many findings. The Temple of Pluto, the Temple of Flowers and the “Tempel des Bans” (sp?) are mentioned. Demonstrates Linne’s respect for the women botanists and their symbolic presence in this work.
1784 – Gottlieb Heinrish Stuck’s . . . Verzeichnis von aeltern und neuern land- und Reisebeschreibungen Ein Versuch eines Hauptstucks der geographischen litteratur . . . von M. Iohann Ernst Fabri. [Halle]. Page 60 has Cadwallader Colden on alphabetical listing of authors, with s.n. 2021 (see note 2021). Item 2021 is bibliographic reference for History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada. . . 1775.
1785 – Amoenitates Academicae seu Dissertations variae physicae, medicae, botanicae antehac seorsim editae . . . . vol. 8. Jo. Christianus Daniel Schreberus (ed.). [Erlangae]. The thesis topic: “Observations in Materiam medicum” by J. Lindwall (pages 182-192), presented June 5, 1771; it details the study of the most recent discoveries in materia medica to date, including both North America and non-American plant medicines. The information provided on each plant mostly pertains to medical uses, with sources usually cited. Colden is cited for the Ceanothus Americanus Syphilis Decoction. Several of Colden’s other major botanical ‘discoveries” were also found in this writing, but Colden was not referenced. A sizeable monograph on Planta Cimicifuga (by Iohannes Hornborg, Petropolitanus) was also found in this volume, but Colden is again not cited.
1785 – Memoire couronne le 25 Aout 1784, par l’Academie Royale des Sciences, Belles Lettres et Arts de Bordeaux, sur Cette Question; Quel seroit le lemmieur pou conserver, le plus long-temps possible, ou en grain ou en farine, le Mais ou Ble de Turquie, plus conne dans le Guinenne sous le nom de Ble d’Espagne? . Et quells seroient les differens moyens d’en tirer parci, sand les annees abundantes, independamment des usages connus & ordinaires dans cette Province? M. Parmentier. [Bordeaux]. Colden’s “Mais a grain nud” or recipe for farina is noted, p. 127. Colden’s brief mention of the five varieties of corn that he noticed in New York in his Plantae Coldenghamiae has by now led to the publication of a complete book on this plant and its various uses as a food source. This use of corn appears to have been most favored by the French.
1785 – Hendelingen van helt Geneeskundig Genootschap, onder de Zinspreuk Servandis Civibus. [v. 10?] Petrus Conradi. Tiende Deel. [Ansterdam]. Botanical classification, Polyandria-monogynia class, section on “I. Getrost Kristoffel-Kruid (Actaea racemosa)”. A review of the forty years that followed Colden’s first description of this plant, and the names given to it by other botanists and their varied meaning and reasoning.
1785/6 – Dictionnaire des Jardiniers . . . de Phillippe Miller. [Paris]. Colden is on a list of authors whose work he cites in the book. Reference is to Plantae Coldenghamiae. Page xxxvi. This repeats in 1786 with Dictionnaire des Jardiniers et des Cultivateurs par Phillipe Miller. [Bruxelles]. 8 ed. Another edition (1785 . . . . “Nouvelle edition”) tome huitieme [Paris] has ‘Index Latinus’ with Coldenia defined or translated as “La Colden.” The 1786 Bruxelles version also has “COLDENIA” entry with detailed description of the plant (approx. 1 p, 2 cols).
1785/6 – Herder’s Work. Ideen zur Philosophie der Geschichte der Menscheit von Johann Gottfried Herder. Zweiter Thiel. [Riga and Leipzig]. Various versions of the text available for this time frame. Chap. 6 is “Organisation der Amerikaner.” This is a general discussion of the rural sections of ‘Nord Amerika’, with special reference to the works of Colden, Rogers and Timberlake, and the ongoing Missionary events taking place. The character of these people and their deity are discussed. Another version of the same article was found published in Old German in a completely different reference.
1786 – Physique du Monde, Dediee Au Roi . . . . v. 5. M. le Baron de Marivetz et M. Goussier. [Paris]. Page 184 has Colden’s theory of the ether and its properties in relation to the flow of something through the universe in a fluid fashion. He differs from newton’s concept of fluidity and flow of things in the universe in that Newton stated that this was a fluid quality, which Colden disagrees with and instead claims it to be non-fluid, nor elastic, and instead has its own properties of an ethereal type that abide by some natural law. (pages 183-5).
1786 – Reports of Cases argued and determined in the High Court of Chancery . . . by William Brown. [London]. Has reference to Alexander Colden Jr’s estate issue, with reference to 1759 Bill. 17 Nov 1769 event mentions Alexander as bond agent for John Weatherhead. Mentions his death “before the disturbances broke out in America.” (p. 13). Antill and John Weatherhead were apparently loyalists with significant legal problems resulting in losses of their estate and belongings.
1786 –Botanicorum Principis Fundamenta Botanica, in quibus Theoria Botanices Aphoristice Traditur. [Coloniae-Allobrogum]. In “Auctores Botanici” (Authors of Botany) (p. 91), Colden’s “Conval.” . . . . nob. angl. amer. Flora Coldingham” is noted as a reference. Page 107 cites Colden as an English botanist (“Angli.”). Page 60 notes more details about his published work for “Noveboracenses Americae septentrionalis.”
1786 – Anleitung zur medicinischen Krauterkunde fur Aerzte und Apotheker. Zwenter Theil. Die der medicinischen Krauter. Zweyter Band. Von Georg Rudolph Lichthenstein. [Helmstadt]. Page 359 begins section on “Schwarzkraut. Actaea Lin. Gen. 700. R. 644. M.” Page 360 has details on “Actaea spicata (Aebren tragendes Schwartzkraut)” and “Fraudentagendes Schwartzkraut, Actaea racemosa L. Sp. 2” with Colden noted.
1786/7 – The Poems of Philip Freneau. City of New-York, Jan. 1, 1783. (Pages 317-328: “Hugh Gaine’s Life”: “To the Senate of new York . . . Of honest Hugh Gaine.. . a happy new year.”) Reference to the burning of Cadwallader Colden’s coach and horse barn. P. 319.
1787 – Lettres d’un Cultivateur Americain addressees a Wm. S[et]on Esqr depuis l’Annee 1770 jusqu’en 1786. Par M. St. John. Tome III. Topics of discussion: the changes in land claims and use in the colony/state (changes from major estates such as Livingston and Philipse to the redistribution of land post-war); agriculture in New York. Cadwallader Jr.s’ new responsibilities noted (p. 476, fn).
1787 – De l’Electricite des Meteores. Tome Second. M. l’Abbe Berthioin. [Paris.] Pges 225 reference to Colden. Colden makes reference to various impacts of “meteors” (in this case meterologically-defined falling objects like hail, sleet and rain) and weather at the time that heavy showers are observed.
1787 – [Jane] — Neues Magazin fur Aertze . . . Ernst Gottfried Baldinger. [Leipzig]. Article 4: “Nachricht von einer Flora von Neu-York sein MSpt. der Miss Colden, mit Zeichnungen.” Pages 332-341. This is the first published description of Jane’s manuscript. It contains the text for a Preface-like notation penned by von Mangenheim (New York in May 1782). Abraham Gotthelf Rastner, Hamburg 1748 was noted in reference to Colden’s connections with the German experts. This second reference was extracted from G. Haller’s Bibl. Bot. Tomus 2, p. 331. The manuscript is then described in detail and has 341 pages. Mention is made of Plumier’s relationship to this collection. The order of possession and/or use appears to be Wangenheim, Schopf, and then perhaps Plumier and Linne and others. Jane provided details on 171 plants, leading the author to list them as a part of this article (to be included in Jane’s bibliographic section). According to the author, it was Jane’s illustrations that led Wangenheim to refer to her manuscript as a ‘work of Art’, resulting in Wangenheim’s further review of Jane’s work. To Wangenheim, Plumier’s association with this work was as the botanist, whereas Jane’s association to the field of botany in general was interpreted to be that of an Artisan. The author of this article, Baldinger, noted this to be the Work of (paraphrased somewhat) ‘the Best Botanist of her kind.’
1787 – Bibliotheque Physico-Economique Instructive et Amusante Annee 1787, ou 6e Annee. . . . Tome 2. [Paris]. Pages 204-238 has “Diverses manieres don’t le Mais ou Ble de Turquie peut se preparer pour la nourriture de l’homme”. One of several of M. Parmentier’s ritings about the American Mais, Corn or Turkish Wheat. Corn is once again in the spotlight. This time, the importance of this crop on the food industry is made clear by Mr. Parmentier. This is taking place just in the infancy of the establishment of the Corn industry as part of a successful farmer’s marketplace and commodity. Colden’s work made Europe more aware of this important market, making it perhaps one of Cadwallader Colden’s greatest impacts on history at the global level.
1787 – The Families of Plants with their natural Characters, according to Number, Figure, Situation and Proportion of all the parts of Fructification. (Dr. Reichard. Thunberg and l’Heritier.) v. 2. [Lichfield/London]. The traditional Latin terms used to identify all plant taxa groups have been trasnated into English (i.e. Didynamia = Two Powers). Colden is mentioned in “V. Five Males (Pentrandia) . . . . 1109. Zanthoxylum. (Yellow Wood)” page 687, see OBS. regarding flowers pistils forms; there are no ethnobotany notes by Colden in this book.
1787 – Bibliotheca scriptorium Historiae haturalis Oeconomiae Aliarumque Artium ac Scientiarum ad Illan perteninentium realis Systematica. Pars III. Phytologi. Volumen I. [Lipsiae]. Pars III. Phytologi. Vol. I. Dritter Theil Gewaechsreich Erster band. Pars III. Scriptores Phystologi Schrifstaller vom Gewaechsreiche. Seect. I/ Universales. I Abschnitt Allgenemine Svrs. I Literarii. I Kapital Literaerische. Conrad Gesneri Praefatio ad Tragi herbarium 1552. 4 edit. In qua Rei herbariae scriptoribus optime differit; Eandem cum Val. Cordi Histor. Page 359 has section entitles AMERICA. Numerous unusual monographs listed. Colden’s Plantae Coldenghamiae is on p. 364.
1787 — Observations on Divers Passages of Scripture. [London]. Vol. 3, Chap. 5 is “Their Manner of Travelling.” Observation LXX in this chapter makes mention of Exodus xiii. 18, followed by other descriptions in historical writings about how large armies travelled or marched. On page 261 the author refers to Colden’s History of Five Indian Nations work and the nature of travel during a “warlike expedition.” Pitts discussion of the march of Mohammedans from Egypt and Moses’s Exodus are compared with this.
1787 – Amoenitas Academica, v. 4. [Erlangae]. “Nova Plantarum Genera sub praesidio D. D. Caar. Linnaei. Publice poponit Leonhard Joh. Chenon. Upsaliae 1751. October 19.” Pages 1-27. See page 2-5, “Pars Prior. Genera America Septrionalis”, “COLDEN” in Actis Upsaliensis 1743 & 1744 noted on page 6. Most important American botanists noted in this essay are Cornutus (1625), Banister (1680), Plukenetius (1691), Bobartus (1699), Rajus (1704), Catesby (1731), Gronovius (1739 and 1743), Mitchell (1748). This work is obviously leading up to the mention of Colden’s ‘Novum Boraceum’ writings. Dillenius, Millerus, Anonymous (1630), Ehret, Praeses, Royenus and Kalm are then mentioned. In essay XLVII, “Incrementas Botanices” by Jacobus Biuur, Westmannus, [Upsaliae 1753, June 11], pages 377 – 393, Colden is mentioned on page 389 in reference to his ‘Noveboracensis’ writing. (In Latin.) Two Epochs in plant naming history are noted by the student: Epoch Patrum, and Epoch Reformatorum, with Colden in the latter. Like many previous mentions of Colden produced by Linneaus and his students or followers, Colden is considered a representative of the Reformation Period formed for this field of science by Linne.
1787 – Parte Practica de Botanica del Caballero Carlos Linneo que Comprehende Las Clases, Ordenes, Generos, Especies Y Variedades de las Plantas . . . v. 7. Antonio Palau Y Verdera. [Madrid]. Page 373 has 1333. Genero Xanthoxylum . . . Colden reference. OBS. section has Colden’s description of the flower parts.
1787 – Bibliotheca Historica. V. 3, part 1. [Lipsiae] “Scriptores de America Septrionalie Generalis” section has Cadwallader Colden, pp. 300-1, History of the Five Indian Nations bibliographed. Other classics on the Colonies noted as well. Page 384 has Ioh. Bartram’s Observations on the Inhabitants, Climate, Soil, Rivers, . . . 1751.
1787 – Materia Medica Americana potissimum Regni vegetabilis. Io. Davidis Schoepf. [Erlangae]. Colden noted for various medicinal plants, as general taxonomist and as ethnobotany information source. “Filiae Colden” (Jenny) also noted. (Extensive coverage of this work produced separately.)
1787 – [Jenny] Oeconomische-technologische Encyclopedie, oder Allgemeines system der Etats-Stadt-haus und Land . . . . . Johann Georg Krunik. [Berlin]. Pages 130-131 describe “Gardenische Pflanze, Gardenia” and the roles of Jenny and Alexander Garden, and descriptive information on this plant.
1787 – Caroli A Linne’s Amoenitate Academicae, seu Dissertations variae Physica, medicae Botanicae . . . vol. 1, 4ed. Genera Plantar. nova. by C.M. Dassow begins on p. 381. Page 416 of this treatise has a Corallarium section on “Continens nova” with special mention of “Codwald Colden” and his 172 mansucript on Plantis Coldenghamiae. “Museo Cl. Praesidis asservato” also noted. This is a review of “Rumex floribus hermaphroditis . . . “ of “Hort. Cliff. Or Rumex aquatic . . . . of Cold. Pl. Coldingh. N. 68.” Coldenia is discussed on p. 393, with footnote on Colden’s Coldenghamiae work and the manuscript in Bibliotheca Celeb. Dom. The value of indigenous plant remedies in Coldenham is noted on p. 417, for treating “ulcera phagedaenica” (a swelling due to infection that appears tumor-like and results in ulceration of the skin and tissues); this use had the support of local Christian families as well. Other uses noted as well ranging from treatment of internal ulcers (deep cancer-like ulcers, such as Tuberculosis and severe infection) and phthisis (coughing up of related materials)—again inferences of consumption or tuberculosis. The plant Collinsoniae or “Actaea racemis longissimis, Gron. Virg. 57” is discussed, and the use of its roots to make a tincture for treating ‘Aesthenia f. laguore virginico’ (a deadly epidemic in Virginia).
1787 – State Papers of Vermont, v 3, pt 4. Page 253 mentions Colden in reference to Land Possessions. Probably referring to 1757-1767 issues related to eastern border of NY and lack of land claims for the Vermont area.
1788 — The History of the Rise, Progress, and Establishment of the Independence of the United States of America: Including an Account of the Late War; and of the Thirteen Colonies from their Origin to that Period. In 4 Volumes. V. 1. [London]. Colden mentioned in a section from page 184 to 186, Aug. 22 to Nov. 2 dated entries.
1788 – Lectures on History and General Policy . . . Joseph Priestley. [Dublin]. Lecture on the Strength of Nations cites Colden’s History of Five Nations. (p. 420).
1788 — Des Ritter’s Carl von Linné. Vollständiges Pflanzensystem nach der dreizehnten lateinischen Ausgabe und nach Anleitung des holländischen houttuynischen Werks übersetzt und mit einer ausführlichen Erklärung ausgefertiget. . . v. 1 (Georg Wolfgang Franz Panzer, ed.).
1788 – Parte Practica de Botanica del Caballero Carlos Linneo . . . . Don Antonio Palau y Verdera. Tomo 8. Explicacion del Sistema Botanicao del Cabellero Carlos Linneo, para que Sirva de Introduccion al Estudio de la Botanica . . . Mr. Antonio Gouan. [Madrid] Listing of references has Colden’s Plantae Coldenghamiae (p. 63).
1788 – Arzneyvorrath oder Antleitung zur prattischen kenntnifs der einfachen, zubereiteten und gemischten heilmittel. V. 4. Joh. Andr. Murray D. Page 360-371, monograph on kermesbeere Phytolacca Linn. Syst. Veg. p. 364. Gen. Pl. p. 233. // 464. Apoth. Kermesbeere; Kraut, Wurzel; Phytolacca.” Colden’s influence is mentioned on p. 363, as it was described in his treatise on Coldenham. On page 371, Rumex Brittanica is briefly discussed at end of article as separate sub-section.
1788 – Jan. —L’Esprit des Journaux, Francois et Strangers. Janvier. [Paris]. De l’Electricite des Meteores, ouvrage dan lequel on traite de l’electricite naturell en general, et des meteors en particular . . . M. l’Abbe Bertholon. ‘Meteores’ refers to precipitation, especially hail and other very noticeable precipitation disturbances. Colden is referred to on page 28.
1789 – Thomas Jefferson’s Letter dated 1789 June 21, Paris, [France], to [Dugald] Stewart. Jefferson states that he read a letter by Mrs. Colden about the possible college education of her son Alexander in Edinburg. He was very pleased with her decisions and suggests that there is no better school for science than the University of Edinburgh; the Universities of England and America rank after Edinburgh in science, but the school in America is more “exact in their morals, and give firmer habits of application” than the schools in England. Jefferson also comments on the importance of learning French, particularly through conversation but suggests that young American men should be sent to Canada to learn French rather than France where their “morals, health and fortune are more irresistably (sic) endangered than in any country of the universe”. He requests Stewart to tell Mrs. Colden that if she sends her son to France, Jefferson will assist him any way he can.
1789 – Transactions of the American Philosophical Society held at Philadelphia for promoting Useful Knowledge. V. 1, 2 ed, corrected. Page x has ‘Hon. Cadwallader Colden, Esq.’ listed as Member.
1789 – Analekten zur naturkunde und Oeconomie fur Naturforscher, Aertze, und Oeconomen. Johann Hermann Pfingsten. [Zittau und Leipzig]. Page 112 makes note of Gronovius’s numerous colleagues, including Colden.
1789 – Amoenitates Academicae . . . . vol. 6. 2ed. [Erlangae]. Dissertation CXVII. Reformatio Botanices. By Johannes Mart. Reftelius, Uplandus. Upsaliae 1762 December 16. Pages 305-323. Colden mentioned as a Reformed Botanist.
1790 – Viaggio negli Stati Uniti dell’ America Settentrionale fatto negli anni 1785, 1786, e 1787. Luigi Castiglioni. Tomo 2. [Milano]. Castiglioni’s travels are very important to American medical botany history. Castiglioni did a remarkable job summarizing the findings of previous researchers and travelers during the years and decades prior. His summary of Snakeweed ethnobotany and medical history is the most complete review of this topic to date, and is preceded only by comparable essays for the time on this topic written or approved for dissertation by Carl Linne (i.e. a student’s thesis covered earlier). Dracontium (Skunk cabbage, 138), Aralia (196), Liquidambur (281), and Rumex brittanica (373) are noted; Snake root notes relevant to Colden’s history are on page 332.
1790- Historical and Biographical Sketches of the Progress of Botany in England, from its Origin to the Introduction of the Linnaean System. Richard Pultney. Peter Collinson’s brief biography (pages 275-277) includes mention of Colden’s work submitted to Linnaeus (pp 226-227). Although he was part of the communications channels Colden had established in Botany, this gives no evidence that Collinson assisted Colden in the production of his manuscript on Coldengham for Linne.
1790 – Encyclopedie methodique. Manufactures, arts et métiers. M. Roland de la Platiere. Second Part, v. 3. [Paris, Liege] “Observations fur quelques poins des recherché philosophiques de M. de Pauw.” Pages 629 – 648. Pauw wrote extensively about his voyages. On page 635, he mentions Colden in association with La Potherie and Charlevoix, a standard citation regarding the history of the Iroquois. (Tone is different and perhaps anglocentric, this is in need of review.)
1790 – A Catalogue of Books in the Library of Ralph Willett, at Merly, in the County of Dorset. [London]. Page 65, notes ‘History of the Iroquois’ 1757 as part of the collection.
1790 – Opuscoli Scelti Sulle Scienze e Sulle Arti . . . Tomo XIII. [Milano]. “Transunto Dell Osservazioni sui Vegetabili dell’ America Settentrionale del Sig. Cav. Luigi Castiglioni.” Colden is referred to in text or footnote for: Ataea (sic, for Actaea, p. 274) and Draconzio (285). Numerous species have medical virtues summarized.
1790 – Delectvs Opvscvulorvm ad Scientian Natvralem Spectantivm. Edidit Christianvs Frider. Lvdwig D. Natural History Professor in Univ. Litt. Lips. Vol. 1. [Lipsiae]. Article VIII. Georg Rudolph Bohmer. “De Plantis in Cultoum Memoriam Nominatis.” [Vitembergae.] 1770. Pages 191 – 271. Page 223, refering to Item 96) Coldenia L. he mentions Convallader Coldenvs, Coldinghamiae Praefect. Flora Coldengham. In Act. Vpsal. 1743., et Eff. Edinb. (Eff. Edinb. Located?)
1790 – Johann Broof’s vermischte Erfahrungen uber die Elektrizitat, die Luftpumpem und das Barometer. D. Karl Gottlob Kuhn. [Leipzig]. Franklin and Colden mentioned, p. 68.
1790 – Physikalisches Worterbuch oder Versuch einer Erklarung der bersuch einer Erklarung der vornehmsten Begreiffe und Aunstworter der Naturlehre . . . Johann Samuel Traugott Gehler. [Leipzig]. “Schwelfelfaure, fluchtige, phlogistisirte Vitriolsaure . . .” Acidum vitrioli phlogisticatum. A long discourse: from Descartes (p. 895), to Huygens, to Bernoulli, to Goftemen (sp?), Manpertius (sp?), and Colden (p. 900). Reference to his Action-Matter thesis, 1748 German transation by Rastner (Hamburg).
1790 – Des Transactions Philosophiques de la Societe Royale de Londres . . . Botanique. Tome 1. [Paris]. Page 191, has item “1823. 445. Pseudo-ipecacuanha noveboracensis. D. Colden. . . . Dr. Tinker’s weed vulgo vocatum. Pluk. Alm. 287. . . . Triosteum angustifolium?”
1791 – A General Abridgement of Law and Equity . . . Charles Viner. 2ed, v. 1. [London]. Cadwallader D. Colden listed as a subscriber (page iii).
1791 – Encyclopedie Methodique. Arts et métiers Mecaniques. 8 vol. [Paris]. Pages 320 – 333 have “Turquie ou Mais. (Art de cultivar, de recolter et de preparer le ble de).” Lengthy monograph on Corn with Colden contribution appearing on page 327, in reference to “Emploie du Mais en potage” (producing farina). Still more evidence for the significance of Colden’s writings on Corn and the international food industries at a global marketing level. See 1787 – Bibliotheque . . .
1791 — Oeconomische-technologische Encyclopedie oder allgemeines System der Stats-Stadt-haus und land-Wirthschaft . . . Johann Georg Krunig. [Berlin]. “Kunigundun-Kraut” section. Eupatorium or Hemp Agrimony. Entry 13 beginning on page 78 has ‘Purpurrothes Kuningunden-Kraut’ (Eupatorium purpureum). On page 85, Colden is mentioned and his name for the plant given—Eupatorium foliis verticillatis– Gronovius and Cornut also mentioned. This entry ends on page 90.
1791 — J. Long’s westindischen Dollmetschers und Kaufmanns, Rewisen: enthalthend: eine Beschreibung der Sitten und Gewohnheiten der Nordamerikanischen Wilden; der Englischen Forts oder Schwanzen lange dem St. Lorenz-Fluffe, dem See Ontario u.f.w. . .von G. A. W. Zimmermann [Herausgegeben, Hamburg]. The formation of the Iroquois Nation and Colden’s work. Baron Lahontan is then mentioned. This includes a section on Mohawk history in the Albany area ca. 1757. Colden is mentioned in the third chapter, p. 15: “Bon den Indianern . . . “ (pages 12-25).
1791 – Genera Plantarum. V. 2 Johann Christian Daniel Schreber, Carl von Linne. . [Francofurti ad Moenum] . 1512. Zanthoxylum . . . [numerous handwritten updates/modifications produced by previous owner. Swartz was cited for some of these.] Another edition, 8ed. Vol. 1, [Vindobonae], has “656. Zanthoxylum.”
1792– Laws of the State of New York . . . . First to the Fifteenth Session, Inclusive. Vol. 1. Section beginning on page 78, has Colden mentioned on page 79. This restates An Act authorizing Magistrates within this State, to take Affidavits to be used in the Manner therein mentioned . . . Passed 10th April, 1784. Reference to Cadwallader Colden related to trade relationships. Alexander Colden is surveyor-general at the time this book was published. (See Chap XVI. An Act to empower the Surveyor-General of this state . . . Passed April 1784 (pages 69-70).
1792 – The American Geography, or a view of the present situation of the United States of America . . . . Jedediah Morse. 2ed. [London]. Colden’s role in New York history briefly discussed, mostly as governor for 3 years (1760, 1761, 1763).
1792 – Summa Plantarum que Hactenus Innotverunt method Linnaea per Genera et Species digesta illustrate descripta a Fulgentio Vitman. Tomus 6. [Mediolani]. ‘Contracta Auctorum Nomina Exponuntur’ has (page x) Cold. Noveb. Refer to Acta Societatis scientarum Upsaliensis anno 1743.
1792 – Mar. – The New York Magazine, or, Literary Repository for March, 1792. V. 3, no. 3. pp. 135-6, 208-210.Observations and Remarks on the Earthquakes of New-England. Professor Williams. From ‘Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences’. Colden not mentioned, in spite of his relationship with this event. Two Colden marriages are noted on p. 256. Miss Catherine Colden to Thomas Cooper; Cadwallader D. Colden to Maria Provost.
1792 – Synopsis Plantarum Germaniae, continens Plantas in Germania . . . Tomus 1. Gerhardi August Honckeny, and Carolo Ludovico Willdenow. [Berolini] Classis II. P. 98, has [item] “68. Veronica serpillifolia . . . correlated with Veronica foliis inferioribus oppositis ovatis . . . . Colden novb. 1.”
1792 – Catalogue des Livres de la Bibliothecque de Fue Don Simon de Santander, secretaire de sa Maj. Catholique. Par son Neveu Don C. de la Serna Y Santander. 3 vol. [Bruxelles]. Page 60, item 5806 is History of Five Nations. 1755. 2vol. [London]
1792 — Leben des Ritters Carl von Linne. Nebst den biographischen mertwqurs digkeiten seines Gohnes . . . Dietrich Heinrich Stover. [Hamburg]. 1760-1788 entries, Colden appears on page 43. This appears similar to an essay on a similar topic with “Miss Colden” mentioned. Only “Colden” is mentioned this time with Logan added as well, followed by identical text referencing Suriname and New Granada. Cadwallader Colden’s discussions of Electricity in relation to “meteors” (weather) is also noted (pages 148, 190). This entire article was translated into Old German (by the editor?) for this edition of the periodical.
1793 – Nov. — The Analytical Review. A review of An examination of the new Doctrines in Philosophy and Theology, propagated by Dr. Priestley. With some short strictures of the power of the Civil Magistrates, as the Ordinance of God. By Alex. Colden. 1793. Cadwallader Colden’s theory of the subtle ether that interacts between objects is again brought up in the book by Alexander Colden, a theologian. The arguments to date have been based on Cadwallader Colden’s theory in opposition to Newton’s and a related hypothesis promoted by Priestley. According to Alexander, Priestley’s hypothesis lacks substance in terms of the behavior of matter in its own absence. The three religious questions related to this philosophy: whether essential active powers can be properly ascribed to matter; whether soul and body in man exist as distinct substances, and whether Jesus was a mere man or not. This suggests the underlying role of family tradition in Colden’s attempts to redefine what was being defined mechanically in science, using metaphysical concepts that were adherent to his own family’s philosophy and tradition. Colden is criticized in this review, in such a way that is seems unusually similar to prior criticisms of Cadwallader’s writings. His pamphlet is said to lack value in terms of the values of its scriptural and political discussions.
1793 – Nov. – Monthly Catalogue. Page 352-3 has a Book review regarding Alexander Colden’s work. Provides further explanation on Colden’s book and its purpose. Colden provides the reader with a substantial amount of notes drawn from scripture, followed by an attempt to discuss Priestley’s “notion of matter” in context with scriptures at a metaphysical level.
1793 – Initia Bibliothecae Medico-Practicae et Chirurgicae Realis sive Repertorii Medicinae Practicae et Chirurgicae. Tomus 1. D. Guilielmus Godofredus Ploucquet. [Tubingae]. ‘Catalogus Medicorum, et Chirurgorum . . . ‘ has reviews of work on specific maladies. The Angina section cites Colden’s work from Medical Observations and Inquiries, Vol. 1, p. 211 and I, p. 19. Entries with Colden refer to the association of ‘Gangraenosa’ with Angina (p. 282), the use of Mercurius dulcis and Camphor to treat angina, and the use of Serpentaria for the same (p. 186 for the last two).
1793/4 – Nov. — Versuche über landwirthschaftliche Gegenstände By Johann G. Blumhof. [Hannover]. Page 68- 89 has “IX. Bom mais, oder turtischen Weizen. G).” Extensive review on Corn. Colden mentioned on p. 71. This appears to be another published copy of an essay appearing in Hannover Magazin, August 1793. (Also see 1787, 1791, and 1794 entries on this.)
1794 – Neues Hannoverisches Magazin . . . 3ter jahrgang, vom Jahre 1793. [Hannover]. August 1793 events mention Colden on pages 1043-1056, in reference to original writing about Mais (corn) in the Acta articles, and the 1750 events involving Maiz in the English Colonies. Typical discussion of Zea Vulgaris (wild varieties) and mention of Turkish Corn. Some economic values of this product are noted, according to a lecture given by Dr. Hofrath Beckmann. There is extensive coverage on the various values of this plant and various studies performed on it.
1794 – Erdbeschreibung und Geschichte von Amerika. Christoph Daniel Ebelings. [Hamburg]. A large section of this work is entitled “Der Staat New-York.” The various writings in and about New York are reviewed, with mention of Dr. Mitchell’s Natural History work followed by a note on ‘Smith v. Cadwallader Colden’ regarding local history (p 827). Land and boundary issues regarding Vermont are mentioned in reference to Colden, Dunmore and Tryon (p. 578). Colden’s Plantae Coldinghamiae is discussed (p. 678) along with the contributions of Kalm, Wangenheim and Schopf. A full review of the local flora follows. Colden is then again mentioned after the mention of Fernwood, or Hop Hornbeam (Carpinus ostyra L.) (p. 685). Colden also referred to on pp. 691, just before a discussion of dozens of local medicinal plants. This is summarized again with a reference to Colden suggesting the association of many of these plants and their particular with his work (p. 693-twice, 697-thrice). This section ends on p. 698.
1794 – The Critical Review or Annals of Literature. [London] A review of An examination of the new doctrines in philosophy and theology, propagated by Dr. Priestley . . . Alexander Colden. Page 355. Further insight is provided into Alexander Colden’s work and Priestley’s philosophy that Alexander Colden is contesting. According to the reviewer, Priestley is a physician who is a materialist and therefore refutes many of the claims of the Bible, especially those regarding “the person of Jesus”. Whereas materialists like Priestley like to ascribe unique biblical events to materialistic happening in a natural philosophy setting, Colden contests this claiming these events to be metaphysical in nature, determining the truth regarding “Whether essential active powers can properly be ascribed to matter.” The writer of this review is strongly Christian-based in his philosophy about the events discussed by the book. Colden’s work is highly recommended to those who are “interested in the controversy on this subject.” Regarding Jane Colden, this magazine has an important book review published on “Letters on the Female Mind, in Powers and Pursuits” (pages 311-313).
1794 – Geschichte der Amerikanischen Revolution aus den Acten des Congresses der vereinigten Staaten. David Ramsey. (From the English) [Berlin] Colden noted on page 117 (I Nov 1765, ref to Stamp Act and Fort George).
1794 — The Life of Sir Charles Linnaeus. D. H. Stoever. [London]. Translated from the original german by Joseph Trapp, AM. [London]. Pages 234 to 236 provide a detailed listing of botanists related to North America and taxonomy history during Colden’s time. In his discussion of America, aside from Bartram, Clayton, and Garden he refers to “Miss Colden” (p. 236).
1795 – Biographical Dictionary containing an historical, critical, and impartial account of the Lives and Writings of the Most Eminent Persons in every Nation in the World, particularly the British and Irish, from the earliest accounts of time to the Present Period. New Edition in 8 vols. V. 4. [London]. Peter Collinson’s biography (pp 63-65), mentions Colden (p. 64) in reference to correspondences Collinson engaged in. This is much like previously noted biographies about Collinson.
1795 — The History of England from the Year 1765 to the Year 1795. J Barlow. V. 1. [London]. Brief mention of initial consequences of Stamp Act and Colden’s role in a single event following a resignation of the stamp-master (page 15-16).