Acknowledgements

This work was commenced around 1981, about the same time I discovered and began my work on Dr. Cornelius Osborn (1722/3-1783), a revolutionary war surgeon who lived in Fishkill, NY.  I was inspired to carry out this work due to an apparent association Dr. Cornelius Osborn had with Cadwallader Colden and Cadwallader’s daughter Jane, America’s first female botanist.  According to a recipe book which Dr. Osborn kept, he used a number of plants which the Coldens wrote about over the years, including those documented in manuscript form by Jane and those described in numerous letters, and published essays, writings and a treatise written by Cadwallader, all of these produced some time between 1738 and 1775.  To me this represented some of earliest examples of the documentation of local Native American (Iroquois, Munsee, Mohegan) heritage on American medicine, and the impacts of this cultural knowledge on Hudson Valley history.  Ultimately the long term impacts of this knowledge influenced New York and Colonial and Post-colonial medical and ethnobotany history for the next several decades.  More importantly, certain portions of the Coldens’ work had impacts that still exist today, such as the uses of certain plants as medicines, our understanding of local American Indian history, and how certain metaphysical beliefs in science and medicine continue to be an influence even today, such as the practice of homeopathy and the metaphysical approach to hard sciences like the particle-wave theory for light and its relation to the original Newtonian philosophy of the Coldens’ time.    

To better understand the local uses of plants in medicine, evidence for what local people in the field of botany and medicine knew about these plants and how they viewed their uses in medicine had to be uncovered.   This is what the Colden’s work provides for us.  Coldens’ work fills in some important missing pieces in this puzzle regarding Hudson Valley medical history.  For an area as rural as the Dutchess and Orange County region of the Hudson Valley, finding the answers to the research questions related to this project was quite a task and took me more than 25 years to accomplish.  The most important parts of this study came about through a review of Cadwallader’s writings published in the 1740s as Plantae Coldenghamiae.

The following herbarium or arboretum sites were most important to my completion of this work over the years:  Museum of Long Island Natural Sciences, SUNY Stony Brook, NY; New York Botanical Gardens, Bronx, NY; Hoyt Arboretum, Portland, OR.    My most important libraries were: Adriance Memorial Library, Poughkeepsie, NY, New York Academy of Medicine Historical Collections library, New York, NY, the NY Public Library Rare Books and Manuscript Rooms, New York, NY, the NY Historical Society Library, New York, NY, the New York Genealogical and Biographical Society, New York, NY, the Huguenot Society, New York, NY, the Oregon Historical Society Collections library and manuscript room, Portland, OR, the Oregon Genealogical Forum and library, Portland, OR, the National College of Naturopathic Medicine Library, Portland, OR, and the John Wilson Rare Book Room at the Multnomah Library, Portland, OR.  

In addition, I obtained a considerable amount of confirmation of this taxonomy work with the help of: a virtual library made available by the Linnean Society of London (for which, begin with http://www.linnean-online.org/6966/, http://www.linnean-online.org/10820/, and http://correspondence.linnean-online.org/view/correspondence/colden_cadwallader_linnaeus_carl.html), the corresponding Flora Italiana at http://luirig.altervista.org/flora/index.htm with its rich source of traditional manuscripts illustrations now in the public domain, and its rich source of photographs of many of these plants stored in the public domain, and the USDA Plants database (cited as USDA) at http://plants.usda.gov/.  For the most part, most black and white drawings are drawn from Britton and Brown’s classic reference Illustrated Flora of the Northern States and Canada (2 vols), 2ed, 1913 (many of these images are available at the USDA site, and are cited here as ‘BB’).  Also reviewed were Jane Colden’s Flora published in part by the Orange and Dutchess County Garden Club, he NY Historical Society multivolume series on Colden’s professional papers, Colden’s  numerous documents reprinted as part of the two Edmund B. O’Callaghan multivolume series on History of New York, and History of New York as Colony and State, and Cadwallader Colden’s 2-part treatise on the flora of Coldenhamia (Plantae Coldenghamiae) published by the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences in Upsala.  Most of these resources are discussed further throughout the series of writings posted on other web pages at this site in which I detail the important impacts of the Coldens in local history, science and medicine.

Introduction

The following are the taxonomy notes I developed for the Jane Colden flora manuscript and Cadwallader Colden’s article published in two parts.  I began this work as herbarium director at the Museum of Long Island Natural Sciences from 1979 approx. to 1985.  This work commenced with the pressing of the two Apocynum species described by Jane and Asclepias tuberosa (pleurisy root), which was then (and still is) an endangered species native to Long Island I often wrote about and publicly spoke about.

This method of review was taken in order to develop an overview of the possible plants that the Coldens worked with, either as to Coldens’ estate, as specimens collected from neighboring communities or ecological settings, or as specimens brought to the Coldens due to the news about their work.  This work complements an analysis I already performed for Cadwallader Colden’s Plantae Coldenghamiae, a two part series written by Cadwallader Colden himself and published by Linneaus during the 174os, as well as my review of Jane Colden’s Flora manuscript work and its historical impacts on the botany world abroad.  The primary source of Jane’s flora for this review was the published book on this work produced by the local Orange and Dutchess County Flower and Garden Club, as well as a number of highly useful articles published about her work in numerous languages, and across all political boundaries then established in western Europe, with the exception of Great Britain.

Several assumptions can be made about the works of these two authors regarding their understanding of the local flora and the state of plant taxonomy for the time.

First, it is assumed here that the Coldens’ work took place when the local ecology was considerably different from modern ecological and climatic settings that help to define the modern day Hudson Valley environment.  Second, it is assumed that, for obvious reasons, the land upon which the Coldens performed this work was lightly to moderately impact by prior settlers.  Although there is a considerable history of local Native American and pre-Colden Dutch settlement of this part of the valley, it is assumed that these impacts were minimal until just a few years prior to Colden’s arrival to this region.  This means that some sort of Mixed Conifer-Deciduous forest prevailed for much of this region where now a variety of ecosystems containing predominantly deciduous trees now exist.  The latter point is important to understand since we will find that many of Coldens’ plants seem to be more typical of natural settings currently found in more pristine environments such as those of the unsettled Shawangunk and Catskill mountain areas.  For many of the Coldens’ plants, this habitat no longer exists in the current Coldenham setting, for which reason their possibilities of natural placement within such areas is almost non-existent.  For other Coldenham plants, we find modern species surviving and thriving in place of the more traditional New York or Nova-boracean species referred to throughout the Coldens’ work.  This is especially true for seemingly readily identifiable flowering plants, such as the common daisy and dentes-de-lion (dandelion, or more than likely, the less introduced Leontodon).  For this reason, a rapid decision as to what plants these botanists were referring to at times can be quite misleading, if not the result of a taxonomic history error.

The following are descriptions of the plants possibly linked to the Coldens’ work.  Many of these plants are immediately identifiable., due to a single possibility.  Such species are noted in dark blue bold lettering, with names usually noted in the modern sense, but occasionally as Colden and Linnaeus may have known them.  Others indicated with basic dark blue lettering require a more detailed review of the Coldens’ writings, especially their descriptions given by Cadwallader, in Latin, as a part of his review of the local flora.  Still other species names, in simple bold and smaller text under the plant image, will require considerable review and research in other fields of study with botany as their ally, such as local folk history, anthropology, medicine and ethnobotany.  The following listing is provided for review of this stage in the work on identifying the Colden’s Flora.  A more detailed review of each of these plants defined by the Coldens will then follow.

Since this work focuses on the taxonomic approach to identifying these plants, the focus is on the Genus name for each plant, relying upon the assumption that these plants of the defined genus will probably still survive in or around the New York state region, not to mention in and around Coldenham and its surrounding country and counties in some cases.  A few of these plants are no longer considered native to NY, but are found nearby in Canada and Pennsylvania, and sometimes Ohio, Vermont, Connecticut, New Jersey, or even as far south as Virginia.  Also important to note, like modern day plant introduction in the local ecology, there were a number of plants that escaped from Colonial gardens, naturalizing for a short while in and around Coldenham.  This is important to note because a number of Colden’s plants appear to be important Colonial specimens, since then lost in history, as well as in the local environment, due to changes over time.  A number of these plants are from New Spain and parts of Middle and South America, and perhaps even Africa.  A sign of the times in terms of local New World history.

In the following descriptions, [I] = Introduced, [N] = Native.  The emphasis is on Native species, under the assumption that the invasion of foreign species was still in just starting during the Coldens’ lifespan.  A number of foreign species are noted, but not those most commonly associated with this result of Colonial expansion into the New World, such as many of the mustards, chenopodiums, legumes, and lilies we now see growing throughout the Eastern United States.  The Coldens did see Plantain, Dandelion, Daisies, and even Lilies growing wild on their lands.  But at times, their take on such common garden plants like the Lily of the Valley and Digitalis, are not the plants we associate with these names in modern gardening practices.  These were plants that the Coldens saw, and deduced to be possible relatives of these common garden favorites back in Europe.  The best evidence for this is in the Latin descriptions Cadwallader gave for these plants.  This detailed assessment of the notes at hand on taxonomy, in relationship to Coldens’ descriptions, will in the end provide the evidence for the identifications that have been made for each of these plants.  Some of the plants have these identifications provided in the brief essays that follow.  Other identifications will be concluded in additional parts of this work, entered during the months ahead.

Notes: There is a note in each of these description that could result in errors in interpretation:  For the species counts, Jane and Cadwallader’s counts are added together and represent the greatest number of possibly species they may have “discovered”.  More than likely, there is considerable overlap with regard to identifications, and although together they made 7 discoveries, described in writing as 4 by Jane and 3 by Cadwallader, this may have represented only 4 different species taxonomically speaking.  A note for taxonomists into exactness and perfection: unfortunately, due to the methods of database conversion to text, the Latin names are for the most part not in italics, for the time being.

Sources:  A number of sites were used to obtain many of these images.  The older drawings from early Botany books published around the 18th to early 19th centuries are found at http://luirig.altervista.org.  The same is true for many of these photos, noted to be in the public domain and/or offered for educational sharing at the same site, with a different page for each plant. The New York illustrations or line drawings are from the USDA plant taxonomy site at http://plants.usda.gov/checklist.html.  The identifications were drawn from the Coldens’ writings and a review of numerous contemporary writings and photographs available at the USDA site, http://luirig.altervista.org, and within my personal collection.

THE COLDENS’ FLORA

Abutilon.  (Fam: Malvaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: more than likely Abutilon theophrasti aka Abutilon abutilon (L) Rusby.  Another East Coast plant is Abutilon permolle (Willd.) Sweet (coastal Indian mallow), aka Abutilon permolle (Willd.) Sweet of New Spain (Florida).  The most likely species, as it was referred to during Colden’s lifespan, is Abutilon abutilon L.  The introduction of the plant follows a scenario seen for several other plants the Coldens mention.    If the genus identification is correct, this plant is from New Spain.  A number of other Abutilon species are native to other parts of New Spain extending from Florida to Texas and westward.  Like the Madder that Colden also refers to in his writings, and likewise native to New Spain, Abutilon is an example of a species that was imported and grown locally due to its economic value, and on occasion due to its important addition as a decorative to gardens.  As one of the Latin names for this plant implies, it was described early on by Linne (“L.”) and later reevaluated and its identity more completely proven and verified in the literature and plant collections by botanist Rusby. 

Acer.  (Fam: Aceraceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: New York natives noted by Linnaeus: Acer negundo L. (boxelder), Acer pensylvanicum L. (striped maple), Acer rubrum L. (red maple), Acer saccharinum L. (silver maple).   Other NY natives with an early history:  Acer nigrum Michx. f. (black maple), Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple),  and Acer spicatum Lam. (mountain maple).  Acer platanoides L and A. campestre L are introduced.  Acer saccharum Marsh. is the standard species of this part of New York and the Hudson Valley.  Even though the full Latin name for this plant had not yet been established, contemporary ecological habits for Acer species suggest this is Acer saccharum Marsh.  However, it is possible that either Acer rubrum, Acer pennsylvanicum or Acer saccharinum were more common locally around 1735.

.

Achillea.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Achillea millefolium L. (common yarrow).  A number of varieties are noted, but weren’t identified until much later in post-Colden history.  The imported variety of this species that is most responsible  for the varieties  recognized today is A. millefolium L.  more often referred to by taxonomists by its variety name Achillea millefolium L. var. millefolium  (common yarrow).  Since the import of Achillea from Europe, as early as the first years of Dutch colonial history for New York, this plant has undergone significant change due to environmental and ecological stresses.  A classic example of the outcome of this process is the development of a variety with a fairly  small leaf surface area to prevent freezing and extinction within the subarctic climate settings north of New York and at high elevations:  Achillea millefolium var. borealis.  Other varieties found growing in New York also demonstrate differences in flower color or form, such as the darker colored flower heads of Achillea millefolium L. var. nigrescens E. Mey.  and the  slightly minimized form or Western variety Achillea millefolium L. var. occidentalis DC. (western yarrow, which is most likely an import).  Other New York borne species of Achillea to note include: Achillea filipendulina Lam. (fernleaf yarrow) (I), Achillea ageratum L. (sweet-Nancy) (I, only in New York),  and Achillea ligustica All. (Ligurian yarrow)  (I).

Actaea.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Species most directly linked to Linne are: Actaea racemosa L. (black baneberry), for which NY has Actaea racemosa var. racemosa (once identified as Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt.), and Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. (red baneberry, formerly Actaea spicata L. ssp. rubra (Aiton) Hultén).  Actaea alba was identified as its own species by Actaea pachypoda Elliot  (white baneberry), also referred to as Actaea alba auct. non (L.) Mill..  Pennsylvania has two species that may have been in NY at one point in time: Actaea podocarpa DC.  (mountain bugbane), and Actaea rubifolia (Kearney) Kartesz (Appalachian bugbane).  A more recent cross species is found in NY as well: Actaea ×ludovici B. Boivin [pachypoda × rubra].  Each of the Coldens identified one species.  The most likely Actaea species here identified is the  Actaea racemosa L.

Adiantum.  (Fam: Filicophyta). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion:  The most likely species is Adiantum pedatum L (northern maidenhair).  This is based on the assumption that the ecology for this plant was right in the Hudson Valley prior to there heavy settlement of the region, and that there were natural limits to the distribution of its chief competitor Adiantum capillus-veneris L found in slightly warmer and more westerly climates.  Adiantum aleuticum (Rupr.)  Paris (Aleutian maidenhair) is a cold climate species more typical of Canadian climates than NY, as suggested by its tightly packed frond and  overall plant form. Adiantum viridimontanum Paris  (Green Mountain maidenhair) is Eastern Canadian with distribution into Vermont, traveling as far south and west as regions just east of New York.

Agopodium (sic).  (Fam: Apiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Aegopodium podagraria (Bishop’s Knotweed).

Agrimonia.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Agrimonia eupatoria L (Churchsteeples); other Agrimonia species include: A. pubescens, A. striata (roadside); A parviflora (harvestlice), A. rostellata (beaked).  Most likely the Linnaean species noted by the Coldens is Agrimonia eupatoria L.

Agrostema (sic).  (Fam: Caryophyllaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion:  Probably Agrostemma githago (Common Corn Cockle).  Sometimes Lychnis coronaria (Rose Campion) is called Agrostemma.

Alisma.  (Fam: Alismataceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Linne once had what are now considered two species identified as a single species Alisma plantago-aquatica L.  This has since been split into:   1) Alisma triviale Pursh (northern water plantain) aka Alisma plantago-aquatica L. var. americanum Schult., and 2) Alisma subcordatum Raf. (American water plantain, aka Alisma plantago-aquatica L. var. parviflorum (Pursh) Torr.  A third species with very narrow leaves is Alisma gramineum Lej. narrowleaf water plantain), aka Alisma lanceolatum A. Gray.  It is concluded that the Coldens’ writings refer to one or more examples of the Linnaean species, but most likely Alisma plantago-aquatica L.

Alsine.  (Fam: Caryophyllaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 3 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: any of a variety of Stellaria (which see), esp. Stellaria alsine Grimm.

Alyssum species

Alyssum.  (Fam: Brassicaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Linne’s relatives of Alyssum include: Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L. (pale madwort, aka Clypeola alyssoides L. by Linne), Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desv. (basket of gold) (Alyssum saxatile L), Berteroa incana (L.) DC. (hoary alyssum) (A. incanatum L.) and Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. (sweet alyssum) (formerly Clypeola maritima L).  Since Jane is referring to Alyssum, this suggests of the above Alyssum species, so named by Linne as: Alyssum alyssioides or A. saxatile.  Flower color differentiates the two.

Ambrosia.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Most likely:  Ambrosia trifida L.  (great ragweed) or Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (annual ragweed).  Of the latter, the following were NY varieties:  Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. paniculata (Michx.) Blank. and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. artemisiifolia.  Other species:  Ambrosia bidentata Michx. (lanceleaf ragweed), Ambrosia psilostachya DC. (Cuman ragweed).  Assuming one species is reviewed by both Jane and Cadwallader, the two species reviewed are probably A. trifida and A. artemisiifolia (not shown), with the latter reviewed by both.

Andromeda.  (Fam: Ericaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Andromeda polifolia L. (Bog Rosemary) (illustrated above).

Anemone.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Identified by both, with 6 species–3 species by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Strangely, the first Anemone Linne may have identfied for NY is another genus:  Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm. (roundlobe hepatica), which Linne called Anemone hepatica L., an identification supported in a later writing by Karst.  True Anemones for the local region that were identified by Linne are:  Anemone canadensis L.  (Canadian anemone), Anemone quinquefolia L. (wood anemone), and Anemone virginiana L. (tall thimbleweed).  All three were presumably identified by the Coldens.

Anonyma.  (Fam: Unidentified). Cadwallader Colden only, with 7 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Identification requires further review.  Jane makes similar references using the spelling Anonymus.

Anonymus.  (Fam: Unidentified). Jane Colden only, with 5 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Identification requires further review.

Anthemis.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader; presumably both identities are for the same plant.  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly Anthemis cotula L. (stinking chamomile), A. arvensis L (corn chamomile), A. tinctoria L (golden chamomile).  But there is also the look-alike Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.), with the original Linnaean name of Anthemis nobilis L..  All may have been introduced to New York.  Exact species not yet identified with certainty based on just the taxonomic information.  Cadwallader Colden’s treatise provides  better insight into the actual identity.

Aparine.  (Fam: Rutaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Perhaps Galium aparine L. , but also see Asperula sp. discussion.

Apium.  (Fam: Apiaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Apium graveolens L. (wild celery) is known to grow wild in NY, but is an escapee.  Apium repens (Jacq.) Lag. (creeping marshwort) was introduced to Pennsylvania.  The same escapee growth habits are true for Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nyman ex A.W. Hill (parsley), known by Linne as Apium petroselinum L.  Another introduced species which is apparently a post-Colden era species is Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P. Wilson (marsh parsley), aka Apium leptophyllum or A. tenuifolium.  Spermolepis echinata (Nutt. ex DC.) A. Heller (bristly scaleseed), noted by Nuttall, is close to Colden’s period of influence, but still without Linnaean connections as told by its name.  Some other Apiaceae members may be Colden’s Apium, if the plant was native instead of introduced.  For example, the smell of the tap root of water hemlock (Conium maculatum) and wild hemlock (Cicuta maculata) resemble some of its edible relatives common to gardens.  Linnaeus apparently did not differentiate the umbels too much, providing the edible umbels parsley (formerly Apium petroselinum L.) and celery (Apium graveolens L.) with the same genus assignment as the local Cyclospermum and Spermolepis.  For this reason, the intent of Colden’s inclusion of Apium into his treatise suggests either of the latter two as his actual discovery.   The first–Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.) Sprague ex Britton & P. Wilson (marsh parsley)–was also probably introduced.  The second–Spermolepis echinata (Nutt. ex DC.) A. Heller (bristly scaleseed)–was more native to New York and surrounding state and is possibly Colden’s finding.  This review suggests Spermolepis is Colden’s version of the local “Apium”, but an escapee remains possible.  Since this was in the treatise written by Colden for publication, it is assumed Colden knew the difference between the common garden Apium and the new wild varieties of “Apium”, namely Spermolepis.


Apocynum.  (Fam: Apocynaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 2 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader; each probably are referring to the same species.  Taxonomy discussion: Just two species are found in NY and one cross-species, Apocynum androsaemifolium L. (spreading dogbane), and Apocynum cannabinum L. (Indianhemp), and the cross-species Apocynum ×floribundum Greene (pro sp.) [androsaemifolium × cannabinum], also known as Apocynum milleri.  Both A. androsaemifolium and A. cannabinum are the actual species identified by the Coldens.

Aquilegia.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: The only NY native currently is  Aquilegia canadensis L. (red columbine).  Just north of NY is Aquilegia brevistyla Hook. (smallflower columbine), identified during  the post-Colden era.  Aquilegia vulgaris L is an escapee from Europe.


Aralia.  (Fam: Araliaceae). Identified by both, with 6 species, 3 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader; presumably both are identifyying the same 3 species.  Taxonomy discussion: Aralia nudicaulis L (wild sarsaparilla); A. racemosa L (American spikenard); A. spinosa L (devil’s walking stick), A. hispida L (bristly sarsaparilla).  It is important to note here that the Coldens identified three of the above four species.   The local ecology and contemporary distributions suggest the first three above.  In other words the much larger of the four “devil’s walking stick” wasn’t noted by the Coldens.  Cadwallader’s descriptions helped to define further which of three of the four were located (noted above)–probably all four were discovered however by Colden, by grouping Aralia hispida and Aralia nudicaulis together as one species, Colden may have unknowingly reviewed all four species.  This is based on the assumption that these two are very similar to one another in form and ecology, and so were not taxonomically differentiated at the time by either Colden or Linne.

Arbutus.  (Fam: Ericaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader; both the same species.  Taxonomy discussion: probably Arbutus uva-ursi L, now Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel.

Arenaria.  (Fam: Graminae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: The Arenaria spp. which Linnaeus helped identify were A. montana, A. serpyllifolia, A. gypsophiloides (sandworts) (today considered Eremogone sp.), to name a few.   Arenaria serpyllifolia L. (thymeleaf sandwort) is most likely the species the Coldens discovered.  A local Connecticut species currently not in New York is also possible: Honckenya peploides (L.) Ehrh. ssp. robusta (Fernald) Hultén  (seaside sandplant), with its Connecticut name most closely linked to Linne’s plant with the Genus species binome Arenaria peploides L. : Honckenya peploides (L.) Ehrh.  (seaside sandplant), formerly Arenaria peploides L. var. robusta Fernald.    Several ecologically important species are worth mentioning: Minuartia caroliniana (Walter) Mattf. (pine barren stitchwort), aka Arenaria caroliniana Walter, and Minuartia glabra (Michx.) Mattf.  (Appalachian stitchwort), aka Arenaria glabra Michx.   This latter species along with the “Arenaria “  Minuartia michauxii (Fenzl) Farw. var. michauxii  (Michaux’s stitchwort ) were documented officially after the Coldens’ taxonomy period.

Aristolachia (sic).  (Fam: Aristolochiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: The most common Aristolochia linked to Linneaus and Jane Colden is Aristolochia serpentaria L. (Virginia snakeroot), with all of the folklore attached to this common name.  Another Linnaean species in NY is: Aristolochia clematitis L. (birthwort) [Introduced].  Two related species are Aristolochia tomentosa Sims (woolly dutchman’s pipe), and Aristolochia macrophylla Lam. (pipevine).

Arum.  (Fam: Araceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Probably Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott (Green arrowleaf arum).  Another possibility: Arisaema triphyllum L. (see Dracontium).  Another review of the Colden’s writing will be needed to make the final decision as to true identity.

Asarum.  (Fam: Asaraceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Asarum canadense L. Two other species (see above) have since been considered to be a result of physical feature differences found in identical species native to different locations.

Asclepias.  (Fam: Asclepiadaceae). Identified by both, with 9 species, 4 by Jane and 5 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Linne noted 8 species of Asclepias in NY: Asclepias exaltata L. (poke milkweed, with thin white flowers), Asclepias incarnata L. (swamp milkweed), Asclepias purpurascens L. (purple milkweed), Asclepias rubra L. (red milkweed), Asclepias syriaca L.  (common milkweed), Asclepias variegata L. (redring milkweed), Asclepias tuberosa L. (butterfly milkweed), and Asclepias verticillata L. (whorled milkweed).  Asclepias viridiflora Raf. (green comet milkweed) is possible, as well as the later identified Asclepias quadrifolia Jacq. (fourleaf milkweed), and Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm. (clasping milkweed).

Asperula.  (Fam: Rutaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion:  There are two very common species associated with this genus name:  Galium odoratum (L.) Scop. (sweetscented bedstraw, aka Asperula odorata L.), and Galium tinctorium (L.) Scop. (stiff marsh bedstraw, aka Asperula tinctoria L.).   There is also Asperula arvensis L. (blue woodruff) [Introduced].  The differences between these two species is minimal, making further review of the Latin writings necessary.

Aster.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 10 species, 4 by Jane which are assumed to be a part of the 6  species discussed by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Twenty seven Aster and related Aster-like Compositae genera and species have been linked to Linne’s work on the plants which Colden may have referred to as “Asters” in and around New York and the neighboring colonies.   The Coldens  probably identified about four to six of these, although it is possibly that some of Jane’s specimens did not overlap at all with her father’s specimens.  Attempts to define these identified species will be reviewed later.  For now, the 24 species that are important to note are as follows, some with additional notes regarding likelihood of inclusion in the Coldenham flora (each plant has its Linnaean name followed by the current official Latin name if the Linnaean name is no longer in use):  1–Aster chinensis L. – Callistephus chinensis (L.) Nees (china aster) [Introduced], 2–Aster divaricatus L. – Eurybia divaricata (L.) G.L. Nesom (white wood aster) [Native], 3–Aster macrophyllus L. – Eurybia macrophylla (L.) Cass. (big-leaf aster) [N], 4–Aster linariifolius L. – Ionactis linariifolius (L.) Greene (flaxleaf whitetop aster) [N], 5–Conyza asteroides L. – Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (toothed whitetop aster) [N], 6–Conyza linifolia L. – Sericocarpus linifolius (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (narrowleaf whitetop aster) [N], 7–Aster concolor L. – Symphyotrichum concolor (L.) G.L. Nesom (eastern silver aster) [N], 8–Aster cordifolius L. – Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) G.L. Nesom (common blue wood aster) [N] and close ally 9–Symphyotrichum lowrieanum (Porter) G.L. Nesom (Lowrie’s blue wood aster, syn. Aster cordifolius L. var. laevigatus Porter),  10–Aster dumosus L via Aster dumosus L. var. dodgei Fernald – Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) G.L. Nesom var. strictior (Torr. & A. Gray) G.L. Nesom (rice button aster) [N], 11–Aster ericoids L – Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G.L. Nesom var. ericoides (white heath aster) [N], 12–Aster laevis L – Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. laeve (smooth blue aster) [N] (close variety: 13–Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. concinnum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom or Aster laevis L. var. concinnus (Willd.) House), 14–variety of Aster tenuifolius L. = Aster tenuifolius L. var. ramosissimus Torr. & A. Gray  – Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom ssp. lanceolatum var. lanceolatum (white panicle aster) [N], four Aster lateriflorus L. (calico aster) varieties: 15–Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. angustifolium (Wiegand) G.L. Nesom, 16–Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. horizontale (Desf.) G.L. Nesom,  17–Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. lateriflorum and 18–Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. tenuipes (Wiegand) G.L. Nesom (all named calico aster), 19–Aster novae-angliae L. – Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G.L. Nesom (New England aster) [N], 20–Aster novi-belgii L. – Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G.L. Nesom var. novi-belgii (New Belgium/New York Aster), with var. 21–Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G.L. Nesom var. elodes (Torr. & A. Gray) G.L. Nesom [N], and hairy var. 22–Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (L.) G.L. Nesom var. villicaule (A. Gray) J. Labrecque & L. Brouillet [N, note Nova-belgii suggests local heritage], 23–Aster puniceus L. – Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. puniceum (purple stem aster) [N], 24–Aster tenuifolius L. – Symphyotrichum tenuifolium (L.) G.L. Nesom (perennial shoreline aster, rule out based on ecosystem) [N],  25–Aster tradescantii L. – Symphyotrichum tradescantii (L.) G.L. Nesom (shore aster) [N, rule out based on ecosystem], 26–Aster undulatus L. – Symphyotrichum undulatum (L.) G.L. Nesom (wavyleaf aster) [N], and 27–Aster tripolium L. – Tripolium pannonicum (Jacq.) Dobrocz. (sea aster) [N, rule out based on oceanside ecology].

Azalea.  (Fam: Ericaceae). Identified by both, with as many as 3 species total, 1 is noted by Jane and 2 by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Azaleas are typically related to other “laurels” such as the related and unidentified genera for the time like those associated with Rhododendron (esp. Rhododendron arborescens and R. viscosum) and Mountain Laurels (Kalmia spp., which see).  Another series of “Laurels” are identified as such due to their usually pleasant aromatic quality, features associated with the local Lindera benzoin (spicebush) and Sassafras albidum (sassafras) (see Laurus for a review of each of these two).

Barbarea.  (Fam: Brassicaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion:  possibilities are Barbarea verna (Mill.) Asch. (early yellowrocket) and Barbarea vulgaris W.T. Aiton (garden yellowrocket).  The Linnaean assocaition with Barbarea is through B. vulgaris, which he referred to as either Campe barbarea, Barberea barberea, or Barbarea vulgaris, as suggested by the later official species name Campe barbarea (L.) W. Wight ex Piper.

Bartsia.  (Fam: Scrophulariaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Bartsia alpina (Velvet Bells).  USDA maps show distribution begins at NY-Canada border, with no current distribution in NY

Bellis.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Bellis perennis L. (lawndaisy)


Berberis.  (Fam: Berberidaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Berberis vulgaris L. (common barberry).  Berberis canadensis Mill. (American barberry) was noted later by Millspaugh, and was seen as far south as Pennsylvania.  However, it is important to note, Berberis vulgaris L. may be introduced to North America.

Betula.  (Fam: Betulaceae). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaean betula species still bearing the original Linnaean names are: Betula lenta L.  (sweet birch), Betula nana L. (dwarf birch), Betula nigra L. (river birch or black birch), and Betula pumila L. (bog birch).  Linnaean species with history of Linnaean name, since modified by later taxonomists include:  Betula papyrifera Marsh.  (paper birch, formerly related to B. alba L.); subspp. Betula papyrifera Marsh. var. cordifolia (Regel) Fernald (mountain paper birch), with Linnean alternate name Betula alba L. var. cordifolia (Regel) Regel.; Betula papyrifera Marsh. var. papyrifera (paper birch) (aka Betula alba L. var. commutata Regel).  Two B. pumila subspp. also refer to a Linnaean origin of their names, but are less likely to have been identified by the Coldens due to lack of commonness, as suggested by other taxonomists’ work.  The distinction between Betula lenta and B. nigra is pretty obious in the field–B. lenta bark and twigs contain methylsalicylate and the smell of wintergreen, B. nigra does not.   Yet at the time, colonial botanists failed to make this distinction at times and so refer to B. lenta as B. nigra.

Bidens.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Of Linne origin:  Bidens bipinnata L. (Spanish needles), Bidens tripartita L. (threelobe beggarticks),  and possibly Bidens laevis (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (smooth beggartick).  Not directly linked to Linne: Bidens aristosa (Michx.) Britton (bearded beggarticks), Bidens beckii Torr. ex Spreng. (Beck’s water-marigold), Bidens bidentoides (Nutt.) Britton  (Delmarva beggarticks), Bidens cernua L. (nodding beggartick), Bidens connata Muhl. ex Willd. (purplestem beggarticks), Bidens discoidea (Torr. & A. Gray) Britton (small beggarticks), Bidens eatonii Fernald (Eaton’s beggarticks), Bidens frondosa L. (devil’s beggartick), Bidens heterodoxa (Fernald) Fernald & H. St. John (Connecticut beggarticks), Bidens hyperborea Greene (estuary beggarticks), and Bidens vulgata Greene (big devils beggartick), formerly Bidens frondosa L. var. puberula Wiegand.

Brunella.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Prunella vulgaris L. (common selfheal), with local subspecies noted: Prunella vulgaris L. ssp. lanceolata (W. Bartram) Hultén (lance selfheal).  Linne also noted a cut-leaf variation: Prunella laciniata (L.) L. (cutleaf selfheal)

Bursa Pastoris.  (Fam: Brassicaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Contemporary name: Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. (shepherd’s purse).  Linnaean synonyms are: Thlaspi bursa-pastoris L., Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britton, and Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britton var. bifida Crép.  BB call it Bursa bursa-pastoris

Caltha.  (Fam: Brassicaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Caltha palustris L. (yellow marsh marigold); early alternate name: Caltha palustris L. var. asarifolia (DC.) Rothr.

Campanula.  (Fam: Campanulaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 2 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Campanula glomerata L. (Dane’s blood), Campanula patula L. (spreading bellflower), Campanula persicifolia L. (peachleaf bellflower), Campanula rapunculoides L. (rampion bellflower), Campanula rotundifolia L. (bluebell bellflower), Campanula trachelium L. (bats in the belfry), Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small (American bellflower), aka Campanula americana L.

Carduus.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Associated with Linnaeus: Carduus acanthoides L.  (spiny plumeless thistle), Carduus crispus L. (curly plumeless thistle), Carduus nutans L. (nodding plumeless thistle), and Carduus pycnocephalus L. (Italian plumeless thistle).  Indirectly associated with Linnaeus:  Carduus altissimus L. (now Cirsium altissimum (L.) Hill (tall thistle)), Carduus lanceolatus L. (now Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. (bull thistle)), Carduus marianus L. (now Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (blessed milkthistle)). Other less likely species:  Cirsium discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng. (field thistle), Cirsium horridulum Michx. var. horridulum (yellow thistle), Cirsium muticum Michx. (swamp thistle), and Cirsium pumilum Spreng. (pasture thistle).

Carpinus.  (Fam: Fagaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Carpinus caroliniana Walter (American hornbeam) is native; earlier identifications may have associated local species with C. betulus L. of Europe.  Carpinus betulus L. var. virginiana Marsh. is another name for contemporary species name Carpinus caroliniana Walter ssp. virginiana (Marsh.) Furlow or Carpinus caroliniana Walter var. virginiana (Marsh.) Fernald.

Ceanothus.  (Fam: Rhamnaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Ceanothus americanus L. (New Jersey tea); later addition to genus is Ceanothus herbaceus Raf. (Jersey tea)

Cephalanthus.  (Fam: Rutaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Cephalanthus occidentalis L. (common buttonbush) is only common species.  The further east the plant resides, the more hairy its leaves can tend to be.  The second Cephalanthus has yet to be determined.

Cerastium.  (Fam: Caryophyllaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Most likely Cerastium arvense L. (field chickweed) but Linne and Linnaeans when they were splitters tended to identify separately the following: Cerastium latifolium L. and Cerastium strictum L. (both actually now identified as Cerastium arvense L. ssp. strictum (L.) Ugborogho).  Other subspecies include Cerastium arvense L. ssp. velutinum (Raf.) Ugborogho, Cerastium arvense L. ssp. velutinum (Raf.) Ugborogho var. velutinum (Raf.) Britton, and Cerastium arvense L. ssp. velutinum (Raf.) Ugborogho var. villosum (Muhl. ex Darl.) Hollick & Britton (or rastium arvense L. var. villosissimum Pennell).  Linne also associated with: Cerastium fontanum Baumg. (common mouse-ear chickweed), subdivided as Cerastium fontanum Baumg. ssp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet (big chickweed), and referred to by BB as C. vulgatum.  The most direct Linnaean association with this subspecies–Cerastium fontanum Baumg. ssp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet–is as Cerastium vulgatum L. 1762, non 1755.  Two other related associations: Cerastium tomentosum L. (snow in summer), and Cerastium semidecandrum L. (fivestamen chickweed), each with Linnaean name retained, and Cerastium aquaticum L. (now known as Myosoton aquaticum (L.) Moench (giantchickweed)), Scoparius referred to the latter as a Stellaria (L.) Scop.

Cerasus.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Cherries known as Prunus (note-many are introduced):  Prunus americana Marsh. (American plum), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus virginiana L. (chokecherry), Prunus spinosa L. (blackthorn).  As Cerasus:  Prunus pensylvanica L. f. var. pensylvanica (pin cherry), Prunus avium (L.) L. (sweet cherry), Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Black cherry), Prunus pumila L. var. pumila (Great Lakes sandcherry), Prunus mahaleb L. (Mahaleb cherry).

Cercaea (sic).  (Fam: Onagraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Circaea alpina L. (small enchanter’s nightshade), Circaea lutetiana L. (broadleaf enchanter’s nightshade).  The Colden’s setting was not alpine, therefore C. lutetiana was decided upon as the local species.

Chelone.  (Fam: Saxifragaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Chelone glabra L.

Chenopodium.  (Fam: Chenopodiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 3 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaean: Chenopodium album L. (lambsquarters), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. (Mexican tea), Chenopodium aristatum L. (wormseed), Chenopodium botrys L. (Jerusalem oak goosefoot), Chenopodium glaucum L. (oakleaf goosefoot), Chenopodium multifidum L. (cutleaf goosefoot), Chenopodium murale L. (nettleleaf goosefoot), Chenopodium viride L. (Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch & Ziz, seaport goosefoot), Chenopodium polyspermum L.  (manyseed goosefoot), Chenopodium rubrum L.  (red goosefoot), Chenopodium urbicum L.  (city goosefoot), Chenopodium vulvaria L. (stinking goosefoot), and the relatives Chenopodium capitatum (L.) Asch. (Blitum capitatum L., blite goosefoot), and Chenopodium foliosum (Moench) Asch.  (aka Blitum virgatum L., leafy goosefoot).

Chrisosplenium (sic).  (Fam: Asteraceae, or Saxifragaceae?). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein. ex Hook. (American golden saxifrage) and Chrysosplenium tetrandrum (Lund ex Malmgr.) Th. Fr. (northern golden saxifrage) are current taxonomic names.     The latter has the earlier names: Chrysosplenium alternifolium L. ssp. tetrandrum (Lund ex Malmgr.) Hultén and Chrysosplenium alternifolium L. var. tetrandrum Lund ex Malmgr.,  suggesting Chrysosplenium alternifolium L was the predecessor related to Colden’s and Linnaeus’s documentation.

Chrysanthemum.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Glebionis segetum (L.) Fourr. (corndaisy, formerly C. segetum L) [I?], Leucanthemella serotina (L.) Tzvelev (giantdaisy) (C. serotinum L) [I?], Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. (oxeye daisy) (Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L).  Other allies: 1) Tanacetum balsamita L. (costmary), aka to Linne Chrysanthemum balsamita L, [I] 2) Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip. (feverfew) ro Linne Matricaria parthenium L or Tanacetum parthenium [I], and 3) Tanacetum vulgare L. (common tansy) [N].

Claytonia.  (Fam: Portulacaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Claytonia virginica L. (Virginia springbeauty),  a relative Claytonia caroliniana Michx.  (Carolina springbeauty).  See Illustration with Chrysosplenium above.  Genus named for Johan Clayton of the Virginia-Carolinas area.

Clematis.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Clematis virginiana L. (devil’s darning needles).  Clematis recta L. (ground virginsbower) [I?] and Clematis viticella L. (Italian leather flower) [I?] are probably introduced.  See Illustration with Chrysosplenium above for Clematis virginiana L.  Other Clematis spp. are illustrated above.  The lower set of photos and images are all for C. vitalba L.

Collinsonia.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Collinsonia canadensis L. (horsebalm or richweed).  Genus named for British botanist Peter Collinson.

Convallaria.  (Fam: Convallariaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 2 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Convallaria majalis L. is the common European lily of the valley, found in gardens and introduced into the wild.  Colden and Linne are linked to the American species: Maianthemum racemosum (L.) Link ssp. racemosum (feathery false lily of the valley, C. racemosum L, followed by Vagnera racemosa (L.) Morong) and Maianthemum stellatum (L.) Link (starry false lily of the valley, C. stellatum L, followed by Vagnera stellata (L.) Morong).  If we assumed Colden and Linne knew the distinction between European Convallaria and American Convallaria, it is safe to assume that the two Maianthemum species are probably the plants the Coldens listed and described.

Convolvulus.  (Fam: Convolvulaceae). Jane Colden only, with 3 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Convolvulus sepium L. (now ka Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. ssp. sepium, hedge false bindweed) had two var. incl. americanum; Calystegia spithamaea (L.) Pursh ssp. spithamaea (low false bindweed) orig ka Convolvulus spithamaea L.; the True Convolulus spp. included Convolvulus arvensis L. (field bindweed).  Linnaeus also categorized the Sweet Potato in this family as Convolvulus batata L, now known as Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (sweetpotato).  Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth (tall morning-glory) was the Latin name for the currently popular Convolvulus purpureus L.

Cornus.  (Fam: Cornaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader (one probably included the species noted by Jane).  Taxonomy discussion: Directly Linnaean: Cornus canadensis L. (bunchberry dogwood), Cornus florida L. (flowering dogwood), Cornus mas L. (Cornelian cherry), Cornus sericea L. (red-osier dogwood), and indirectly, Cornus alternifolia L. f.  (alternateleaf dogwood).  Based on contemporary ecology, C. florida and C. sericea are chosen as the Coldens’ findings, with C. florida noted by both.  Cornus canadensis L. is possible, but less likely due to limited post-Colden writings on this species.  Note: the “petals” on the flowers of C. florida are actually modified leaves.

Crataegus.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 2 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: There are 50 species, varieties and hybrids or Crataegus related to NY and the immediately neighboring states and Canadian provinces.  Only one is directly linked to Linne’s work: Crataegus crus-galli L. (cockspur hawthorn), the primary candidate for traditional Hudsonia species.  But Linne also linked the following as a species he identified as Crataegus coccinea L. (for which ‘p.p.’ is added to latin name by later taxonomists):  Crataegus pedicellata Sarg. (scarlet hawthorn) and Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe var. chrysocarpa (red haw).  Specific regions had their own varieties of hawthorne, i.e. Crataegus bona Sarg. (Berks County hawthorn [PA]), Crataegus desueta Sarg. (New York hawthorn), Crataegus opulens Sarg. (Rochester hawthorn), Crataegus spissa Sarg. (Essex hawthorn, NY only).  Sargeant and others split this genus into a variety of locally different species, each with multistate distribution.  The following non-hybrids were distributed around NY:  Crataegus dilatata Sarg. (broadleaf hawthorn), Crataegus dissona Sarg.  (northern hawthorn), Crataegus dispessa Ashe (mink hawthorn), Crataegus punctata Jacq. (dotted hawthorn), Crataegus beata Sarg. (Dunbar’s hawthorn [NY-tristate]),  Crataegus brainerdii Sarg. (Brainerd’s hawthorn), Crataegus submollis Sarg. (Quebec hawthorn), Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe (fireberry hawthorn), Crataegus compta Sarg. (adorned hawthorn), Crataegus dodgei Ashe (Dodge’s hawthorn), Crataegus engelmannii Sarg. (Engelmann’s hawthorn), Crataegus flabellata (Bosc ex Spach) K. Koch (fanleaf hawthorn), Crataegus fulleriana Sarg. (Fuller’s hawthorn), Crataegus grandis Ashe (grand hawthorn), Crataegus holmesiana Ashe (Holmes’ hawthorn), Crataegus intricata Lange  (Copenhagen hawthorn), Crataegus iracunda Beadle (stolonbearing hawthorn), Crataegus irrasa Sarg. (Blanchard’s hawthorn), Crataegus jesupii Sarg. (Jesup’s hawthorn), Crataegus jonesiae Sarg. (Miss Jones’ hawthorn), Crataegus knieskerniana Sarg.  (Knieskern’s hawthorn), Crataegus lucorum Sarg. (grove hawthorn), Crataegus lumaria Ashe (roundleaf hawthorn), Crataegus suborbiculata Sarg. (Caughuawaga hawthorn), Crataegus macrosperma Ashe (bigfruit hawthorn), Crataegus margarettiae Ashe (Margarett’s hawthorn), Crataegus mollis Scheele (downy hawthorn), Crataegus nitidula Sarg. (Ontario hawthorn), Crataegus nitida (Engelm.) Sarg.  (glossy hawthorn), Crataegus pedicellata Sarg. (scarlet hawthorn), Crataegus pennsylvanica Ashe (Pennsylvania hawthorn), Crataegus putata Sarg. (Scranton hawthorn, of Scranton PA), Crataegus perjucunda Sarg. (pearthorn), Crataegus persimilis Sarg. (plumleaf hawthorn), Crataegus porrecta Ashe (Pittsburgh hawthorn, or Pittsburg area), Crataegus scabrida Sarg. (rough hawthorn), Crataegus schuettei Ashe (Schuette’s hawthorn), and Crataegus shaferi Sarg. (Shafer’s hawthorn, PA only).  Species like the following are garden-bred: Crataegus xanthophylla Sarg. (buffalo hawthorn) and Crataegus uniflora Münchh. (dwarf hawthorn). Crataegus douglasii Lindl. (black hawthorn) is current just to the north of NY, but is possibly a colonial NY resident.  Hybrid/cross species specific to Hudsonia and parts of Ohio is Crataegus ×hudsonica Sarg. (pro sp.) [pruinosa × punctata], Crataegus ×laneyi Sarg. (pro sp.) [brainerdii × succulenta], Crataegus ×puberis Sarg. (pro sp.) [flabellata × punctata], Crataegus ×rubrocarnea Sarg. (pro sp.) [brainerdii × macrosperma], and Crataegus ×peckietta Sarg. (pro sp.) [scabrida × succulenta] for NY.  Only Crataegus crus-galli is definitively linked to Coldenham.  The second identification remains open for discussion.

Cruciatu (sic).  (Fam: Rubiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Probably Cruciati laevipes Opiz (Smooth Bedstraw), aka Galium cruciati (L) Scop.  (See Asperula above for Galium morphology.)  The term Cruciatu implies a cruciate form to the plant in some fashion, for example as four petals (Cruciferae family members).   Numerous plants bear the cruciate form, but those most noticeable in the Hudson Valley are a four-leaved variety of Galium, the four petals borne by most Cruciferae (Mustard Family) flowers, and the cruciform leaves of some Hypericums.

Cucumis.  (Fam: Curcurbitaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly Echinocystis lobata. A true Cucumis is not considered an option, due to lack of adaptation to local climatic and ecological settings.

Cynoglossum.  (Fam: Boraginaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Cynoglossum virginianum L. (wild comfrey) is only American species.  Linne also identified Cynoglossum officinale L. (gypsyflower) of Europe.

Cypripedium.  (Fam: Orchidaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Cypripedium acaule Aiton (moccasin flower), Cypripedium arietinum W.T. Aiton (ram’s head lady’s slipper), Cypripedium candidum Muhl. ex Willd. (white lady’s slipper), Cypripedium parviflorum Salisb. (lesser yellow lady’s slipper), Cypripedium passerinum Richardson (sparrowegg lady’s slipper), Cypripedium reginae Walter (showy lady’s slipper).

Dalea.  (Fam: Trifoliaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Dalea purpurea; D. purpurea var. purpurea (Purple Prairie Clover).  It is important to note that there are several “clovers” growing in the Hudson Valley that are introduced.  The traditional clovers, Trifolium pratense (red) and Trifolium repens (white) were introduced by Dutch and English farmers, for use as fodder and fertilizing the fields; a hybrid of these two also exists (T. hybridum).  The Sweet Clovers (Melilotus alba and M. officinalis) are also introduced, probably by mistake, due to their ability to cause livestock deaths if included in the hay or fodder.

Dentaria.  (Fam: Brassicaceae?). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: a Cardamine sp.  A number of the Cardamine species were referred to as Dentaria species around Colden’s time.  Like other Cruciferae members, some local Cardamine species are introduced from Europe.  Few were deliberately brought over for gardening or food and medicine purposes.  Many of the above species represent local members, with several noted as Dentaria species by the early botanists like Michaux and Nuttall.  These botanists were engaged after Colden’s work was completed, with the exception perhaps of some of the identifications linked to Michaux.  The true Linnaean species were probably introduced.  Other local native possibilities are Cardamine longii Fernald (Long’s bittercress), and  Cardamine douglassii Britton (limestone bittercress).  Although found in New York presently, C. oligosperma Nutt. was introduced back to New York and no other nearby state from the far west.  Cardamine flexuosa With. (woodland bittercress) of forest settings is also possibly introduced.  The one Coldenham species was most likely Cardamine hirsuta, pratensis or pensylvanica.

Diervilla.  (Fam: Caprifoliaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Diervilla lonicera Mill. [D. diervilla (L) MacMill.  (Northern Bush Honeysuckle).  Other common honeysuckles exist.  This is not the most common local Lonicera species.

Digitalis.  (Fam: Scrophulariaceae). Identified by both, with 6 species, 3 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly Aureolaria virginica (L.) Pennell (Smooth False Foxglove).   Other species of “Foxglove” that are native to New York include:  Aureolaria flava (L.) Farw. (smooth yellow false foxglove, first named Gerardia flava L.), and Aureolaria pedicularia (L.) Raf. (fernleaf yellow false foxglove, formerly Gerardia pedicularia L.).   The true identification of this “Digitalis” depends upon the interpretation of Colden’s (Gronovius’s) Latin.  The true Digitalis species was not common to New York nor to medicine during the colonial years, although it perhapsserved as a popular British gardens decorative during Colden’s lifetime, suggesting a possible means for its importation.  These species currently noted in New York State by the USDA include: Digitalis purpurea L. (purple foxglove), Digitalis lanata Ehrh. (Grecian foxglove), Digitalis lutea L. (straw foxglove), and  Digitalis grandiflora Mill. (yellow foxglove).  The latter two bore yellow flowers, and the straw foxglove was documented by Linneaus about the time Cadwallader Colden wrote his treatise.  Colden may have mistaken this latter species for the New York “Foxgloves” he documented.

Dioscorea.  (Fam: Dioscoreaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Dioscorea villosa L. (wild yam); Dioscorea quaternata J.F. Gmel. (fourleaf yam) is in Pennsylvania and further south.  Dioscorea villosa is possibly an introduced Central American (new Spain) species.

Doronicum.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly Arnica acaulis, Arnica acaulis (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (common leopardbane), or Arnica lanceolata Nutt. (lanceleaf arnica).  Arnica acaulis are noted only in Pennsylvania and more southern states. Arnica lanceolata is native to New York.  The Arnica mollis Hook. (hairy arnica) resides in close proximity to New York.  Most likely this is Arnica acaulis.

Dracontium.  (Fam: Araceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Could be Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott (green dragon), which is related to Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott (Jack in the pulpit), possibly noted by Colden as “Arum” (Arum may also be Green Leaf Arum).  The local skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) has sometimes been given this type of name.

Drypis.  (Fam:  Caryophyllaceae – Alt. identification = Filicaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Drypis spinosa L. or a Drypis species look alike.  A number of members of this family could resemble the European Drypis, such as the introduced Sagina procumbens (pearlwort) allies (see for example http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=SAPR).  Another unlikely possibility:  Dryopteris sp.?  (wood ferns).  Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray (crested woodfern), Dryopteris filix-mas (L.) Schott (male fern), Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray (marginal woodfern), Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman (western oakfern), Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.) Watt (long beechfern), Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl. (New York fern, formerly Polypodium noveboracensis L),

Epilobium.  (Fam: Onagraceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 2 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Linne noted: Epilobium palustre L. (marsh willowherb), Epilobium hirsutum L. (codlins and cream), Epilobium anagallidifolium Lam. (pimpernel willowherb, which Linne called Epilobium alpinum L. p.p.).  Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub ssp. circumvagum (Mosquin) Hoch (fireweed) was once called an Epilobium angustifolium subspp., or Chamerion/Chamaenerion angustifolium L.    Others: Epilobium leptophyllum Raf. (bog willowherb) and Epilobium ciliatum Raf. (fringed willowherb).

 

Erysimum.  (Fam: Brassicaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly Erysimum spp. Wallflowers.  New York species is Erysimum inconspicuum (S. Watson) MacMill. (shy wallflower).  Species bordering New York:  Erysimum asperum (Nutt.) DC. (western wallflower), Erysimum capitatum (Douglas ex Hook.) Greene (sanddune wallflower), and Erysimum coarctatum Fernald (small-flower prairie wallflower).  The latter is more likely to be in the New York colonial climate setting, although primarily in the northern New France area.  Introduced species include: Erysimum hieraciifolium L.  (European wallflower), and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. (wormseed wallflower). 
Other possibilities: E. alliara or Alliaria petiolata L. (Garlic Mustard)

Erythronium.  (Fam: Liliaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Erythronium albidum Nutt. (white fawnlily) and Erythronium americanum Ker Gawl. (Yellow dogtooth violet) are probable species.  E. rostratum (midwest) and E. umbilicatum (more south) are in nearby states.  The flower color in Colden’s treatise will define the most likely species.

Euonymus.  (Fam: Celastraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Euonymus americana L (Burning Bush; Bursting Heart).  Was this species introduced?

Eupatorium.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 6 species, 3 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne: Eupatorium perfoliatum L. (common boneset) and Eupatorium purpureum L. (sweetscented joe pye weed).  Reduced likelihood: Eupatorium sessilifolium L. (upland boneset).  Eupatorium aromaticum L. (Ageratina aromatica (L.) Spach var. aromatica (lesser snakeroot)), Eupatorium rotundifolium L. (roundleaf thoroughwort).  Unlikely:  Eupatorium album L. (white thoroughwort),  Eupatorium altissimum L. (tall thoroughwort), Eupatorium cannabinum L. (hemp agrimony) [I].   Eupatorium maculatum L. had a variety of subspecies proposed:  most importantly Eupatoriadelphus maculatus (L.) King & H. Rob. var. bruneri (A. Gray) King & H. Rob.  (spotted joe pye weed).    Less likely: Conoclinium coelestinum (L.) DC. (blue mistflower), Eupatorium pilosum Walter (rough boneset).  Two of the three species noted by the Coldens can be identified.  The  third is uncertain, until Cadwallader’s treatise is reviewed.

Euphorbia.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Two native Euphorbia spp: Euphorbia corollata L. (flowering spurge), Euphorbia ipecacuanhae L. (American ipecac).  Other genus: Chamaesyce polygonifolia (L.) Small  (seaside sandmat).  Other Chamaesyce spp. are introduced.  Due to Colden’s dedication to the medical profession, Euphorbia ipecuauanhae L. seems the most likely choice.

Fagus.  (Fam: Fagaceae). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Only American species:  Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech).  European species noted by Linne: Fagus sylvatica L.  Jane has two Fagus identified, yet only one seems likely.  Possible reasons: inclusion of European species planted locally; identification of another with similar leaves as a Fagus sp., which in actuality was not a Fagus.

Fibraurea.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. (threeleaf goldthread).  Jane’s most important and most famous species.

Filipendula.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: The most linked to Linnaeus is what Linnaeus called Spiraea ulmaria L. (now known as Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. ssp. ulmaria or Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. (queen of the meadow).  Filipendula rubra (Hill) B.L. Rob. (queen of the prairie) with it pink flowers is also local.

Frageria (sic).  (Fam: Rosaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Fragaria virginiana Duchesne (Virginia strawberry, aka Fragaria canadensis Michx.), Fragaria vesca L. ssp. americana (Porter) Staudt (woodland strawberry) and and the more localized ssp. Fragaria vesca L. ssp. Vesca (woodland strawberry).  There is also a lookalike very similar in appearance: Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke, formerly Fragaria indica Andrews (Indian strawberry), NY subspecies glauca, grayana and virginiana.

Frutex.  (Fam: Unknown). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: a peashrub?

Gardenia.  (Fam: Hypericaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Probably a Hypericum sp.; “Gardenia” is a name given to Hypericum species by Jane Colden, in honor of Alexander Garden.  Due to Ellis, this name was already in use for a shrub now known by the same common name, and was later removed from the Hypericum descriptions.  IPNI:  Clusiaceae Gardenia J.Colden ex Garden in Essays & Obs. Soc. Edinb. ii. 2 (1756). Regnum Plantae references:  Gardenia Ellis, 1761, nom. cons. (Magnoliophyta : Rubiaceae) = Gardenia; Gardenia J. Colden, 1756, nom. rej. (Magnoliophyta : Hypericaceae) = Hypericum; Gardenia Ellis, 1821, nom. illeg. (Magnoliophyta : Calycanthaceae) = Calycanthus.

Gaultheria.  (Fam: Ericaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Gaultheria procumbens L. (eastern teaberry) is most likely species; a relative Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Muhl. ex Bigelow (creeping snowberry) is worth noting.

Gentiana.  (Fam: Gentianaceae). Identified by both, with 6 species, 3 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnean option (medicinal): Gentiana quinquefolia L., now Gentianella quinquefolia (L.) Small ssp. quinquefolia (agueweed).  Other possibility for NY spp: Gentiana saponaria L. (harvestbells)

Geranium.  (Fam: Geraniaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Geranium carolinianum L. (Carolina geranium) and Geranium maculatum L. (spotted geranium) are most likely species.  Geranium robertianum L. (Robert geranium) with feathery leaves is possible.   Finely lobulated leaf variety Geranium bicknellii Britton (Bicknell’s cranesbill) is later possibility.

Geum.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Geum rivale L.

Glaux.  (Fam: Primulaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Glaux maritima L.

Glycine.  (Fam: Fabaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaeus identified two New York “Glycine” species: Glycine comosa L. and Glycine apios L.  The first is Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald var. comosa (L.) Fernald (American hogpeanut) and the second Apios americana Medik. (groundnut).  Contemporary Glycine is G. max the Soybean.

Gnaphalium.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 2 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Gnaphalium uliginosum L.  (marsh cudweed).  Synonyms:  Gnaphalium margaritaceum L.=Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. (western pearly everlasting); Gnaphalium plantaginifolium L.=Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Richardson (woman’s tobacco).  Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.=Pseudognaphalium obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & B.L. Burtt ssp. obtusifolium (rabbit-tobacco); Gnaphalium luteoalbum L. =Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum (L.) Hilliard & B.L. Burtt (Jersey cudweed); Gnaphalium sylvaticum L.=Omalotheca sylvatica (L.) Sch. Bip. & F.W. Schultz (woodland arctic cudweed); Gnaphalium arvense L., nom. inval.=Logfia arvensis L or Logfia arvensis (L.) Holub (field cottonrose)

Gratiola.  (Fam: Scrophulariaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Gratiola virginiana L is to the south; Yellowseed False Pimpernel (Lindernia dubia L. Pennell var. dubia) (Gratiola dubia L) is NY native, as well as G. neglecta (Clammy Hedge Hyssop) and G. aurea (Golden Hedge Hyssop).

Hamamelis.  (Fam: Hamamelidaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Hamamelis virginiana L. (American witchhazel).  See above illustration.

Hedysarum.  (Fam: Fabaceae). Identified by both, with 6 species, 4 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Hedysarum repens (L. repens, creeping lespedeza) was documented by Linnaeus then Bartram.  H. violaceum L (L. violacea) is another possibility (purple lespedeza).  See above illustration.

Helenea (sic).  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Very likely Helonias bullata L. (swamppink).  Also possibly Helenium autumnale L. (common sneezeweed), although taxonomic placement perhaps excludes this option (Helenium flexuosum Raf. (purplehead sneezeweed) is close relative).  There is also a Halenia Borkh. (spurred gentian) genus, with Halenia deflexa (Sm.) Griseb. (American spurred gentian), as the NY species.  But this is probably not connected to this specific Colden entry due to later history of the genus differentiation and identification.  Helenia are commonly called sneezeweeds.

Helianthus.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Cadwallader Colden, and Jane Colden, each with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Helianthus angustifolius L. (swamp sunflower, pale yellow), Helianthus annuus L. (common sunflower, yellow), Helianthus decapetalus L.  (thinleaf sunflower, do), Helianthus divaricatus L. (woodland sunflower), Helianthus giganteus L.  (giant sunflower) and Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke. sometimes differentiated as H. pilosus)

Helxine.  (Fam: Urticaceae). Cadwallader Colden only by this name spelling, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Latin name Helxine is hard to trace.  Possibly: Soleirolia soleirolii = Helxine soleirolii.  Soleirolia soleirolii (Req.) Dandy  (mother of thousands), although distribution is wrong.  The  characteristic moss-appearing leaf pattern suggests as well similars from other genera/families.

Helzine.  (Fam: ). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: as above.  Note: In Plantae Coldenghamiae, this is a common name related to Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus).

Hepatica.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: most likely Hepatica nobilis Schreb. var. obtusa (Pursh) Steyerm. (roundlobe hepatica), aka Anemone hepatica L. and Hepatica hepatica (L.) Karst.

Hepatis.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified for this spelling.  Taxonomy discussion:  see Hepatica..

Hierachium (sic).  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only for this spelling, with 2 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaean species: Hieracium aurantiacum L. (orange hawkweed), Hieracium gronovii L. (queendevil, yellow), Hieracium kalmii L. (Kalm’s hawkweed), Hieracium murorum L.  (wall hawkweed), Hieracium paniculatum L. (Allegheny hawkweed), Hieracium pilosella L.    (mouseear hawkweed),  Hieracium sabaudum L. (New England hawkweed)  and Hieracium venosum L. (rattlesnakeweed).  Linne may have also identified a light yellow flowering hybrid as Hieracium auricula L. p.p. (Hieracium ×floribundum Wimm. & Grab. (pro sp.) [caespitosum × lactucella])

Hieracium.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Cadwallader Colden only for this spelling (see prior), with 3 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: as above.

Hyoserus (sic).  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly: Arnoseris minima (L) Schweigg. & Corte (Hyoseris minima L, lamb succory); Krigia biflora [Hyoseris biflora Walter, Virginia Dwarf Dandelion]; and K. virginica (L) Willd.  or Hyoseris virginica L. [Virginia Dwarf Dandelion].  The Linnaean species H. scabra is displayed for comparison.

Hypericum.  (Fam: Hypericaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 1 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Hypericum ascyron L. (great St. Johnswort), Hypericum canadense L. (lesser Canadian St. Johnswort), Hypericum humifusum L. (trailing St. Johnswort), Hypericum kalmianum L. (Kalm’s St. Johnswort), Hypericum majus (A. Gray) Britton (large St. Johnswort), aka Hypericum canadense L. var. majus A. Gray, Hypericum mutilum L. (dwarf St. Johnswort), Hypericum perforatum L. (common St. Johnswort), Hypericum prolificum L. (shrubby St. Johnswort), Also note: Hypericum punctatum Lam. (spotted St. Johnswort) and the distinctly different genus: Hypericum crux-andreae (L.) Crantz (St. Peterswort), aka Ascyrum crux-andreae L.  Another: Hypericum gentianoides (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (orangegrass) aka Sarothra gentianoides L., Hypericum hypericoides (L.) Crantz (St. Andrew’s cross), aka Ascyrum hypericoides L.  A distinctly different species and genus with pinkish flowers is Triadenum virginicum (L.) Raf. (Virginia marsh St. Johnswort) formerly Triadenum virginicum (L.) Raf. or Hypericum virginicum L.

Iberus.  (Fam: Brassicaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Iberis amara (annual candytuft), sempervirens (evergreen), umbellata (globe) are possible.

Impatiens.  (Fam: Balsaminaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Either Impatiens biflora or Impatiens pallida; less likely Impatiens balsamina L. (spotted snapweed) [Introduced].  Impatiens capensis, more commonly referred to as I. biflora Walter (see Britton and Brown), has a Linnean naming association as Impatiens noli-tangere L. ssp. biflora (Walter) Hultén.  The pale yellow species is Impatiens pallida Nutt., which lacks a direct Linnean link but has very distinct flower color.  There is an Impatiens parviflora DC (small-flowered touch me not) to the north of New York.

Imperatoria.  (Fam: Apiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Peucedanum ostruthium (L.) W.D.J. Koch (masterwort)

Iris.  (Fam: Iridaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibilities:  Iris virginica L.  (Virginia iris); Iris versicolor L. (harlequin blueflag), Iris verna L. var. smalliana (NY var., dwarf violet iris).  The much larger Iris germanica L. (German iris) is introduced.  Iris pseudacorus L. (paleyellow iris) is also important to note.

Isnardia.  (Fam: Onagraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly a Ludwigia sp.; L. palustris (L.) Elliot –marshy seedbox–has Linne history (see above); L. repens (creeping primrose willow) thrives close to Virginia.

Juglans.  (Fam: Juglandaceae). Jane Colden only, with 3 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaeus had three New York Juglans identified: Juglans alba L. p.p. (now Carya alba (L.) Nutt. (mockernut hickory)), Juglans cinerea L. (butternut), and Juglans nigra L. (black walnut).  Juglans regia L.  is the famous English walnut.

Kalmia.  (Fam: Ericaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Kalmia angustifolia L. (sheep laurel); Kalmia latifolia L. (mountain laurel); Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv. (alpine azalea) aka Azalea procumbens L.

Lactuca.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Native species:  Lactuca canadensis L. (Canada lettuce), Lactuca serriola L. (prickly lettuce, aka Lactuca scariola L.), Lactuca tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey. (blue lettuce, formerly L. tatarica L. and Sonchus tataricus L. p.p), and Mycelis muralis (L.) Dumort.  (wall-lettuce), formerly L. murialis L., or Lactuca muralis (L.) Fresen.   Introduced locally:  Lactuca sativa L. (garden lettuce).  Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn. (woodland lettuce, or L. floridana L.) has more blueish to pinkish flowers.  Other species to note: Lactuca saligna L. (willowleaf lettuce).

Lagopus.  Initial review:  (Fam: Plantaginaceae.  Alt. Orchidaceae?  Lycopodiaceae?). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Lycopodium logopus?  Perhaps Lycopodium L. (clubmoss) species like: Lycopodium clavatum L. (running clubmoss), Lycopodium complanatum L. (groundcedar), Lycopodium annotinum L. (stiff clubmoss), Lycopodium obscurum L. (rare clubmoss), or Lycopodium alpinum L. (alpine clubmoss).  Michaux described Lycopodium dendroideum Michx. (tree groundpine).  Other genera:  Lycopodium carolinianum L. (now Lycopodiella caroliniana (L.) Pic. Serm. var. caroliniana  (slender clubmoss)), Lycopodium cernuum L. (now Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm. var. cernua (staghorn clubmoss)), and the less likely Lycopodium selago L. (now Huperzia selago (L.) Bernh. ex Schrank & Mart. var. selago (fir clubmoss)).  Now suspected to be a species of Plantago, Plantago lagopus L., not linked by Coldens to the typical Plantago species (which see).

Lamium.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Four possibilities: Lamium album L. (white deadnettle), Lamium amplexicaule L. (henbit deadnettle), Lamium maculatum L. (spotted henbit) and Lamium purpureum L. (purple deadnettle).  Linnaeus also related to these genera the Lamiastrum galeobdolon (L.) Ehrend. & Polatschek (yellow archangel), calling it Lamium galeobdolon (L.) L.  This species is distinguished by its yellow flowers.

Laurus.  (Fam: Lauraceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 2 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (sassafras), formerly Laurus sassafras L., and perhaps Lindera benzoin L., aka Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume  (northern spicebush).

Leontica.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only for this spelling, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: The Black Cohosh (Caullophylum thalictroides (L.) Michx., aka Actaea racemosa L., illustrated immediately above) has been referred to as Leontice.

Leontice.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Cadwallader Colden only for this spelling, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: as above, for Jane.

Leontodon.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Sometimes called Apargia genus.  Two introduced species:  Leontodon autumnalis L. (fall dandelion) [I], Leontodon hispidus L. (bristly hawkbit) [I].  Taraxacum officinale had the common name used by Linne of Leontodon taraxacum L., nom. inq., p.p.  Probably Leontodon taraxacum L.

Lepidium.  (Fam: Brassicaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne had several genera, now separated, but then grouped together as Lepidium.  Some of these may be introduced.  Cardaria draba (L.) Desv. (formerly Lepidium draba L., whitetop, with large almost globose white, multiple flowerheads) [I?], Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. (lesser swinecress, Linnaean name Lepidium didymum L.) [I?], Lepidium campestre (L.) W.T. Aiton (field pepperweed, formerly Thlaspi campestre L.), Lepidium latifolium L. (broadleaved pepperweed), Lepidium ruderale L. (roadside pepperweed), Lepidium sativum L. (gardencress pepperweed) [I], Lepidium virginicum L. (Virginia pepperweed).

Lilium.  (Fam: Liliaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 2 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibilities:  Lilium canadense L.  (Canada lily); Lilium philadelphicum L.  (wood lily); Lilium superbum L.  (turk’s-cap lily)

Limodorum.  (Fam: Orchidaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: most likely Calopogon tuberosus Britton (C. tuberosum L).  This was referred to by Linne as Limodorum tuberosum L.  See Lymnodorum below, Jane’s equivalent.  The related European Limodorum is illustrate above for comparison with Calopogon.

Linium (sic).  (Fam: Linaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Local species:  Linum virginianum L. (woodland flax).  Possibly introduced: Linum perenne L. (blue flax).  Introduced:  Linum usitatissimum L. (common flax).  Linum medium (Planch.) Britton var. texanum (Planch.) Fernald (stiff yellow flax) and Linum medium (Planch.) Britton var. medium (stiff yellow flax) are varieties from the Linum medium.  Linne also noted Linum catharticum L. (fairy flax), also ka Cathartolinum catharticum (L.) Small.

Liqvidambar (sic).  (Fam: Hamamelidaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Liquidambar styraciflua L (sweetgum)

Liriodendron.  (Fam: Magnoliaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Liriodendron tulipifera L. (tuliptree).

Liriodendrum (sic).  (Fam: Magnoliaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion:  Liriodendron is proper spelling.

Lithospermum.  (Fam: Boraginaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnst. originally referred to as Lithospermum arvense L.

Lobelia.  (Fam: Lobeliaceae). Identified by both, with 8 species, 4 by Jane and 4 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaean species most likely seen by the Coldens: Lobelia cardinalis L. (cardinalflower), Lobelia inflata L. (Indian-tobacco), and Lobelia siphilitica L. (great blue lobelia).  Pehr Kalm is associated with the discovery and documentation of the Canadian species Lobelia kalmii L.  (Ontario lobelia).  Also of NY and to the north: Lobelia dortmanna L. (Dortmann’s cardinalflower).  Nuttall noted a more pinkish species: Lobelia nuttallii Schult. (Nuttall’s lobelia).  A pale colored speciesis also noted: Lobelia spicata Lam. (palespike lobelia), which has a number of subspecies.  The fourth Lobelia species noted by the Coldens remains uncertain.

Lonicera.  (Fam: Caprifoliaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Lonicera caprifolium L. (Italian woodbine), Lonicera tatarica L. (Tatarian honeysuckle), Lonicera dioica L. (limber honeysuckle), Lonicera xylosteum L. (dwarf honeysuckle),  and Lonicera sempervirens L.  (trumpet honeysuckle) are the most linked to Linne’s work.  A non-Linnean sp is Lonicera villosa (Michx.) Schult. (mountain fly honeysuckle) are varieties; Var. villosa is absent from NY but distributed in all neighboring states; varieties calvescens, solonis and tonsa are in NY.  Bartram and Marsh helped identify Lonicera canadensis Bartram ex Marsh. (American fly honeysuckle).  The exact Colden species is yet to be determined.

Lupinus.  (Fam: Fabaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: New York only has Lupinus perennis L. (sundial lupine).  Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. (bigleaf lupine), the garden decorative, is possibly Introduced.  Nearly all Lupine species are in the far west.

Lycopus.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Lycopus virginicus L. (Virginia water horehound) is the most likely candidate.  Michaux identified Lycopus uniflorus Michx. (northern bugleweed) as a distinct species.  Nearby botanist Bartram is related to the identification of Lycopus americanus Muhl. ex W. Bartram (American water horehound) which also possibly had local distribution.  Two other species seem unlikely: Lycopus amplectens Raf. and Lycopus asper Greene.

Lymnodorum.  (Fam: Orchidaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Calopogon tuberosum L. Other spelling could be Limnodorum.  This is noted above as well, spelled as Limodorum by Cadwallader.

Lysimachia.  (Fam: Primulaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 3 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaean species: Lysimachia ciliata L.  (fringed loosestrife), Lysimachia nummularia L. (creeping jenny), Lysimachia punctata L. (large yellow loosestrife), Lysimachia quadrifolia L. (whorled yellow loosestrife), Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. (tufted loosestrife),  and Lysimachia terrestris (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (earth loosestrife).  Lysimachia vulgaris L. (garden yellow loosestrife)  is an introduced local species.  A hybrid was noted by Linnaeus: Lysimachia ciliata L, or Lysimachia ciliata L. var. validula (Greene ex Woot. & Standl.) Kearney & Peebles, now Lysimachia hybrida Michx. (lowland yellow loosestrife).

Lythrum species

Lythrum.  (Fam: Lythraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Lythrum salicaria L. (purple loosestrife) is well known.  Lythrum lineare L. (wand lythrum)  is a narrow plant, with limited foliage and small white flowers.  Lythrum hyssopifolium L. (hyssop loosestrife) and Lythrum alatum Pursh (winged lythrum).

Malva.  (Fam: Malvaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Malva alcea L. (vervain mallow, well divided leaves), Malva moschata L. (musk mallow, tall), Non-Linnaean: Malva neglecta Wallr. (common mallow, the common M. rotundifolia), Malva parviflora L. (cheeseweed mallow), Malva sylvestris L. (high mallow, deep pink ff) and Malva verticillata L. (cluster mallow, or Malva crispa (L) L.) (broad leaves).

Medeola.  (Fam: Liliaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Medeola virginiana L. (Indian cucumber)

Melampurum (sic).  (Fam: Scrophulariaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Melampyrum lineare Desr. (narrowleaf cowwheat); genus is Melampyrum L.  Melampyrum arvense L. is displayed for comparison.

Melissa.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: If the true Melissa, Melissa officinalis L. (common balm), and thus an escapee.  Otherwise, possibly Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. (American false pennyroyal), which Linnaeus entered early on as Cunila pulegioides L. and Melissa pulegioides (L.) L.

 

Mentha.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Mentha arvensis L. (wild mint) is  only native species;  M. piperita, spicata, and hybrids are escapees.  Mentha aquatica L is introduced.

Mespilus.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Probably Amelanchier canadensis L. (Canadian serviceberry). Linked by Linne (and Colden) to Mespilus germanica L (medlar).  Later, Bartram of Philadelphia would note the unique fruit of the Pennsylvanian species Amelanchier bartramiana (Tausch) M. Roem. (oblongfruit serviceberry).  Other New York area species include Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fernald (common serviceberry) and Amelanchier laevis Wiegand (Allegheny serviceberry).

Mimulus.  (Fam: Scrophulariaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Mimulus ringens L. (Allegheny monkeyflower); Mimulus moschatus Douglas ex Lindl. (muskflower) lacks Linnaean-Colden association.  Gray’s work: Mimulus luteus L. var. depauperatus A. Gray  and Mimulus luteus L. var. gracilis A. Gray ascribed to: Mimulus guttatus DC.  (seep monkeyflower)

Mirabilis.  (Fam: Nyctaginaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Any of the Following: Mirabilis albida (white 4 Oclock); Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill. is Heart-leaf Four O’Clock;  M. hirsuta is hairy leaf 4-Oclock; M. linearis is Narrow Leaved.  The traditional Mirabilis of gardening is Mirabilis jalapa L. (marvel of Peru).

Mitella.  (Fam: Saxifragaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Mitella diphylla L.  (twoleaf miterwort), and Mitella nuda L. (naked miterwort) are Linnaean.  Mitella prostrata Michx. (creeping bishop’s cap) is a later identification.

Molugo (sic).  (Fam: Molluginaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaeus associated this with Mollugo verticillata (garden carpetweed), and indirectly (L.) for M. cerviana (green carpetweed) and Polycarpum tetraphyllum (aka Mollugo tetraphylla L.) (4-leaf many seed).  Note the strong similarities of this plant in form and growth habits to Aparine, Asperula and Galium.

Monarda - 5 species

Monarda.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: The most dispersed: Monarda fistulosa L. (wild bergamot), followed by Monarda punctata L. (spotted beebalm) and Monarda didyma L. (scarlet beebalm).  Also in NY and neighboring states: Monarda media Willd. (purple bergamot) and Monarda clinopodia L. (white bergamot).

Myrica.  (Fam: Myricaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaeus is linked to two of these species: Myrica aspleniifolia L. and Myrica gale L.  The first is known today as Comptonia peregrina (L.) J.M. Coult. (sweet fern) and the second retaining its Genus species Linnaean name.  A third possibility is the related Pennsylvania plant Morella pensylvanica (Mirb.) Kartesz (northern bayberry) originally known as Myrica pensylvanica Mirb., but without the Linnaean association.

Nepeta.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Nepeta cataria L. (catnip) is the only true Linnaean identification.  Glecoma was sometimes considered a Nepeta sp.  Nepeta is one of two of the Colden specimens still in the possession of the Linnean Society in London.   This document bears the signature of Johan Claytoni as well, suggesting the line of possession or lineage of this important historical document.  The other specimen is labelled by Colden as a Mimosa.

Nyssa.  (Fam: Nyssaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. (blackgum)  Nyssa genus is Linnaean origin.  Linnaean identification: virginia spp: Nyssa aquatica L.  (water tupelo); also Nyssa biflora Walter  (swamp tupelo),  Nyssa ogeche Bartram ex Marsh.  (Ogeechee tupelo).

Oenanthe (sic).  (Fam: Apiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.   Taxonomy discussion: Most likely Oenanthe or a look-alike for Oenanthe–Cicuta.  Oenanthe and Cicuta are easy to confuse with a number of umbel plants, some of which may not even be native to the local setting.  The umbel relatives Conium and Cicuta bear the closest resemblance to Oenanthe, an identification problem typical for these members of the Umbel family.  It is important to note that Oenanthe is as equally toxic if not more than Cicuta due to similar chemistry, and that the toxicity of Conium (Water Hemlock, the “hemlock that killed Socrates) is distinctly different.  Contemporary ecology suggests Cicuta was seen by Jane Colden instead of Oenanthe.  Also note, Oenanthe is much smaller than Cicuta (about half the size).

Oenothera.  (Fam: Onagraceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 2 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaeus had four species identified, which later were subdivided significantly into new species.  These species:  Oenothera biennis L. (common evening primrose, sometimes called Oenothera muricata L. by Linne), Oenothera fruticosa L. (narrowleaf evening primrose), Oenothera parviflora L. (northern evening primrose), and Oenothera perennis L. (little evening primrose).

Opulus.  (Fam: Caprifoliaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 1 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Viburnum opulus L. is the European Cranberry plant.  Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Aiton is the American cranberrybush, also known as High-Bush Cranberry.  This may also be linked to the Linnaean plants Viburnum nudum L. (possumhaw or withe-rod), Viburnum lentago L. (nannyberry), Viburnum prunifolium L. (blackhaw), Viburnum dentatum L. (southern arrowwood) and Viburnum acerifolium L. (mapleleaf viburnum).

Orchis.  (Fam: Orchidaceae). Identified by both, with 5 species, 3 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnean species:  Orchis spectabilis L. (Galearis spectabilis (L.) Raf. (showy orchid)),    Amerorchis rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) Hultén (roundleaf orchid) may have some importance though no Linnaean identification link is found.

Origanum.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: The introduced species is possible:  Origanum vulgare L. (oregano).  Origanum marjorana L. (marjoram) is naturalized to immediate NY area and surrounding states.  Note also however that local Monarda may resemble Origanum, in smell, not in form (see Monarda above).

Ornithogalum.  (Fam: Liliaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: O. nutans L is drooping star of bethlehem; O. umbellatum is Sleeping Dick

Oxalis.  (Fam: Oxalidaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne notes three:  the  groundcover species Oxalis corniculata L. (creeping woodsorrel), Oxalis stricta L. (common yellow oxalis), and Oxalis violacea L. (violet woodsorrel)

Oxicocus (sic).  (Fam: Ericaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly Vaccinium oxycoccus L. cranberry; Oxycoccus oxycoccos is the name most associated with Linne.

Oxys.  (Fam: Oxalidaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly Oxalis (see above).

Padus.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Prunus virginiana var. virginiana (Choke Cherry).  See Prunus for more discussion and illustrations.

Panax.  (Fam: Araliaceae). Jane Colden and Cadwallader Colden each have 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: There are two North American ginsengs: Panax trifolius L. (dwarf ginseng) and Panax quinquefolius L. (American ginseng).

 

Paris.  (Fam: Uncertain). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Possible the Paris genus as it was documented by Linne.  But there is also the possibility that this may have been Colden’s interpretation of the Trillium spp., which closely resembles Paris upon brief inspection (the above images from http://luirig.altervista.org/schedeit2/pz/paris_quadrifolia.htm.)  Other possibilities: Liparis (Orchid)? See also http://luirig.altervista.org/naturaitaliana/viewpics.php?title=Trillium.

Pedicularis 2 species

Pedicularis.  (Fam: Scrophulariaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Pedicularis canadensis L. (Canadian lousewort); Pedicularis lanceolata Michx. (swamp lousewort).  P. lanceolata may have been found in and around Coldenham.

Penthorum.  (Fam: Saxifragaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Penthorum sedoides L. (ditch stonecrop)

Persicaria.  (Fam: Polygonaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 1 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibilities include: Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray (N), Persicaria bistorta (L.) Samp. (I), Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Spach, Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray and Persicaria maculosa Gray.  Most likely candidate is Persicaria persicaria L, aka Polygonum persicaria L. (spotted ladysthumb).

Physalis.  (Fam: Solanaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Physalis pubescens L.  (husk tomato); Physalis virginiana Mill. (Virginia groundcherry), with Physalis virginiana Mill. var. virginiana (Virginia groundcherry) variety specific to NY; Physalis philadelphica Lam. (Mexican groundcherry); Physalis alkekengi L.  (strawberry groundcherry); Physalis grisea (Waterf.) M. Martiñez (strawberry-tomato), has related Linnaean sp: Physalis pubescens L. var. grisea Waterf.

Phytolacca.  (Fam: Phytolaccaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Phytolacca americana L. aka P. decandra L. (american pokeweed)

Pinus.  (Fam: Pinaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 4 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Possible species:  Pinus strobus L. (eastern white pine), Pinus virginiana Mill. (Virginia pine), Pinus echinata Mill. (shortleaf pine), Pinus resinosa Aiton (red pine), Pinus rigida Mill. (pitch pine).  Pinus palustris Mill. (longleaf pine) and Pinus serotina Michx.  (pond pine) are perhaps a bit too southern.  Note also the following Linnaean “Pinus” species:   Abies balsamea (L.) Mill. var. balsamea (balsam fir, formerly Pinus balsamea L.).  Linne and possibly Colden had already differentiated from Pinus: Juniperus communis L. (common juniper) and Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern redcedar);  Picea glauca (Moench) Voss (white spruce) may not have been discovered by Colden.  Cadwallader’s distinction of the species is based on needles count, a tradition used to this day.

Plantago.  (Fam: Plantaginaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: In order of commonality: Plantago major L. (common plantain), Plantago lanceolata L. (narrowleaf plantain) [I], Plantago virginica L. (Virginia plantain) [N], Plantago media L. (hoary plantain) [I].  Nutll noted: Plantago pusilla Nutt. (dwarf plantain, with very narrow leaves), and Plantago heterophylla Nutt. (slender plantain),  both native.     Also possible:  Plantago aristata Michx..  Introduced: Plantago psyllium L.   sand plantain, and several others.  Plantago maritima L. is an oceanside plant.

Poinceana (sic).  (Fam: Leguminosae?). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Unidentified legume shrub?  The common name Poinciana is sometimes associated with a legume shrub–Caesalpinia sp.  Could be a Caesalpinia-like legume shrub.  Cytisus scoparius (Scotch Broom) is probably a shrub  introduced to NY much later in its history. 

Polygala.  (Fam: Polygalaceae). Identified by both, with 5 species, 3 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaean species:  Polygala senega L. (Seneca snakeroot), Polygala cruciata L. (drumheads), Polygala lutea L. (orange milkwort), Polygala sanguinea L. (purple milkwort, also called Polygala viridescens L.).   Less Likely: Polygala incarnata L.  (procession flower), Polygala verticillata L. (whorled milkwort),  Polygala mariana Mill. (Maryland milkwort), Polygala polygama Walter (racemed milkwort).  Also note: Polygala paucifolia Willd.  (gaywings) and Polygala ambigua Nutt. (whorled milkwort)

Polypodium.  (Fam: Polypodiaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Most likely Polypodium noveboracense L. (New York Fern),  formerly Thelypteris thelypterioides (Michx.) Holub and Dryopteris noveboracensis (L.) A. Gray, contemporary Latin name  Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl. (New York fern).   Othe related species: Polypodium virginianum L. (rock polypody), and Polypodium appalachianum Haufler & Windham (Appalachian polypody).  Also note the Polypody “Resurrection Fern”-Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt var. michauxianum Weath., later renamed Pleopeltis polypodioides (L.) Andrews & Windham ssp. michauxiana (Weath.) Andrews & Windham.

Pontederia.  (Fam: Pontederiaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Pontederia cordata L. (pickerelweed)

Portulaca.  (Fam: Portulacaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Portulaca oleracea L. (little hogweed)

Potentilla.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 3 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnean: Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb. (silverweed cinquefoil, referred to by Linne as Potentilla anserina L.), Comarum palustre L.  (purple marshlocks), Potentilla argentea L. (silver cinquefoil), Potentilla canadensis L. (dwarf cinquefoil); there are several later identified species worthy of consideration: Potentilla simplex Michx. (common cinquefoil), Potentilla rivalis Nutt. (brook cinquefoil), Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. (Paradox cinquefoil).  Potentilla arguta es. Potentilla arguta Pursh ssp. arguta  (tall cinquefoil).  Finally note the shrub, formerly a Potentilla species: Sibbaldiopsis tridentata (Aiton) Rydb. (shrubby fivefingers).

Potomageton.  (Fam: Potamogetonaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaeus was able to differentiate 5 species: Potamageton crispus (curly), gramineus (variable leaf), P. natans (floating), P. perfoliatus (clasping leaf), and P. pusillus (small)

Prenanthes.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Prenanthes alba L. (white rattlesnakeroot); Prenanthes altissima L. (tall rattlesnakeroot).  Fllowed by Prenanthes racemosa Michx. (purple rattlesnakeroot), Prenanthes crepidinea Michx. (nodding rattlesnakeroot), Prenanthes serpentaria Pursh (cankerweed), and Prenanthes trifoliolata (Cass.) Fernald (gall of the earth).  Hybrid noted:  Prenanthes ×mainensis A. Gray (pro sp.) [racemosa × trifoliolata]

Prenanthus (sic).  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion:  Prenanthes alba L and P. altissima L. were most likely recognized.  See above.

Prinos.  (Fam: Rosaceae?  see Prunus that follows.  Aquifoliaceae?). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: In the past Prinos was Ilex.  Common Ilex for NY with a Linnaeus association are Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray (common winterberry) and Ilex glabra (L.) A. Gray (inkberry).  Other species: Ilex opaca Aiton var. opaca (American holly) and Ilex mucronata (L.) Powell, Savolainen & Andrews (catberry), which Linnaeus did not refer to as an Ilex, but rather as Vaccinium mucronatum L.  Britten and Brown referred to this species as Nemopanthus mucronatus.

Prunus.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Native Linnaean species: Prunus virginiana L. (chokecherry), Prunus pumila L. var. depressa (Pursh) Gleason (eastern sandcherry), Prunus pumila L. var. pumila (Great Lakes sandcherry), Prunus alleghaniensis Porter (Allegheny plum), and Prunus pensylvanica L. f. (pin cherry), esp. var. pensylvanica.  See Cerasus and other Rosaceae allies.

Pulegium.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Probably Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) [I].  Perhaps separated from Mentha due to domestic history and knowledge of introduction as an escapee.

Pyrola.  (Fam: Pyrolaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 2 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: By Linneaus: Pyrola uniflora L. (currently Moneses uniflora (L.) A. Gray) (Single delight); Pyrola secunda L. (currently Orthilia secunda (L.) House) (Sidebells Wintergreen); Pyrola rotundifolia L. var. rotundifolia (currently Pyrola americana Sweet) (American Wintergreen); and Pyrola minor L. (snowline wintergreen).  Other species: Pyrola asarifolia Michx., Pyrola elliptica Nutt. (waxflower shinleaf),  and Pyrola chlorantha Sw.

Quercus.  (Fam: Fagaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Quercus alba L.  (white oak), Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak), Quercus prinus L. (chestnut oak, or Q. montana Willd.).  Other species:  Quercus velutina Lam. (black oak), Quercus palustris Münchh. (pin oak), Quercus marilandica Münchh. (blackjack oak, with var: Quercus marilandica Münchh. var. marilandica, aka Quercus nigra L. var. marilandica L., nom. inval.), Quercus macrocarpa Michx. (bur oak).  Nearby states: Quercus coccinea Münchh. (scarlet oak), Quercus nigra L. (water oak).

Ranunculus.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Identified by both, with 7 species, 4 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Ranunculus abortivus L. (littleleaf buttercup),   Ranunculus hispidus Michx. (bristly buttercup), Ranunculus micranthus Nutt. (rock buttercup).   Introduced:  Ranunculus acris L. (tall buttercup) [I], Ranunculus arvensis L. (corn buttercup) [I], Ranunculus bulbosus L. (St. Anthony’s turnip) [I], R. ficaria, R. flammula.

Rhus.  (Fam: Anacardiaceae). Identified by both, with at least species, 3 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Rhus glabra L. (smooth sumac) is the most widely dispersed species.  This is followed by Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac), and then Rhus copallinum L. (winged sumac) and finally the more northern species Rhus pulvinata Greene (northern smooth sumac).  A southern species appears unlikely to have made it to NY–Rhus michauxii Sarg. (false poison sumac).  Rhus was also considered an alternative Genus name for Poison Ivy species (Toxicodendron spp.).  This may have been the third plant identified by the Coldens.

Ribes.  (Fam: Grossulariaceae). Identified by both, with 5 species, 1 by Jane and 4 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: A number of European species of Ribes (Grossularia) were defined by Linne:  Ribes rubrum L. (cultivated currant and a red currant variety),  R. grossularia L. (European gooseberry), and R. uva-crispa L. (European gooseberry).  For American species, Linnaeus is mostly associated with R. cynosbati (Eastern Prickly) and R. oxyacanthoides L. (hairystem gooseberry) for the NY area, but there is also R. americanum Mill.    Ribes aureum Pursh. is a later introduction rapidly naturalized in certain areas.

Ricinus.  (Fam: Euphorbiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Ricinus communis (Castor bean), imported from the southern colonies.

Rosa.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Most likely Rosa carolina L. (Carolina rose);  and perhaps Rosa virginiana Mill. (Virginia rose), Rosa palustris Marsh. (swamp rose), Rosa eglanteria L. (sweetbriar rose) [I] and Rosa setigera Michx. (climbing rose) are slightly possible.

Rubia.  (Fam: Rubiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Rubia tinctorum L. (dyer’s madder, an Import);  Galium hispidulum Michx. (coastal bedstraw) is also an option, but less likely –this plant had the Linnaean name of Valantia hypocarpia L., non R. Br.

Rubus.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 7 species, 3 by Jane and 4 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Endangered due to European species introduction and invasion: species include Rubus canadensis L. (smooth blackberry), Rubus chamaemorus L. (cloudberry), Rubus canadensis L. var. elegantulus (Blanch.) Farw. (now Rubus elegantulus Blanch. , showy blackberry), Rubus hispidus L. (bristly dewberry), Rubus idaeus L. (American red raspberry) (to Michaux-Rubus strigosus Michx.), Rubus occidentalis L. (black raspberry), Rubus odoratus L. (purpleflowering raspberry), and the unusual Dalibarda repens L. (robin runaway).  Other later discovered species are perhaps possible, such as Rubus pubescens Raf. (dwarf red blackberry), Rubus pugnax L.H. Bailey  (pugnacious blackberry, formerly Rubus allegheniensis Porter var. neoscoticus (Fernald) L.H. Bailey) and Rubus allegheniensis Porter var. allegheniensis (Allegheny blackberry), Rubus semisetosus Blanch. (swamp blackberry), Rubus flagellaris Willd. (northern dewberry), Rubus multifer L.H. Bailey (kinnickinnick dewberry), Rubus permixtus Blanch. (thicket dewberry), Rubus ithacanus L.H. Bailey (Ithaca blackberry), Rubus philadelphicus Blanch. (Philadelphia blackberry), Rubus vermontanus Blanch. (Vermont blackberry), Rubus pergratus Blanch. (upland blackberry), Rubus notatus L.H. Bailey (bristle berry), Rubus lawrencei L.H. Bailey (Adirondack blackberry), Rubus paganus L.H. Bailey (St. Lawrence dewberry), Rubus jacens Blanch. (spreading dewberry), Rubus insons L.H. Bailey (New England blackberry), and the NY-upper midwest species Rubus heterophyllus Willd.  (ecotone blackberry), to name a few.  Two species in particular need to be noted due to their high degree of limited spread locally:  Rubus noveboracus L.H. Bailey (New York blackberry, NY, PA), Rubus obsessus L.H. Bailey (New York dewberry, NY, CT).

Rudbeckia.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Rudbeckia hirta L. (blackeyed Susan);  Rudbeckia laciniata L. (cutleaf coneflower); Rudbeckia triloba L.  (browneyed Susan) and R. purpurea L (currently Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (eastern purple coneflower)).  Other to follow: Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton (orange coneflower), and varieties and subspp., and Rudbeckia subtomentosa Pursh (sweet coneflower) var. and subspp.  The prairie coneflowers have an associations as well, for Ratibida  pinnata (Vent.) Barnhart and Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Woot. & Standl.  Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. (pale purple coneflower) once called R. pallida Nutt.

Rueckia (sic).  (Fam: Acanthaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: probably Ruellia, as follows.

Ruellia.  (Fam: Acanthaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. (Carolina wild petunia) has Linnaean citation.  Note also the subspp. Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. ssp. Caroliniensis, and its variation Ruellia caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. ssp. caroliniensis var. caroliniensis.   Ruellia tuberosa L and R. strepens L are purely Linnaean.

Rumex.  (Fam: Polygonaceae). Identified by both, with 7 species, 4 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne’s species are: Rumex crispus L. (curly dock) [I?], Rumex maritimus L. (golden dock), Rumex obtusifolius L. (bitter dock), Rumex patientia L. (patience dock), Rumex sanguineus L.  (redvein dock), and Rumex verticillatus L. (swamp dock).  Possible species not distinguished by Linne but documented by Colden: Rumex orbiculatus A. Gray (greater water dock), Rumex altissimus Alph. Wood (pale dock), and Rumex hastatulus Baldw. (heartwing sorrel).  The following two very common Rumex are introduced: Rumex acetosa L. (garden sorrel), and Rumex acetosella L. (common sheep sorrel).

Sagitaria (sic).  (Fam: Alismataceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: as follows.

Sagittaria.  (Fam: Alismataceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Sagittaria latifolia Willd. (broadleaf arrowhead) is most widespread species.  Sagittaria teres S. Watson (slender arrowhead) is second, and distinct to New York and bordering states.  Sagittaria subulata (L.) Buchenau (awl-leaf arrowhead)  has a Linnaean association.  Other species to note:  Sagittaria calycina Engelm. (hooded arrowhead, in particular var. spongiosa), Sagittaria engelmanniana J.G. Sm. (Engelmann’s arrowhead), Sagittaria graminea Michx. (grassy arrowhead), and Sagittaria rigida Pursh (sessilefruit arrowhead).

Salix.  (Fam: Salicaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: The most likely species: Salix purpurea L. (purple-osier willow), Salix alba L. (white willow), Salix cinerea L. (large gray willow), or Salix nigra Marsh. (black willow).

Sambucus.  (Fam: Caprifoliaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Sambucus has 4 NY species: Sambucus ebulus L. (dwarf elderberry), Sambucus nigra L. (black elderberry), with Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli (American black elderberry) as likely subspecies, and Sambucus racemosa L. (red elderberry), Sambucus racemosa L. var. racemosa.

Sanguinaria.  (Fam: Papaveraceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Sanguinaria canadensis L. (bloodroot)

Sanicula.  (Fam: Apiaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Sanicula canadensis L. (Canadian blacksnakeroot), with canadensis and grandis varieties.  Related species further to the south: S. marilandica L (Maryland Snakeroot).  Sanicula odorata (Raf.) K.M. Pryer & L.R. Phillippe (clustered blacksnakeroot), Sanicula trifoliata E.P. Bicknell (largefruit blacksnakeroot) and Sanicula smallii E.P. Bicknell (Small’s blacksnakeroot), the latter extending only as far north as Virginia.

Saracenia (sic).  (Fam: Sarraceniacae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Sarracenia purpurea L. (purple pitcherplant) is the most Linnaean of these.  The supspecies Sarracenia purpurea L. ssp. Purpurea appears north, south east and west of New York. Sarracenia purpurea L. ssp. gibbosa (Raf.) Wherry (purple pitcherplant) is more recent.

Saururus.  (Fam: Saururaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified.  Taxonomy discussion: Saururus cernuus L. (lizard’s tail).

Saxifraga.  (Fam: Saxifragaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne directly linked to: Saxifraga aizoides L. (yellow mountain saxifrage), Saxifraga oppositifolia L. (purple mountain saxifrage),  Saxifraga pensylvanica L.  (eastern swamp saxifrage).  Also note: Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. (early saxifrage) and Saxifraga paniculata Mill.  (White Mountain saxifrage).

Scandix.  (Fam: Apiaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 2 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffman (garden chervil).  An identical look-alike to Anthriscus is possible, but not identified.

Scutellaria.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 3 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: The Linnaean species are: Scutellaria galericulata L. (marsh skullcap), Scutellaria integrifolia L. (helmet flower), Scutellaria lateriflora L. (blue skullcap).  Other species: Scutellaria parvula Michx. (small skullcap), Scutellaria nervosa Pursh (veiny skullcap).  Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. ex Spreng. (hairy skullcap) is possible, esp. Scutellaria elliptica Muhl. ex Spreng. var. elliptica (hairy skullcap, formerly S. pilosa Michx.)

Senecio.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne directly associated with:  Senecio jacobaea L. (stinking willie), Senecio viscosus L.  (sticky ragwort), and Senecio vulgaris L. (old-man-in-the-Spring).  USDA relates these to NY ecology. Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC. var. hieraciifolia (American burnweed) was identified by Linne as Senecio hieraciifolius L. (may be introduced).  Packera aurea (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve (golden ragwort) was ka Senecio aureus L.  Canada has Senecio congestus (R. Br.) DC.  (marsh fleabane), a possibly high altitude colonial species.  Senecio eremophilus Richardson (desert ragwort, esp. Senecio eremophilus Richardson var. eremophilus) may have been distributed in arid-like waste regions.  S. rupestris, jacobea, erucifolius, vulgaris and sylvaticus were all introduced.  S. eremophilus (desert R) is probably introduced.  S. congestis is most native to NY.  S. cinerea (dusty miller) status remains uncertain.  Since Senecio is primarily Mid and Farwestern in distribution, Packera and Erechtites sp. may be most like NY natives.

Seratula (sic).  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: as follows.

Serratula.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (Canada thistle) is invasive, and is a possibility, due to other common Latin name Serratula arvensis L. aka  Serratula tinctoria L. (Dyer’s plumeless saw-wort) however is the more likely option, and was introduced.  USDA plant distribution maps show it naturalized to just the states of New York and Connecticut.

Silene.  (Fam: Caryophyllaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Silene was often not differentiated from Lychnis at this time.  The true Silenes: Silene antirrhina L. (sleepy silene), Silene armeria L. (sweet William silene), Silene conica L. (striped corn catchfly), and Silene virginica L. (fire pink).  Also possible: Silene stellata (L.) W.T. Aiton  (widowsfrill).  Introduced:  Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (maidenstears).  Silene dioica (L.) Clairville (red catchfly) was referred to by Linne as Lychnis dioica L.  Linne also worked with Lychnis viscaria L. (clammy campion) [I], and Lychnis flos-cuculi L. (ragged robin), both probably introduced.  Another Linnean species Agrostemma coronaria L. aka Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr. (rose campion) [I].

Sisymbrium.  (Fam: Brassicaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: True Sisymbrium sp.  are the Tall Hedgemustards, i.e. Sisymbrium altissimum L. (tall tumblemustard) [I], and Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. (hedgemustard, to Linne Erysimum officinale L.) [I].   For Linne, this name was applied to: Arabis thaliana L. (now Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.  (mouseear cress)), Sisymbrium murale L. (Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC. (annual wallrocket)), (currently Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC. (perennial wallrocket)), Sisymbrium sophia L. (now Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl (herb sophia)), Sisymbrium nasturtium-aquaticum L. (now Nasturtium officinale W.T. Aiton (watercress)) [I], Sisymbrium amphibium L. (now Rorippa amphibia (L.) Besser (great yellowcress)) [I].  The extremely common local species–Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande (garlic mustard)–had historical naming relatinships to Sisymbrium, i.e. former names = Alliaria alliaria (L.) Britton, Alliaria officinalis Andrz. ex M. Bieb., Sisymbrium alliaria (L.) Scop. and Erysimum alliaria L.

Sisyrinchium.  (Fam: Liliaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion: Most likely; Sisyrinchium montanum Greene (strict blue-eyed grass); has Linnaean history as Sisyrinchium bermudiana L. via Sisyrinchium bermudiana L. var. crebrum (Fernald) B. Boivin.  Species like angustifolium, atlanticum, albidum, fuscatum, and mucronatum have a NY association, but their identifications are mostly post-Linnaean.

Sium.  (Fam: Apiaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader.  Taxonomy discussion:  Zizea aurea L.  probably not Sium suave Walter (hemlock waterparsnip).  Another NY species:  Sium carsonii Durand ex A. Gray (Carson’s waterparsnip)

Smilax.  (Fam: Smilacaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: More than likely Smilax rotundifolia L. (RoundLeaf Greenbrier); other possible Smilax spp. Include Smilax herbacea L. (smooth carrion flower), S. glauca (cat greenbrier), Smilax pulverulenta Michx.  (downy carrionflower) and Smilax tamnoides L.  (bristly greenbrier, S. hispida)

Solanum.  (Fam: Solanaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Solanum carolinense L or S. carolinense var carolinense L is the most likely species; all other Solanum spp. are introduced from Europe.

Solidago.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Identified by both, with 16 species, 9 by Jane and 7 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne’s NY Solidago species:  Solidago altissima L. (Canada goldenrod), Solidago canadensis L. (Canada goldenrod), Solidago caesia L. (wreath goldenrod), Solidago bicolor L. (white goldenrod), Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small var. rigidum (stiff goldenrod, formerly S. rigida L.), Solidago flexicaulis L. (zigzag  aka S. latifolia L), Euthamia caroliniana (L.) Greene ex Porter & Britton (slender goldentop, formerly S. caroliniana L.), Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. var. graminifolia (flat-top goldentop, formerly Chrysocoma graminifolia L.), Solidago lateriflora L. (now Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) A. Löve & D. Löve var. lateriflorum (calico aster)), Solidago sempervirens L. (seaside goldenrod).  Nuttall and Michaux further differentiated the “Solidago” spp. noted by Linne.  This led to a splitting of S. altissima, bicolor and candensis into a variety of new species and varieties, several were placed in new genera.  Any of the following may have related to the Coldens’ work, though not fully differentiated:  Solidago puberula Nutt. (downy goldenrod), Solidago speciosa Nutt. var. speciosa (showy goldenrod), Solidago uliginosa Nutt. (bog goldenrod, pale whitish ff), Solidago canadensis L. var. canadensis, Euthamia galetorum Greene (slender goldentop), Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small var. humile (Porter) G.L. Nesom (stiff goldenrod), Solidago canadensis L. var. lepida (DC.) Cronquist (Canada goldenrod, formerly Solidago lepida DC.), Solidago canadensis L. var. salebrosa (Piper) M.E. Jones (rough Canada goldenrod, now with limits at NY-Canada border), Solidago curtisii Torr. & A. Gray (mountain decumbent goldenrod, formerly Solidago caesia L. var. hispida Alph. Wood), Solidago flaccidifolia Small (mountain goldenrod, formerly Solidago caesia L. var. paniculata A. Gray, now more in Virginia), Solidago hispida Muhl. ex Willd. var. hispida (hairy goldenrod, formerly Solidago bicolor L. var. concolor Torr. & A. Gray), related var: Solidago hispida Muhl. ex Willd. var. lanata (Hook.) Fernald.

Soncus (sic).  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: More than likely Sonchus oleraceus L. (common sowthistle), or Sonchus asper (L.) Hill (spiny sowthistle).   Probably not Sonchus arvensis L. (field sowthistle) [I].  Linne referred to Lactuca tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey. var. pulchella (Pursh) Breitung (blue lettuce) as Sonchus tataricus L. p.p. on one occasion.

Sophora.  (Fam: Fabaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Possibly:  Cladrastis kentukea (Dum. Cours.) Rudd  (Kentucky yellowwood), or the locally abundant woody, tree-like member  of the family Robinia pseudoacacia (Locust tree).  Still, another possibility is a “Mimosa” species (Albizzia julibrissin) , a possibility supported by the possession of a herbarium specimen of this identity “Mimosa” by the Linnean Society (see http://www.linnean-online.org/6966/, http://www.linnean-online.org/10820/).  Supporting this is the fact that Sophora is a shrub-like legume, and best placed as a member of the Caesalpinioideae (lignose) subfamily, in which other lignose or woody members like Mimosa can be found.  Still, other possible woody legumes have to be assessed.

Spiraea.  (Fam: Rosaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 2 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Spiraea tomentosa L.  (steeplebush).  Linnaeaus may have seen, but not differentiated: Spiraea septentrionalis (Fernald) A. Löve & D. Löve (northern meadowsweet), Spiraea alba Du Roi (white meadowsweet).  Linne also identified the following false spiraeas: Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A. Braun (false spiraea, known by Linne as Spiraea sorbifolia L., Schizonotus sorbifolius (L.) Lindl. by others), Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim. var. opulifolius (common ninebark, known by Linne as Spiraea opulifolia L., Opulaster sp. by others), Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim. ssp. ulmaria (queen of the meadow, Spiraea ulmaria L. by Linne), and Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H. Hara (bride’s feathers, Spiraea aruncus L. by Linne)

Staphylea.  (Fam: Staphyleaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Staphylea trifolia (American Bladdernut).  Staphylea pinnata L. photos are shown for comparison.

Stellularia.  (Fam: Caryophyllaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Stellularia media ( L. ) Kuntze (see Alsine media L., ref. from http://www.ipni.org/ipni/idPlantNameSearch.do?id=60451717-2; for USDA Alsine = ?)

Taxus.  (Fam: Taxaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Local species is Taxus canadensis Marsh. (Canada yew, aka T. canadensis Mill.;  Linne most often associated with Taxus baccata L of Europe.

Teucrium.  (Fam: Lamiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Teucrium canadense L. (Canada germander), and Teucrium botrys L. (cutleaf germander) are possibilities. EP Becknell’s T.C. var occidentale Canadense (T. occidentale to BB) and T.C. var littorale to BB) are varieties.

Thalictrum.  (Fam: Ranunculaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Thalictrum dioicum L. (early meadow-rue), Thalictrum thalictroides (L.) Eames & B. Boivin (rue anemone), aka Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach.  Also: Thalictrum pubescens Pursh (king of the meadow), Thalictrum revolutum DC. (waxyleaf meadow-rue), Thalictrum venulosum Trel. (veiny meadow-rue).  At high elevations–Thalictrum alpinum L. (alpine meadow-rue); to the south–Thalictrum coriaceum (Britton) Small (maid of the mist); and to the north–Thalictrum sparsiflorum Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey. (fewflower meadow-rue).

Thuya (sic).  (Fam: Cupressaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Thuja occidentalis.

Tilia.  (Fam: Tiliacae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Tilia americana L. (American basswood).  Tilia cordata Mill. (littleleaf linden) is later identified.  Tilia americana has two subspp: Tilia americana L. var. heterophylla (Vent.) Louden and Tilia americana L. var. americana (aka Tilia glabra Vent.).

Triosteus (sic).  (Fam: Caprifoliaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Triosteum perfoliatum L. (feverwort) and Triosteum angustifolium L. (yellowfruit horse-gentian).  Triosteum aurantiacum E.P. Bicknell (orangefruit horse-gentian) was later identified

Ulmus.  (Fam: Ulmaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnean: Ulmus americana L. (American elm), and Ulmus pumila L. (Siberian elm), with Ulmus glabra Huds. (Wych elm) and Ulmus procera Salisb. (English elm) both aka Ulmus campestris L. p.p..   ALL BUT THE AMERICAN ELM ARE INTRODUCED.

UNIDENTIFIED.  (Fam: Unidentified). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: None.

Urtica.  (Fam: Urticaceae). Jane Colden only, with 2 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: From Linne: Urtica cylindrica L. (Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw.   (smallspike false nettle)), Urtica canadensis L. (Laportea canadensis (L.) Weddell  (Canadian woodnettle)), Urtica pumila L. (Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray var. pumila (Canadian clearweed)), Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle, esp. subspp. Urtica dioica L. ssp. dioica), and Urtica urens L. (dwarf nettle).

Uvularia.  (Fam: Liliaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 2 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaeus has U. amplexifolia, U. perfoliata (perfoliated flower), and U. sessifolia (sessile leaf) attributed directly to him.  The first is current known as Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. var. amplexifolius (claspleaf twistedstalk).  Uvularia grandiflora Sm.  (largeflower bellwort) is possibly seen by Colden as well, although not noted.  At higher elevations: Uvularia puberula Michx. (mountain bellwort).

Vaccinium.  (Fam: Ericaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 2 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne has a direct association with Vaccinium corymbosum L.  (highbush blueberry), Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (small cranberry), Vaccinium stamineum L. (deerberry), and Vaccinium uliginosum L. (bog blueberry).  Ilex mucronata (L.) Powell, Savolainen & Andrews (catberry) was first referred to as Vccinium mucronatum by Linne.  Other possible candidates: Vaccinium cespitosum Michx. (dwarf bilberry), and Vaccinium myrtilloides Michx. (velvetleaf huckleberry). The latter is associated with Kalm’s travels, and so named for this writing as Vaccinium canadense Kalm ex A. Rich.  Another Kalm species is Vaccinium pallidum Aiton (Blue Ridge blueberry), formerly Vaccinium vacillans Kalm ex Torr.

Veratrum.  (Fam: Liliaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Veratrum viride Aiton (green false hellebore) is the most likely candidate, although Linne has also identified: Veratrum latifolium (Desr.) Zomlefer (slender bunchflower),  and Veratrum virginicum (L.) W.T. Aiton (Virginia bunchflower), although he called this Melanthium virginicum L.  Note as well:  Chamaelirium luteum (L.) A. Gray (fairywand, or possibly “Unicorn Root” to the Coldens).

Verbascum.  (Fam: Scrophulariaceae). Identified by both, with 4 species, 2 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: All Verbascum species were introduced.  Verbascum thapsus L. (common mullein) is probably most common species, followed by Verbascum blattaria L. (moth mullein).  Since most were introduced as garden plants from Europe, we see a distribution that begins of the east coast and spread to the west coast.  Presumably, those introduced the earliest have been distributed across much of the continent, and in reverse, those least distributed out of the New York area are more recent introductions and/or severely limited by topography and climate.  In ascending order, we find New York introductions dispersing outwardly from the state in the following order, by state:  Verbascum phoeniceum L. (purple mullein), Verbascum sinuatum L. (wavyleaf mullein), Verbascum lychnitis L. (white mullein), Verbascum phlomoides L. (orange mullein), and finally Verbascum virgatum Stokes (wand mullein).  The latter may also demonstrate its large area due to rapid seed dispersal rates.

Verbena.  (Fam: Verbenaceae). Identified by both, with 3 species, 1 by Jane and 2 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linne associated with:  Verbena bonariensis L. (purpletop vervain) [Introduced], Verbena carolina L.  (Carolina vervain, but no longer of Carolina or eastern US), Verbena hastata L. (swamp verbena), Verbena officinalis L. herb of the cross [Introduced], Verbena supina L.  (supine vervain) [Western US], and Verbena urticifolia L. (white vervain).  Verbena urticifolia has two varieties of NY: urticifolia and leiocarpa.  Verbena hastata has var. hastata of NY, and vr. scabra of the midwest.  Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt.  (rose mock vervain) is aka V. canadensis in Britton and Brown.  It is characterized by a globose flowerhead.

Veronica.  (Fam: Scrophulariaceae). Identified by both, with 8 species, 5 by Jane and 3 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Native species:  Veronica agrestis L. (green field speedwell), Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. (water speedwell, formerly Veronica anagallis L.), Veronica scutellata L. (skullcap speedwell), Veronica virginica L., renamed Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt., and now Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw. (Culver’s root); .  Post-Linnaean: Veronica americana Schwein. ex Benth. (American speedwell).  Introduced: Veronica arvensis L. (corn speedwell); Veronica serpyllifolia L. ssp. serpyllifolia (thymeleaf speedwell); Veronica serpyllifolia L. ssp. humifusa (Dicks.) Syme (brightblue speedwell); Veronica spicata L (spiked Speedwell), and Veronica verna L. (spring speedwell).

Vicia.  (Fam: Apiaceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Native: Vicia caroliniana Walter (Carolina vetch), Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd. (American vetch), the latter with Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd. ssp. Americana.  Vicia hirsuta (L.) Gray (tiny vetch) is possible.  All other Vicia species are non-native, for example: Vicia cracca L. (bird vetch).  Another possibility are the locally common Crown Vetches: Securigera varia (L.) Lassen (crownvetch, formerly Coronilla varia L), and Securigera globosa (Lam.) Lassen (white crownvetch).


Viola.  (Fam: Violaceae). Jane Colden only, with 4 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: The Linnaean species:  Viola canadensis L. (Canadian white violet), Viola lanceolata L. (bog white violet), Viola palustris L. (marsh violet, white) [End], Viola pedata L. (birdfoot violet, lt blue to violet).  Other possible Colden species:  Viola sororia Willd.  (common blue violet), Viola rotundifolia Michx. (roundleaf yellow violet), Viola rostrata Pursh  (longspur violet), Viola hastata Michx. (halberdleaf yellow violet), and Viola blanda Willd. (sweet white violet).  Other species later discovered: Viola bicolor Pursh (field pansy), Viola novae-angliae House (New England blue violet), Viola renifolia A. Gray (white violet), Viola septentrionalis Greene (northern woodland violet), Viola triloba Schwein. (three-lobe violet).  Unlikely species: Hybanthus [Viola] concolor (T.F. Forst.) Spreng. (eastern greenviolet).

Vitis.  (Fam: Vitaceae). Identified by both, with 2 species, 1 by Jane and 1 species by Cadwallader..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaean: Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. (Virginia creeper, formerly Hedera quinquefolia L. and Vitis quinquefolia (L.) Lam.), most likely Vitis labrusca L. (fox grape), or Vitis vulpina L. (frost grape, aka Vitis cordifolia Michx.).  Other species:  Vitis aestivalis Michx. (summer grape) and Vitis riparia Michx. (riverbank grape).  Also note USDA mention of Vitis ×novae-angliae Fernald (pro sp.) [labrusca × riparia] (pilgrim grape).

Waltheria.  (Fam: Sterculiaceae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 3 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Waltheria americana L or W. indica is of southern colonies, esp. Florida and Georgia and several islands; possibly imported.

Xanthium

Xanthium.  (Fam: Asteraceae). Jane Colden only, with 1 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Linnaeus identified two species during Colden’s time: Xanthium spinosum L. (spiny cocklebur), and Xanthium strumarium L. (rough cocklebur).  NY has two varieties: the more common Xanthium strumarium L. var. glabratum (DC.) Cronquist and Xanthium strumarium L. var. strumarium.

Zea.  (Fam: Graminae). Cadwallader Colden only, with 8 species identified..  Taxonomy discussion: Zea mays L. (corn).  Teosinite subspecies: Zea mays ssp. Parviglumis.  These “species” as Cadwallader defined them were actually different varieties of the corn based on the color of its kernels.  The species descriptions provided focus on color as the differences, and in one case, a species was identified as distinct due to its fairly small and non-significant kernel size–this species was simply unpollinated perhaps.  The blending of kernel colors was not a standard to these various forms of corns found in the New York region by Colden. This suggests that such hybridization was the consequence of later settlers, like the Dutch and English farmers residing in this region.   Colden’s detailed splitting of Zea mays into several species samples with distinct Latin names is otherwise an uncommon “splitter’s”  practice he was engaging in as a taxonomist.  This is more likely a result of his interest and fascination with local Native traditions and culture, an interest which in turn led to his important book on Iroquois tradition and culture.  We find the influence of Cadwallader Colden’s fascination with corn appearing in French literature published during the early 1800s, several extensive treatises on Indian recipes and how to cook with corn and propagate it as an important food industry (the most important author of this work was a Parmentier; for more, see the chronology of Colden’s work provided elsewhere on this site). 

As a final note, another abundant relative in NY, was related somewhat to corn, yet not discussed by the Coldens–Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl. (giant cane).  A review of the several “Unknown” species, defined as such by the Coldens, requires a more extensive review of their Latin renderings, now that the other plants identified by the Coldens have been more specifically defined.

CONCLUSION

To understand the amount of taxonomic detail the Coldens’ work provided for the region, the following table is provided.  Plants are listed in an order tht is based on the current method of classifying plants, with order of presentation going from least to most advanced in terms of the evolutionary sequence followed by most modern plant taxonomists.  This sequence is very different from how Linne and others taught botanists like Colden to classify their plants.  This table is provided in order to demonstrate the diversity of the plants categorized by the Coldens during the mid-eighteenth century.  This listing in no way represented the total collection of species found at the time in the immediate Coldenham area, but does represent the most common or noticeable plants for the Coldenham/Hudson Valley region.  This will later be compared with the contemporary flora lists for this part of the Valley and reviewed in an ecological sense, as provided by local botanists of this area during the early 1900s.

The following is the taxonomic list, from Large Group or Class, down to Genus, including information on the approximate numbers of species discussed by both of the Coldens as a result of their work. (Note, the “misspellings” are as these generic names appeared in the manuscripts and articles.)  Several of the genera maintain the terminology Colden used for them, even though, as noted in the text, these names were not accurate, for example Paris for Trillium, or Cucumis for Echinocystis. 

This grouping will be later contrasted with Linne’s version of grouping of the plants.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s