Numerous references were used to identify and describe these medicines.  Many of the herbal medicines can be found in the works by Nicolas Culpeper, J. Worth Estes, Gerard, Madame Grieve, and John Parkinson.  Texts by William Cullen, Lewis and Monsieur Pomet also served to be invaluable, although they are not found in most public libraries. 

      The most informative references used for this study include:

Primary References:

(Banckes, Richard)   An Herbal. 1525.  Orig. Imprinted by Richard Banckes, London.  (Reprint.  Sanford V. Larkey and Thomas Pyles, Editors and Transcribers)

Barton, Benjamin Smith. Collections for an essay towards a Materia Medica of the United States.  Originally published in Philadelphia, 1798 and 1804.  Reproduction Series No. 1 Bulletin of the Lloyd Library of Botany, Pharmacy, and Materia Medica.  (J.U. & C.G. Lloyd: Cincinnati, Ohio), 1900.

Beach, Wooster.  The American Practice.  Or the Family Physician Being the Scientific System of Medicine, on Vegetable Principles designed for all Classes.  (New York: James M’Alister) 1833.

Beach, Wooster.  The American Practice Condensed.  Or the Family Physician Being the Scientific System of Medicine, on Vegetable Principles designed for all Classes.  (New York: James M’Alister) 1847.

Beaseley, Henry.  The Druggist’s General Receipt Book… (London: John Churchill and Sons) 1846.

(Boerrhaave, Hermann.)  A new method of chemistry, including the theory and practice of the art…. Translated by Peter Shaw.  (London: T. Longman, 1741)

(Boyle, Robert.)  The Philosophical Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle, Esq., Abridged, methodized and disposed, under the General Heads of Physics, Statics, Pneumatics, Natural History, Chemistry, and Medicine, &c.  2ed.  (London: Printed by T.W. for W. Innys and R. Manby at the West-End of St. Pauls, and T. Longman, in Peter-Noster-Row.)  Editor: Peter Shaw. 1738.

(Boyle, Robert.)  The Works of the Honourable Robert Boyle in Six Volumes…  (London: Printed for W. Johnston, S. Crowder, T. Payne, G. Kearsley, J. Robson, Rouinson and Roberts, Richardson and Richardson, J. Knox, W. Woodfall, J. Johnson, and T. Evans). 1742.

Buchan, William.  Domestic Medicine, or a Treatise on the Prevention and Cure of Diseases, by Regimens and Simple Medicines….  22ed. (Exeter: J.B. Williams), 1828.

(Castiglioni, Luigi.) Viaggio: Travels in the United States of North America.  1785-1787.  Transl. and Edited by Antonio Pace. (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press) 1983.

Chase, Dr. A.W..  Dr. Chase’s Recipes.  (Michigan: R.A. Beal) 1870.

Cheyne, George.  An Essay of Health and Long Life.  (London) 1724.  Reprinted by Doddington Press, Kent. n.d.

(Colden, Jane.)  Botanical Manuscripts of Jane Colden, 1724-1766.  (Privately published by the Garden Club of Orange and Dutchess Counties, New York). 1963.

Cooley, Arnold James.  A Cyclopaedia of Six Thousand Practical Receipts…  (New York: D. Appleton & Company) 1854.

Cullen, William.  A Treatise of the Materia Medica.  (New York: L. Nichols & Co.) 1804.

Culpeper, Nicolas.  Complete Herbal, and English Physician… (J. Gleave & Son; Deansgate, Manchester), 1826.

(Dioscorides). The Greek Herbal of Dioscorides.  (Illus. by a Byzantine A.D. 512;  Englished by John Goodyer A.D. 1655; Edited and first printed by Robert T. Guenther A.D. 1933.)  (Facsimile Reprint. New York: Hafner Publishing Company) 1968.

Edinburgh. Edinburgh New Dispensatory. 2ed.. 1786/9.

Elbert, Albert E. & A. Emil Hiss.  The Standard Formulary.  (Chicago: G.P. Engelhard & Co.) 1896.

Etmuller, Michael.  Etmuller’s Abridged…  (Translated from the last edition of the Works of Michael Etmullerus)  3ed.  (London: Andrew Bell…, and Richard Wellington…) 1712.

Fuller, Thomas.  Pharmacopoeia Domestica: or, the Family Dispensatory.  (London: Printed for W. Innys and R. Manby, Printers to the Royal Society, at West-End of St. Paul’s) 1739.

(Gerard, John.)   Herball, or Natural History of Plants. (Facsimile. Dover Publishing).

Glauber, Joannes R.  A description of new philosophical furnaces: or A new art of distilling, divided into five parts….  1651.

(Glauber, Joannes R.)  The Works of….  (Transl. Christopher Packe.)  1689.

Good, Peter P.  The Family Flora and Materia Medica Botanica containing the Botanical Analysis, Natural History, and Chemical and Medical Properties of Plants… New Edition.  (Author: Elizabethtown, New Jersey) 1845.

Harral, Dr. George.  The Medicine Chest Book.  (Savannah: Thomas G. Collier) 1807.

Huxham, John.  An Essay on Fevers and the Various Kinds…with dissertations on the small-pox, and on pleurisies.  (London: S. Austen, 1750).

James, Robert. Pharmacopoeia Unversalis: or, a new English Dispensatory…  (London: Printed for the Looking-Glass, over against St. Magnus’s Church…) 1747.

(Lemery, Louis.)  A Treatise of All Sorts of Foods… 3ed.  (Translated by D. Hay from Traite des alimens ou l’on trouve par ordre, et separement la difference & le choix qu’on diot faire de chacun d’eux une particulier, London, 1745). 1755.

Lemery, Nicolas.  A Course of Chemistry… 2ed.  (London: Printed by R.N. for Walter Kettilby, at the Bishops-Head in St. Pauls Church-yard.)  1686.

Macquer, M. Translator. Elements of the Theory and Practice of Chemistry. (London) 1775.

(Monardes, Nicolas. Physician of Seville.)  Joyfull Newes of the Newe Founds Worlde.  Englished by John Frampton, Merchant Anno 1577.  (Facsimile Reprint by Alfred A. Knopf, New York)  1925.

(Oldmixon, John)  The British Empire in America.  (First Ed. 1708; reprinted in London, 1741.  Facsimile Reprint. New York: Augustus M. Kelley, Publishers).  1969.  

(Paracelsus.)  The Works of Paracelsus.  (Waite).

(Parkinson, John.)  A Garden of Pleasant Flowers, or Paradisus del Sole.  Reprint by Dover Publishing.

(Parkinson, John.)  Theatrum Botanicum.  (London: Thom. Cotes) 1640. (Microfilm.  Courtesy

Pomet, Monsieur Pierre.  A Compleat History of Druggs. 4ed. (London: F. and F. Bonwicke, S. Birt, W. Parker, C. Hitch and E. Wicksteed.)  1748.

Porta, Giovannia Battista della.  Phytognomonica.  1591.

Porta, John Baptista.  Natural Magick.  (London: Thomas Young and Samuel Speed) 1658.  (Facsimile. New York: Basic Books, Inc..  Derek J. Price, Editor.  1957).

Salmon, William.  Pharmacopoeia Bateana: or, Bate’s Dispensatory.  (London: S. Smith and B. Walford, at the Prince’s Arms, in St-Paul’s Church-yard.)  1694.

Salmon, William.  Pharmacopoeia Londinensis: or, the London Pharmacopoeia.  (London: S. Smith and B. Walford, at the Prince’s Arms, in St-Paul’s Church-yard.)  1691.

(Scultetus, Johannes.)  The Chyrurgeons Store-House: Furnished with Forty three Tables….  Faithfully Englished by E.B.  (London: John Starkey, at the Miter in Fleet street, near Temple-Bar.) 1674.

Sharp, Samuel.  A Treatise on the Operations of Surgery…4ed.  1743, 6ed.  1751.

Shaw, Peter.  A New Practice of Physic…. (London: (Printed for J. Osborn and T. Longman, at the Ship in Pater-Noster-Row.) 4ed., 1726; 7ed., 1773.

Shaw, Peter.  Pharmacopoeia edinburghensis, or Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia. 3ed. Transl. by Peter Shaw. 1737.

Peter Shaw.  Pharmacopoeia Universalis: or, a new universal English Dispensatory… (London) 1747.

Smellie, William.  Set of Anatomical Tables, with explanations, & an Abridgement of the Practice of Midwivery.  (London)  1ed. 1754.;  2ed. 1761

(Sydenham, Thomas)  The Entire Works of Doctor Thomas Sydenham. 3ed. (Edited by John Swan.) (London) 1753.

Turner, Daniel.  A Discourse Concerning Fevers. (London: John Clark) 1739. 

Secondary References:

Cassidy, Martha.  “Plant Life in Revolutionary Times”. In East Fishkill Bicentennial Commemorative Book (pages 29-30).  (Privately Published by the East Fishkill Bicentennial Committee, Dutchess County, New York) 1976.

Dunglison, Robley.  Medical Lexicon.  A Dictionary of Medical Science….  Revised by Richard J. Dunglison. (Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea) 1874.

Ebert, Albert E., and  A. Emil Hiss.  The Standard Formulary.  (Chicago: G.P Engelhard & Company) 1896.

Estes, J. Worth.  Dictionary of Protopharmacology.  Therapeutic Practices, 1700-1850.  (Canton, Massachusetts: Watson Publishing International).  1990.

Ewan, Joseph. Editor.  A Short History of Botany in the United States.   (New York: Hafner Publishing Company)  1969. 

Grieve, Madame M.  A Modern Herbal.  (Harcourt, Brace, & Company) 1931.  (Reprint by Dover Publication, Inc., New York). 1971.

Griffenhagen, George B.. “Drug Supplies in the American Revolution”.  From Contributions from the Museum of History and Technology.  Paper 16.  Smithsonian Institution Bulletin 225.  (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Inst.) 1963.

Hoblyn, Richard D.  A Dictionary of Terms used in Medicine and the Collateral Sciences.  (Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard). Revised by Isaac Hays, 1846.

Hocking, George M.  A Dictionary of Terms in Pharmacognosy.  (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas) 1955.

Junius, Manfred M.  Practical Handbook of Plant Alchemy.  Translated by Leone Muller.  (New York: Inner Traditions International, Ltd.) 1985.

Kremers, Edward, and George Urdang.History of Pharmacy. 2ed.  (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company) 1951.

LaWall, Charles H..  Four Thousand Years of Pharmacy.  (Philadelphia:  J.B. Lippincott Company)  1927.

Leighton, Ann.  Early American Gardens.  “For Meate or Medicine”.  (Boston:  Houghton Mifflin Company).  1970.

Lewis, Walter H., and Memory P.F. Elvin-Lewis.  Medical Botany. Plants Affecting Man’s Health.  (New York: John Wiley and Sons) 1977.

Lyons, A.B..  Plant Names Scientific and Popular… (Detroit:  Nelson, Baker, & Co., Publishers) 1900. 

Marks, Geoffrey, and William K. Beatty.  The Story of Medicine in America.  (New York: Charles Scribners Sons) 1973.

Miller, Amy Bess.  Shaker Herbs: A history and a compendium. (New York:  Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.)  1976.

Potter, Samuel O.L.. Materia Medica, Pharmacy, and Therapeutics. 10ed.  (Philadelphia: P. Blakiston’s Son & Co.) 1906.

Remington, Joseph P..  The Practice of Pharmacy. 6ed.  (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company) 1917.

Remington’s Pharmaceutical Sciences. 15ed. (Easton, Pa.: Mack Publishing Company.  Osol, Arthur (Editor Chairman))  1975.

Rhind, William.  A History of the Vegetable Kingdom.  (London: Blackie and Son) 1872.

Roberts, Edith A., and Helen Wilkinson Reynolds.  The Role of Plant Life in the History of Dutchess County.    (n.p.)   1938.

Roberts, Edith A., and Margaret F. Shaw.  The Ecology of Plants Native to Dutchess County, New York.  (New York: The Conservation Committee of the Garden Club of America) 1925.

Sigerist, Henry.  The Great Doctors.  1958.

Simpson, Brent Brintnall, and Molly Conner Ogorzally.  Economic Botany.  Plants of our World. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company), 1986.

Stearns, Raymond Phineas.  Science in the British Colonies of America.  (Chicago: University of Illinois Press.) 1970.

Thompson, C.J.S..  The Lure and Romance of Alchemy.  (New York: Bell Publishing Company) 1990.

Trease, George Edward, and William Charles Evans.  Pharmacognosy, 11ed.  (London: Balliere Tindall) 1978.

Tyler, Varro E., Lynn R. Brady, and James E. Robbers..  Pharmacognosy, 9ed. (Philadelphia: Lea & Febinger), 1988.

Wilson, Richard Cumming.  Drugs and Pharmacy in the Life of Georgia.  1733-1759.  (Atlanta: Footes and Davies, Inc.)  1959.