Introduction

There are several ways we can interpret the history of medicine as it was practiced from the 1920s to the 1950s.  The period of absence of the bacterial theory as a cause for disease was pretty much over.   Between 1875 and 1885, there was a considerable number of political and personal arguments taking place between old-timers and their closest associates, a new generation of physicians who strongly supported the bacterial theory for disease. Advocates for the bacterial theory were using this logic to denounce and delicense practitioners who did not belief in this philosophy, so long as the old-timer wasn’t a relative or political leader in the profession.

By 1890, most of the old-timers who believed in the climatological and topographic theories for disease had pretty much died off.  Those few who were left had minimal influence, or were supportive of the new opinions regarding bacterial disease theory. The non-allopathic community however retained some of this stubbornness, embarrassing others in the profession as a whole by maintaing their adherence to such theories as the vibration and electric field theories for why and how chiropractic works, the vibrations theory underlying the second version of homeopathy practice developed by United States doctors during the mid-1800s, the anti-bacterialists still practicing throughout the west coast states and a few midwestern states. The most supported of the old-time leaders in the profession were inevitably those with some form of governmental or profession directed guidance or leadership position. they were most often responsible for licensure and accreditation, and held their authoritative positions mostly due to their political clout.

Assisting in the continuation of the anti-bacterial theory thinkers was the lack of significant progress being made with the pharmaceutical and over-the-counter home remedies promoters. By 1900, several decades of the study of medicines directed towards eliminating the germ or bacteria were productive, but only slightly.  This was still the pre-penicillen era, and many of the remedies out there worked in a few clinical settings such as surgery, but few had any impact on the documented microbial diseases such as tuberculosis and several forms of diarrhea.  Inoculation was still the best way to go for many of the infectious diseases that were out there. The patent medicine movement was about to reach a peak in fraud and quackery related products and claims. Products like Lydia Pinkham’s Female compound, a variety of childhood teething remedies laced with opiates, the morphia-free, heroin rich tonics then being promoted, were all in competition with both regular doctors and the alternatives. Not helping in this matter any was the tendency for the chiropractors to assist in the development of even newer over-the-counter industries devoted to physical and electrical movement and nerve-muscle related therapies, and the strong promotion of herbal remedies produced and sold by their closest partners in the non-allopathic field, the naturopaths. (Homeopaths were pretty much out there on their own or in consortium with MDs.)

In 1910, only the strongly opinionated non-allopathic physicians argued against the bacterial theory that was out there.  Many were by now beginning to support more the inoculation processes being developed and improved.  Some were using broad-application and non-specific anti-bacterial agents since they were allowed to engage in simple operations in some states. 

Salicin, for example, was discovered in 1898 by Bayer, and was the precursor to one of the most important medicines to develop around 1900–acetyl-salicylate or aspirin.  During the 1918 Spanish Flu epidemic many “fever” and “myalgia” cases were  successfully treated using the salicylates, resulting in the expansion of its applications to other common pain-related diseases like “neuralgia” (associated with PMS today, and treated by Mile’s Nervine), “lumbago” (most commonly claimed to be “cured” by any of a number of kidney pills, or diuretics with salicylates), and rheumatoid arthralgia.

This increased use of specific chemicals as drugs, such as salicylate, podophyllin (today a cancer drug, then ‘Carter’s Little Liver Pills’), the various coca alkaloid blends, strychnine (an excitant and “nerve tonic”), heroin, and a variety of toxic minerals and chemical elements (esp. lithium) led to the increasing popularity of patent medicines with these as their ingredients.  However, the 1906 Food and Drug Act and 1915 Food Drug and Cosmetic Act that were passed in order to regulate the use of these chemicals to some extent had a limited direct impact on naturopathy. Thirteen years later, when Alexander Fleming documented the clinical effects of penicillen, with the results of these studies published in 1929, the anti-bacterial theory that non-allopaths were so much against began to develop a much more effective social following. 

By the end of the first quarter of the 20th century, “drugless medicine” was a common ideology. This form of medical practice discouraged the use of opiates and other drugs labelled as ‘toxins’ or unsafe ingredients that were “unnatural”. This decision also had the effect of redirecting some of the arguments in the direction of naturopaths making use of several very strong herbal remedies, primarily, but also plants with chemicals considered by some to be harmful or poisonous. 

The Chiropractors had no problem adopting the “drugless medicine” philosophy and claim since their profession was based primarily on an ideology lacking much of the herbal medicine practice and tradition, at least ‘by the book’. However, the Chiropractors still had their own philosophical problem–just like during the 1890s, some were still claiming their profession created better health by impacting energy fields along the spinal chord, relying upon mechanotherapy based arguments most when the need for such arose. In some states, we see these differences in opinion even result in the birth of ‘alternative’ names for some of the new schools and forms of practice to develop. In Indiana for example this led to the birth of a school that promoted “natrapathy”, a profession with just one creator and for the most part teacher according to my study of the licensure of non-allopaths in Utah around 1955 (see other page on this). Philosophical ‘energy field’ versus ‘mechanotherapy’ differences in theory also gave rise to the ‘neuropathy’ field and profession reviewed as part of the 1950s Utah study.

with regards to the combined chiropractic and naturopathic schools that provided classes between 1935 (perhaps as early as 1925) and 1955, the philosophies Defining these two “drugless school professions” changed rather quickly. Whereas during the early 1900s, the switch was from a metaphysical focus to one more mechanical in nature for both, opportunities arose for other speculative theories and philosophies to develop as well. The increased understanding of paraspinal anatomy and nerve activities enabled arguments to resurface about the autonomic nerves theories for “curing” specific diseases, a parallel to early, recent and even future mindbody healing theories that have evolved with United States medical practitioners. This portion of both the chiropractic and naturopathic traditions in turn also had periods when similar claims were being made based upon endocrine system findings (chiropractors still promote animal endocrine tissue supplements as nutritional adjuncts to their mechanical practices). Most recently, such theories used to explain why certain portions of these two now separate practices make use of neuroendocrine, psychoneuroimmunological and “natural opiates” related claims to the beneficial effects of their practice.

During the period of time immediately preceding the separation of these two sects from each other, the Naturopaths had their plants and nutritional agents. To many, but especially regular practitioners, this meant that in order to be truly “drugless”, they had to ignore the publications on the success of many of the drugs now in use by regular medicine.  During the 1950s, this “drugless” label further complicated the naturopathy field when it was determined that immunizations may in fact be drugs as well.   The difference between an inoculation and an immunization was that the former was administered to the patient in some sort of natural state, as it biologically exists.  An immunization involves the use of a modified biological agent, to the extent that the agent is not long a living specimen.  This non-living entity is much like other non-living agents or abiotics that we take for illness, often referred to as drugs.  

Did the abiotic nature of an immunization agent make it fit the definition of a drug?  This was the dilemma the naturopaths were now facing.  Meanwhile, as more drugs were invented and popularized, more attention was drawn to the value of drugs in saving lives and improving survivability of patients.  Quite soon, the drugless nature of naturopathy was no longer an attractive part of its philosophy.  It was these social and medicopolitical controversies that set the stage for the Utah Study, requiring that physicians be reviewed not only for the skills and appropriateness of their practice, but also with regard to the legalities of what it was they were doing as doctors.  Surgery, immunization and drugs were the main reason for this study, but the focus of this study was on the credibility, validity and appropriateness of the knowledge base, educational methods, and practices engaged in by all non-allopathic physicians, with a particualr emphasis on the sole survivor on 19th century Eclecticism–Naturopathy.

PART 1.

 A STUDY OF CHIROPRACTIC-NATUROPATHIC SCHOOLS, NATUROPATHIC SCHOOLS, AND RELATED PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES, BASED ON THE PETERSON COLLEGE STUDY, THE 1958 UTAH STUDY AND OBSERVATION OF COLLEGE BOOKS, ETC..

Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Utah.  Survey of Naturopathic Schools prepared for the Utah State Medical Association. December, 1958.

Purpose of this Study by University of Utah [p. 2]

“to present in an orderly, consolidated form major findings related to the training and qulaifications of persons practicing naturopathy at the present time…This study is not intended in any way to authorize or censure any school, person or group of persons, but merely to present such facts as have been determined by competent investigators in many states of the nation.”

History of the Problem in Utah. [p. 2-3]

In 1921 Utah passed a law “establishing what branches of the healing arts profession would be licensed by the state.”  The following groups of practitioners were considered valid for receiving state licenses: 

  • medicine and surgery
  • osteopathic physicians and surgeons
  • treatment of human ailments without the use of drugs or medicine and without surgery
  • the practice of obstetrics

Initially, two examining boards were established, one for medicine and surgery, and the other for practitioners who don’t make use of these specialties as they were defined by the state. Later, two new examining boards were approved for chiropractics and naturopathy. 

The laws relating to naturopaths enabled them to “practice without the use of drugs and surgery.”  This definition was held firm until 1939 when the use of drugs by naturopaths became permissable according to state law.  This same law enabled naturopaths to include minor surgery and obstetrics in their work.  This 1939 legal opinion of the Attorney General was reversed in 1955.  A 1956 Utah State Supreme Court ruling supported this change in the regulation of naturopathic practice.  Licenses to naturopaths granting the use of drugs were recalled and “limited ones issued in their place.”  An attempt was made in 1957 by the legislature to pass a bill re-establishing the right for naturopaths to use drugs and surgical procedures.  The issuance of new licenses was to be deferred until May 1959, but the recent veto of this bill in 1958 by the Utah Governor prevented its enactment, with the advice of the Governor that further research take place of this issue. 

In 1958, naturopaths remained unlicensed for the performance of minor surgery and the administration of drugs and the state board was prohibited from providing licensure exams for naturopaths interested in performing obstetrics as well.

By December 1958 (the time of the writing of the Utah investigation), “only limited naturopath licenses are now authorized…Applicants desiring to practice naturopathy including obstetrics must pass a separate obstetrics examiniation.”

The Research and Interview Process

Personal visits were conducted of the naturopathic institutions by those of the Bureaus of Economic and Business Research, located at the University of Utah and several other states.  A questionnaire was written, to be used in personal interviews, and the results of those interviews were analyzed and tabulated. [p. 3]

The Individuals who participated in this study are noted on several other pages.

Findings of the Investigation

Overview

Twenty-seven schools were investigated.  Nineteen were attended for college degree which were completed.  Five were attended but not completed by graduation.  Two of the remaining schools were either no longer in operation or not ever opened, and the final school was recently opened. 

In Fall 1958, only nine of these twenty-seven schools remained open, three of which grant naturopathic degrees and two of which teach naturopathy.  Of those schools which were still presenting graduate degrees at the time of this investigation, only two were accepting new students and awarding degrees.  The authors closed this section by stating:

“Thus the total number of schools has declined to a point where there are virtually none in existence.”

TABLE.  NATUROPATHIC INSTITUTIONS INVESTIGATED BY UTAH.

Total number of schools = 27

Utah licensed schools in which a graduate degree was earned

Utah licensed schools attended in which no graduate degree was earned

State             # schools  # closed

California                            9                

Colorado                             2

District of Columbia      1

Illinois                                4

Iowa                                    1

Missouri                            2

New York                          1

Ohio                                     2

Oregon                               2

Pennsylvania                  1

Tennessee                        1

Utah                                   1

.

NOTE: Information presented on the following Location Tables is from:  TABLE 3. NATUROPATHIC INSTITUTIONS INVESTIGATED AND NUMBER OF GRADUATES LICENSED BY UTAH.   pp. 39-43.

TABLE: SCHOOLS ATTENDED BY UTAH NATUROPATHS AND  THE CURRENT SCHOOLS’ STATUS

.

LOCATION                                                                             # GRADUATES   DEGREE

  (STATE; School)                                                                     IN UTAH       STATUS

____________________________________________________________

CALIFORNIA [all in Los Angeles]    

Advanced Naturopathic Forum                                                    none       none[*]     

American College of Physicians and Surgeons                        none        never opened

California College of Natural Healing Arts                                    8           closed

College of Naturopathic Physiciansand Surgeons                   12          closed

Emerson University  (previously California University of Liberal Physicians)     5     closed

Los Angeles College of Chiropractic                                             12          none[**]

Naturopathic Institute and Sanitorium of California              1           closed

Sierra States University                                                                      6           N.D.

Standard Institute of Naturopathic Therapy   (aka Pacific College of Naturopathic Physicians),    7           closed

—————————————————–

      NOTES:

      *  this institution was not accepted by the Bureau as  a school.

      ** this institution was no longer granting a Naturopathic Degrees at the time of interview.

.

COLORADO [all of Denver]

University of Natural Healing Arts                                              2           none[**]

Western College of Chiropractic                                                  none        closed

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

National University of Therapeutics                                          1           closed

ILLINOIS

Chicago College of Naturopathy                                                   none        closed

Lindlahr College of Natural Therapeutics, Chicago                 3           closed

National College of Chiropractic, or National College of Drugless Medicine, Chicago                   4           none[**]

Northern Illinois College, (city?)                                                   none closed

IOWA

National School of Naturopathy, Cedar Rapids                              1           closed

MISSOURI

St. Louis College of Physicians and Surgeons                                none        closed

Missouri Chiropractic College                                                               1           none[**]

NOTE:   ** this institution was no longer granting a Naturopathic Degrees at the time of interview.

NEW YORK

American School of Naturopathy                                    12          closed

OHIO

Central States College of Physiatrics

      Eaton                                                                                        1           N.D.

Standard College of Chiropractic

      Akron                                                                                       1           N.D.

OREGON

National College of Naturopathic Medicine                   none        N.D.

Western States College                                                            8           N.D.[***]

      [School of Chiropractic]

     *** this institution is no longer accepting students for N.D. degrees

PENNSYLVANIA

Philadelphia College of Naturopathy                                 1           closed

TENNESSEE

Nashville College of Naturopathy                                       4           closed

      (Nashville College of Naturopathic Medicine)

UTAH

Utah Chiropractic College                                                     none        closed

—————————————————–

 

Ref:  See p. 44 “TABLE 4: NATUROPATHIC SCHOOLS RECOGNIZED BY THE UTAH NATUROPATHIC EXAMINING BOARD” and descriptions of these schools which appeared on pages 4-6 of the document used for this study. 

Schools attended by physicians who were recognized as licensable by the Utah Examining Board

National College of Naturopathic Medicine, Portland, Oregon.

Recognized by the Utah State Examining Board.  No graduates in Utah have been licensed by this school.

Offers an N.D. degree.  Primarily a post-graduate school, but also accepts undergraduate students.  1957 (second/first year) enrollment: four undergraduate and sixty graduate students.

Has one classroom, with most floor space being allocated to the clinical setting, for use in teaching medical procedures.  Most course work is designed to give students information and expereience related to this clinical setting.  Other courses serve as refresher courses.  Faculty members are paid by commission, not salary.

Western States College, Portland, Oregon.  

Recently retitled “Western States College, School of Chiropractic,” this school is no longer recognized by Utah for its Naturopathic graduates, unless they received their N.D. degree prior to mid-1958.

As of December 1958, this school “still grants a few N.D. degrees; however, it is primarily a chiropractic school and is not now accepting new naturopathic students. Although regular naturopathic courses have been discontinued, the school plans to finish any cimmitments made in the past to give naturopathic training.” 

.

Schools Recognized by Utah Examining Board in 1958, but since the 1958 interview have closed.

Central States College of Physiatrics, Eaton, Ohio.

Recognized by the Utah State Examining Board.  No graduates in Utah have been licensed by this school.

Officially, this school teaches mechanotherapy and grants a degree of D.M. (Doctor of Mechanotherapy).  The D.M. degree is only recognized in Ohio and Alabama.  “The school grants N.D. degrees to students who wish to practice in other states.”

Students of this school are taught the philosophy of not prescribing medicines to their patients.  The director of this institution told the interviewer of his impression of the students:  “within two months after they got out of school they wanted to use all the drugs in the book.”

The school is small, admitting approximately 10 students per year, and graduating only 10 students total during a recent two year time period.

Schools Not Recognized by Utah Examining Board in 1958

Sierra States University, California

Not recognized by Utah State Examining Board. 

Offers only Post-graduate training.  Does not award a N.D. Degree. 

Accepts only students who have completed their training at other healing arts institutions.  Therapeutic methods being taught are in botanical medicine, nutrition and physical therapy.  The course catalogue lists classes in swedish massage, hydrotherapy, electrotherapy, colon therapy, nutritional therapy, and clinical psychology.

University of Natural Healing Arts, Denver, Colorado.

Not recognized by the Utah Examining Board.

Maintained the same curriculum required for N.D. degrees in the past, but no longer granting such degrees.  The school’s reason for this change: “politics, but the course taught has not changed and gives the same subjects now as then, so graduates could practice naturopathy in the states where they allow that.”

.

DESCRIPTIONS OF REMAINING SCHOOLS

CALIFORNIA [Los Angeles]

Advanced Naturopathic Forum (?-?)

Offers classes, is unlicensed and offers no degrees.

American College of Physicians and Surgeons (1949-1958-?)

Chartered September 28, 1949; still in good standing on Sept. 22, 1958.

August 1958 investigation revealed a school called “College of Medical X-Ray and Laboratory Technic” at this address.  At the time of the study, the same institution was present at or called “The American College of Physicians and Surgeons.”

      Eight graduates were noted by the Utah study in 1958. 

California College of Natural Healing Arts

Previously known as “Cale College of Naturopathy” and “California College of Naturopathy.” 

This school was Chartered on July 25, 1927. Its Charter was suspended for failure to pay taxes on January 2, 1953.

Eight graduates were noted by the Utah study in 1958.  Their years of graduation: 1931-2 doctors, 1938-2, 1940-1, 1941-1, 1942-1 and 1943-1. 

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

College of Naturopathic Physicians and Surgeons

This school was Chartered on March 2, 1992.  Its Charter was suspended for failure to pay taxes on January 25, 1955.

Twelve graduates were noted by the Utah study in 1958.  Their years of graduation: 1933-, 1940-1, 1941-3, 1942-2, 1943-1, 1946-1, 1947-1 and 1948-2. 

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

Emerson University

Previously known as California University of Liberal Physicians.

This school was Chartered on May 18, 1913.  That charter remained and the school remained in Good Standing as of September 22, 1958, the date of the Bureau’s study. 

No record of the school could be found by the Utah investigator, who researched the California Board of Chiropractic Examiners, the Chamber of Commerce, and the Los Angeles phone book.

Five graduates by the Utah study in 1958.  Their years of graduation: 1934, 1935, 1938, 1939, 1941.   

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

Los Angeles College of Chiropractic

This school was Chartered on October 18, 1911.  That charter is still in existence.  This school remained in Good Standing as of September 22, 1958, the date of the Bureau’s study. 

As of 1958, the graduates only receive a degree in Doctor of Chiropractic [D.C.].  In the past, N.D. degrees were granted.

Twelve graduates were noted in the Utah study of 1958.  Their years of graduation: one each for 1923, 1929, 1934, 1937, 1941, 1947, and 1949.  1939 had two graduates and 1938 had one.    

Naturopathic Institute and Sanitorium of California.

This school was chartered on October 30, 1905.  Its charter was suspended for failure to pay taxes on January 9, 1951.

One student who graduated in 1935 is noted in Utah.

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

Standard Institute of Naturopathic Therapy.

No documents for Charter or incorporating this school could be presented by the Secretary of State of California in 1958. 

Investigation of the school by a Bureau member revealed the school’s existence at this address for at least five years.  This school is not listed in the Los Angeles telephone directory or with the California Board of Chiropractic Examiners. 

Six graduates were noted in the Utah study of 1958.  Their years of graduation: five in 1949, one in 1952. 

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

COLORADO [Denver Schools]

University of Natural Healing Arts

Chartered by Colorado on November 13, 1934.  This charter is still in existence.

Two graduates located in Utah, who graduated in 1940 and 1941.

Administrative President, Dr. Louis O. Gerhart, stated the following:

Non-Profit since 1934.

Degree grants: Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.); Doctor of Naturopathy (N.D.) offered until 1956.  No post-graduate degrees offered. 

Not accredited by either association of Chiropractors.  Accreditation granted by the Veteran’s Training Program. 

Admission requirement: completion of high school or its equivalent, with some college work “to meet the requirements of some states for licensure.”

There is no entrance examination.  Transfer students are accepted.

Western College of Chiropractic

This school was Chartered as non-profit on October 14, 1931.  That charter was considered to be still in existence at the time of the 1958 query. 

No graduates from this school, only students who attended it during their initial training programs.  This School’s name was not uncovered in regional phone books and directories.  Hearsay from a professional from another school stated that this school discontinued its program about 1943.

DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

National University of Therapeutics

Opening date for this school was undisclosed.

Only one if its graduates resided in Utah according to the 1958 study; he graduated in 1925.

This school closed its doors in 1943.

ILLINOIS [first three were Chicago schools]

Chicago College of Naturopathy

This school was Chartered on April 23, 1917.  This charter was absolved by legal action taken on May 24, 1937 for failure to file an annual report for 1956.

Utah had no graduates from this school, only students who attended it during their initial training programs.

This School’s name was not uncovered in regional phone books and directories. 

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

Lindlahr College of Natural Therapeutics

This school was chartered on August 11, 1921.  This charter was absolved by legal action taken on May 23, 1930, for failure to file an annual report in 1929, and failure to pay franchise taxes for the same year.

Three graduates from this school were licensed in Utah.  They graduated in 1917, 1923 and 1925.

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

National College of Chiropractic

Also known as the National College of Drugless Medicine. 

This school was Chartered on November 30, 1930. 

This charter was absolved by voluntarily by the corporation by filing “Articles of Dissolution pursuant to Section 80 of the Business Corporation Act.”  This Corporation is still in good standing.

A discussion between the Bureau investigator and the President of this Corporation revealed that this school still grants Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.) degrees.  It offered Doctor of Naturopathy programs until 1948 and awarded its last Doctor of Naturopathy (N.D.) degree in 1950.   

The Utah Study noted four graduates from this school in 1958; their years of graduation: 1937-1, 1950-2, and 1951-1. 

Northern Illinois College

This school was originally chartered as Illinois Soldiers College in 1867.  In 1900, it underwent its name change to the above noted name.  The organization was not required to file reports with the state.  It was dissolved in 1926. 

This report Utah report adds: “The records disclose a number of old corporations entitled “northern Illinois’ College of various kinds.”   This suggests the possibility that several kinds of “Northern Illinois” vocational schools were opened.   

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

IOWA [Cedar Rapids]

National School of Naturopathy

No record of incorporation could be found for this school by the Secretary of State of Iowa.  The Better Business Bureau and Mason City, and the Chamber of Commerce in Cedar Rapids also lacked a listing of this school. 

The Utah study revealed one graduate from this school, who graduated in 1925.

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

MISSOURI [St. Louis]

St. Louis College of Physicians and Surgeons

This institution was chartered in 1879.  The charter was revoked on June 7, 1927.  The education program was in operation until about 1920.  The institution opted to close its school due to overwhelming competiton with the two local allopathic schools: St. Louis Univeristy and Washington University.

Utah had no graduates from this school, only students who attended it during their initial training programs.

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

Missouri Chiropractic College

Previously known as Missouri Chiropractic College and Institute of Naturopathy.  Retitled after the study of naturopathy was dropped from the program.  Only degree grants: Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.).

Chartered as a non-profit institution on May 22, 1950 and was still in existence as of the date of the Utah study.

This school was still in operation at the time of the 1958 Utah Study. 

NEW YORK [New York City]

American School of Naturopathy

A September 16, 1958, letter from the Department of State of New York indicates this school was chartered as a corporation on March 2, 1905, and that it was dissolved by proclamation of the Governor on March 13, 1926. 

Another letter dated September 18, 1942, from Benjamin Lust to Dr. R.C. Allred, on file at the Business registration as of the date of this Utah study, denies the existence of such a charter.  Lust writes:

“We never had such a paper of “charter,” in fact we would not get it herre in New York where Naturopathy is not recognized and Naturopaths and Chiropractors are sent to jail for “practicing medicine without a license.” 

Lust claims the New York institution “always operated” under a Washington, D.C. “Charter” of the corporation, which the State of New York refused to recognize.

OHIO [Akron]

Standard College of Chiropractic, Inc.

Chartered as a corporation on October 4, 1928.  This charter was later cancelled on January 30, 1958.

Utah had one graduate from this school who graduated in 1941. 

Information pertaining to this school could not be found in the telephone and business directories. 

In the 1958 Utah study, this school was considered to be no longer in existence.

NOTE: The Eaton, Ohio School was covered in an earlier section.

.

PART 2.

NATUROPATHIC SCHOOLS AND PRACTICES

University of Natural Healing Arts, Denver, Colorado

Physical Description of School:

One building, a remodeled residence facility with three stories and a basement.  The building is 60 feet square and has about 11,700 square feet of useable space.  The first two floors serve as teaching space.  The basement serves as the clinic.  The third floor is used for by administration storage and by students for socializing. 

Building upkeep was fair, with signs of decay.  Furniture and equipment appeared “old and well worn.”  The neighborhood it is in is undergoing a change from status as a residential district to that of a commercial district.

Diagnostic equipment includes medical diagnostic agents, therapeutic equipment, and X-ray.

Staff:

The faculty consists of 16 people, nine of which have received a D.C.. 

The Out-Patient Clinic has a regular staff of three persons, who handle 10 patients per day on the average.

Education:

One year (nine months) of study at the school, at least 4,680 clock hours of healing arts courses, and 1,080 clinic hours are required for graduation.

10 regular students admitted per year on the average between 1954 and 1957.

Income (1957):

Total Income:  $19,171.97

        Costs:  $15,722.36

      Surplus:  $27,224.61

      Earnings and Income:

                   Students’ Fees:    73%

              Sales and Services:   18%

         Miscellaneous services:     5%

                         Donations: 4%

      Expenditures:

                Faculty Salaries:   28%

                   Administrators:  50%

Central States College of Physiatrics, Eaton, Ohio, 1958

Dr. Harry Riley Spitler, Dean.

The corporation was chartered January 26, 1939 as a non-profit institution.  Originally named Ohio State College of Physiatric Medicine, and amendment filed on March 29, 1939, renamed it Central States College of Physiatrics.

Physical Description of School:

One building was built in order to house the school.  It is a one story structure with full basement.  First floor and basement total 5000 square feet.  Built prior to WW II, it consists of steel outer walls.

The outside of the building is in fair condition.  The inside appeared somewhat messy and cluttered.  The neighborhood is middle class residential in southern Eaton.

The clinic takes up about one-third of the first floor.  It consists of an office, three small treatment rooms, a waiting room, a dressing room, a minor surgery room, two treatment tables, and “a number of machines.”

Staff:

The faculty consists of 12 people, of which two are full time.  Eleven faculty members hold Naturopathic (N.D.) degrees.  Eight received the Doctor of Mechanotherapy (D.M.) degree from Central States College of Physiatrics.  None of these faculty members are licensed Naturopaths in Utah. 

The teaching method used at this school resembles the Systems Course approach currently in use (as of the early 1980s) in some regular medical schools:

“The school operates under the “block system” i.e. only one subject at a time is taught and this is taught by the part time faculty coming in about two forenoons a week for a specified time and teaching his specialty.”

The Out-Patient Clinic has a regular staff of two people plus externs.  It handles 20 patients per day on the average; the maximum for daily influx is estimated to be about 40 patients. 

Education:

The philosophy of this institution was to avoid the use of medications when treating patients.  Dr. Spitler, the person interviewed for the Utah study, stated that “in the Central States College they were taught not to use drugs, but within two months after they got out of school, they wanted to use all the drugs in the book.  As a result, naturopaths were being closed out of some states.” [p. 60]  Dr. Spitler believed that if they followed his guidelines for drugless therapy, that this would avoid the problems experienced by naturopaths and other alternative health care givers practicing in most of the states.  

Students:

Admission requirements include high school completion and one or two years of college to meet the individual state requirements of where the applicant wishes to practice.  Ohio and Alabama require only completion of high school or equivalence before attending this instiution.  Degree credits are transferrable.  Most of the schools of this institution transferred from chiropractic schools.

Graduation requirements are one academic year of instruction, 4,290 credit hours of courses pertaining to the healing arts, and 300 clinic hours.

12 regular students on the average were admitted each year from 1954-1957; on the average, five students graduate each year.   From 1954 to 1957, there was a decline in newly entered students: 1954-21, 1955-15, 1956-9, 1957-9, 1957-4.  The number graduated has similar reducing tendencies: 1954-0, 1955-9, 1956-4, 1957-3, 1958-7. 

[Note: this reduction—how does it relate to drug development and legalization history, diagnostic and surgical technology history and chemical-pharmacal laboratory work history?]

Only one graduate was licensed to practice in Utah in 1958.

Classes:

Included “the embalmers course at the University of Cincinatti” for instruction in Anatomy.  This was offered by The Cincinnati College of Embalming at Cincinnati General Hospital.

Post-Graduate Programs

Post-graduate programs were offered, which ran for two months and amounted to 144 hours of study credited by a certificate of completion.

Three of these graduate students were enrolled at this school at the time of the interview.

These graduates were then noted to be recognized in the following States: Connecticut, District of Columbia, Virginia, Alabama, Arizona, Utah, Oregon, Washington, Hawaii, Alaska, and seven of the Provinces in Canada.

Income (1957):

Annual Budget: $3000.00 received as student fees.  This school worked while in a recurring annual deficit period.

.

PART 3.

STATISTICS OF UTAH RESIDENTS PRACTICING NATUROPATHY IN 1958.

Tables reviewed for this part of the summary of Utah Naturopathy:

   pp. 17-20      TABLE 1.  LIST OF UTAH LICENSEES AND PRESENT                STATUS OF LICENSE.

   pp. 21-35      TABLE 2.  LIST OF UTAH LICENSEES, LICENSE NUMBERS, SCHOOLS ATTENDED, DATES OF ATTENDANCE, AND DATE OF LICENSURE BY UTAH.

TABLE 1. RESULTS

Figures were taken from p. 20, and indicate results figured by the Bureau as of December 1958:

            110  Number of individuals interviewed

            111   Licenses were issued.

           1  license was cancelled or revoked, and replaced with a second in “Good Standing.”

          73  have licenses “Now in Good Standing”.

           45  have licenses with Utah addresses.

           26   licenses were revoked by 1958.

           10   of those licensed were deceased by 1958.

Further analysis by self of Table 1, pages 17 through 20:

SEX OF INTERVIEWEE

Male                           90

Female                      10

Indeterminable    10

RESULTS:

Note: these figures have been corrected for one male, who appeared on listing of granted degrees twice, due to revocation and re-licensing process.

Names with first name initials were classed “Indeterminable.”

Of the ten noted to be deceased by the date of the tabulation, seven were male, two were female, one remains undetermined.

YEARS WHEN LICENSES WERE REVOKED

      Year     Total #   Male     Female  Unknown

1934           2           1           1           —

1936           2           2           —          —

1944          1           1           —          —

1946          1           —          1           —

1947          2           2           —          —

1948          1           1           —          —

1950          1           —          —          1

1953           1           1           —          —

1954          1           1           —          —

1957      10          7           2           1

1958       4           4           —          —

Sums        26          20          4           2

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