Ballston and Saratoga

Introduction

The two most popular geological formations in New York, outside the immediate New York City setting, are Niagara Falls and Saratoga Springs.  Niagara Falls was a common stopping point and tourist site discussed in the earliest journals and diaries published by travelers passing through New York between 1750 and 1825.  Saratoga due to its heated mineral springs was the second most popular site, with a popularity that grew substantially once this area was modified by the addition of permanent living structures.

Saratoga history was preceded by the history of a similar site with mineral springs known as Ballston Spa.  This town was named after its first major residence to promote the medicine springs, Reverend Eliphalet Ball, a Protestant Minister who decided to settle close to these springs once his responsibilities and occupational requirements to the church in lower New York were completed.

During the earliest years of settlement in this region, water sources like springs, artesian wells, and creeks, ponds and falls with cold, brisk mountain water were considered very important natural resource.  Many of these were felt to have medicinal virtues.  The earliest claims to such healing waters were made for the springs in Westchester County during the late 17th century as this tract of land came into the possession of the Filipse family.  Further up the Hudson River, the numerous water forms documented along mountain edges and cliffs were considered valuable sources of health cold waters.  Artesian springs located adjacent to local fields and deep within the forests were used to promote the sale and settlement of most of those lands for which descriptions were published in the local newspapers.  By the 1790s, claims about these natural resources were common to descriptions published in local newspapers whatever their deeds were up for sale.

By the time 1800 came around, a typical description of properties and claims made concerning the health of this land made mention of local springs and healthy water bodies.  Such claims were typical due to the belief that disease was very much a consequence of the environment. The growth of the knowledge of chemistry in the 1800s however led to some new protocols for discussing and marketing the various springs.  Whereas certain internal characteristics possessed by a person were often attributed to poor health states, such as a person’s inheritance, temperament, and body features and form, much of disease was attributed to local, environmental features related to one’s exposure to the local weather and climate, the local topography and its effects upon the generation of miasma and effluence, and a variety of local anomalies and regularly occurring natural disasters such as violent thunderstorms, earthquakes, flooding, tornados, and even eclipses. But when it came to chemistry, its was the chemical make-up of springs that made them seem healthy during the early 1800s.    According to a study of Saratoga Water by Livingston, Saratoga produced the best chalybeates of the region, a unique type only found at Saratoga.   Such arguments about the acids, alkali, minerals and salts of water springs turned each and every spring into a potential source for medicine.  Due to the geology of the Hudson Vally, these medicines were located in each and every county, mountain range and unique rock formation in the region.  With this philosophy, the value of some of these lands almost doubled within a year.  The medical journals made this popular and professional philosophical movement happen.

Publication History and Popularity

A review of the publications on Saratoga Springs published during the colonial years, on up to 1875, revealed the following:

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A number of details are noted in the chronology of Saratoga.  The earliest years focused on the Ballston Springs popularized by Rev. Ball.  The springs at Saratoga would not become popular until the post-colonial period, after which it became more important culturally and economically for the region than Ballston Spa.

Only a few sightings and description of Ballston are noted for the earliest years of the period reviewed.  These are obviously underestimates of the actual social and public knowledge out there about Saratoga, but probably represent a fairly reasonable relationship whien compared with the numbers of later publications cited by the author of the reference for this work around 1880.

1792 marks the official beginning of the period when Ballston Spa became popular for medicinal purposes.  Prior to this period, this location served as a medical treatmetn due msotly to popular culture beliefs.    Valentine Seaman’s publication on Ballston included a chemical study of the waters, and is the first time a focus on water chemistry became the way local waters were tested for their potential therapeutic and pharmaceutical values.

Even though knowledge of the scientific properties of Ballston waters became common following Seaman’s publication, it wasn’t until 1819 that any serious attempts to document the chemistry of water were initiated and engaged in as a regular part of the local public health research, when two chemical reports on the water of Saratoga Springs were published.

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Based upon 5-year counts of publications, there is a continuous rise popularity of Saratoga Springs based on publication counts from the year 1800 forward.   Three peak periods can also be recognized: 1840, possibly 1855, and 1870.

Notice also the very small peak in articles published between 1790 and 1805.  These were the initiators of this popular health culture movement.

Soon after the Revolutionary War had ended, a review of Loudon’s Packet, once again being published in New York City, demonstrated the perpetual interest people had in the land and the value of its unique water bodies and springs.  Loudon’s Packet contained an advertisement announcing the opening of New Harlem Springs.  This “public bath” like facility was built on the sloping land that drained into the Harlem River at the Northeast corner of Manhattan Island.  Just a few years later, around 1802, just several hours up the river in Poughkeepsie there were the springs on Pine Street.  These were artesian water leaving the sandy-gravelly soil that formed much of the shoreline of the Hudson, about 500 to 2500 inland towards the east (now in the south edge of the city proper).  This water, due to its freshness and clarity was labeled as health promoting and its use offered to the public for use.  Wooden tubs were built and advertisements posted in the local newspaper–Political Barometer (see Political Barometer owner Helen Wilkinson’s notes at Adriance)–inviting anyone in need of its salubriousness to simply visit and make use of the new facilities constructed.  A few years later, New Ballstown was formed on the edge of the Hudson, a place where dozens if not hundreds of small trickling rivulets made their way down to the river, and where one of these rivulets came directly out from the heart of a cliff behind the local hotel.   It was this owner of this land and business (now replaced by the Train Station), who used this spring to market his hotel.

The second peak in the above chronological bar chart–1820–represents the truth birth of the Saratoga Industry business.   It took another 20 years for Saratoga to  be almost completely in control of this local medical market.  One other set of springs in the immediate vicinity seemed equally important at times–New Lebanon Springs, located quite close to the Shaker Village of the same name (the history of which is covered separately.)

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APPENDIX

Publications Data

The original source for this data is  the Appendix in William L Stone’s Reminiscences of Saratoga and Ballston  (accessed at a page in rootsweb.ancestry.com).

Year Title
1767 STONE, W.L. – The Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, Bart. By William L. Stone. Albany: J. Munsell, 1865, 2 vols., 8vo, pp. xv., 555; xv., 554. Contains an account of Sir William Johnson’s visit to the Springs in 1767.
1787 .SHEPHERD, D. – Saratoga. A Story of 1787. New York: W.P. Fetridge & Co., 1856, 12mo, cloth, pp. 400. This book was written by the late Daniel Shepherd, of Saratoga, whose name appears in the notice of copyright. In the preface the author says: “For all artistic purposes, whatever might be true is true; and this book is presented to the public as a faithful though, of course, an incomplete picture of Saratoga in 1787.”
1790 .WATSON, W.C. – Men and Times of the Revolution; or, Memoirs of Elkanah Watson, including Journals of Travels in Europe and America from 1777 to 1842, with his Correspondence with Public Men, and Reminiscences and Incidents of the Revolution. Edited by his son, Winslow C. Watson. New York: Dana & Company, 1856. 8vo, pp. 460. Contains accounts of the visits of Elkanah Watson to Saratoga and B

allston in 1790 and 1805.

1792 .SEAMAN, V. – A Dissertation on the Mineral Waters of Saratoga; containing a topographical description of the country, and the situation of the several Springs; an analysis of the waters, as made upon the spot, together with remarks on their use in medicine, and a conjecture respecting their natural mode of formation; also a method of making an artificial mineral water resembling that of Saratoga, both in sensible qualities and in medicinal virtue. By Valentine Seaman, M.D., Physician in the City of New York. New York: Printed by Samuel Campbell, No. 37 Hanover Square, 1793. 8vo pamphlet, pp. 40. The Dedication of this work to Chancellor Livingston is dated 1 st mo., 1 st , 1793. The Dissertation was probably written in 1792 or earlier, and it is said to have been first read as a Thesis at Columbia College.
1800 .WELD, I. – Travels through the States of North America and the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, during the years 1795, 1796, and 1797. By Isaac Weld, Jr. Fourth edition. London: Printed for John Stockdale, 1800. 8vo, pp. 552, plates. Gives some account of the “Singular Mineral Springs near Saratoga,” Letter XX.
1806 .Ballston Springs. [A Poem.} New York: S. Gould, 1806. 12mo, pp. 46. A copy in the Library of Congress. – Sabin .
1809 .SEAMAN. – A Dissertation on the Mineral Waters of Saratoga; including an account of the waters of Ballston. Second edition, enlarged. By Valentine Seaman, M.D., one of the Surgeons of the New York Hospital. New York: Printed and sold by Collins & Perkins, No. 189 Pearl Street, 1809. 12mo, pp. 131, with map.
1812 .MELISH, J. – Travels in the United States of America in the years of 1806 and 1807, and 1809, 1810, and 1811. . . . . . By John Melish. Philadelphia: Printed for the Author by T. & G. Palmer, 1812. 2 vols. 8vo, xxii., 444, maps; xi., 492, maps. Chap. XLVII. contains a description of Ballston.
1813 .MURAT, A. – A Moral and Political Sketch of the United States of North America. By Achille Murat. . . . . . London: Effingham Wilson, 1813. 8vo, pp. xxxix., 402, map. The author has something to say of life at Saratoga in his chapter on “Manners, Fine Arts, and Literature.” (Letter Tenth.)
1813 .SPAFFORD, H.G. – A Gazetteer of the State of New York: embracing an ample survey and description of its counties, towns, cities, villages, canals, mountains, lakes, rivers, creeks, and Natural Topography. . . . By Horatio Gates Spafford, LL.D. Albany: B.D. Packard, 1824. 8vo, pp. 620. Mr. Spafford’s first New Gazetteer was issued in 1813. Albany: H.C. Southwick. 8vo, pp. 334, with an appendix and maps.
1815 .MEEKER, J. – An Inaugural Dissertation on the Principal Mineral Waters of the States of New York and New Jersey, submitted to the Rev. John H. Livingston, SS.T.P., President and the Trustee of Queen’s College, in New Jersey, and to the Professors of the Medical Institution of the State of New York, constituting the Medical Faculty of the same for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine. By John Meeker, Licentiate in Physic, and Vice-President of the Hygeian Society of New York. On the 26 th of September, 1815. New York: 1815. 8vo, pp. 37. The mineral waters of Ballston and Saratoga, and especially of Congress Spring, are principally treated of in this Dissertation.
1817 .MEADE, W. – An Experimental Enquiry into the Chemical Properties and Medicinal Qualities of the principal Mineral Waters of Ballston and Saratoga, in the State of New York, with Directions for the use of those Waters in the Various Diseases to which they are applicable, and observations on Diet and Regimen. To which is added an appendix, containing a chemical analysis of the Lebanon Spring, in the State of New York. By William Meade, M.D., member, etc. Philadelphia: Harrison Hall, 1817. 8vo, pp. xv., 195, with views on steel of Ballston Springs and Congress Spring.
1819 .SEARS, R. – A Poem on the Mineral Waters of Ballston and Saratoga, with Notes illustrating the history of the Springs and adjacent country. By Reuben Sears, A.M., Ballston Spa: Published by the Author. J. Comstock, Printer. 1819, 16mo, pp. 108.
1819 .STEEL, J.H. – An Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Saratoga and Ballston, with practical remarks on their use in various diseases, containing observations on the Geology and Mineralogy of the surrounding country, with a geological map. Second edition, enlarged and improved. By Dr. John H. Steel, resident at the Springs, President of the Saratoga Medical Society, etc. Albany: D. Steele, 1819. 18mo, pp. 118, with map. The first edition of this work was published in 1817. This work with precisely the same title, and still called the “Second edition, enlarged and improved,” was reprinted at Saratoga Springs, by G.M. Davison, 1828. 18mo, pp. 118.
1821 ..

DWIGHT. – Travels in New England and New York. By Timothy Dwight, S.T.D., LL.D., late President of Yale College. New Haven: T. Dwight, 1821, 1822. 4 vols. 8vo, pp. 524, 527, 534, 527, maps. Reprinted, London: Baynes, 1823. 4 vols., 8vo. Vol. 3 contains sketches of Saratoga and Ballston.

1822 .STANSBURY, P. – A Pedestrian Tour of Two Thousand Three Hundred Miles in North America. . . . . Performed by the author in the autumn of. Embellished with views. By P. Stansbury. New York: J.D. Myers & W. Smith, 1822. 12mo, pp. 274. See Chap. II. for a very good description of Saratoga and Ballston.
1822 .STEEL. – A Report on the Geological Structure of Saratoga, N.Y. . . . . . By John H. Steel. Saratoga Springs, 1822, 8vo. A copy in the New York Historical Society’s Library.
1822 .WATSON, J.F. – Historic Tales of Olden Time, concerning the early settlement and advancement of New York City and State. By John F. Watson. New York: Collins & Hanney, 1822. 12mo, pp. 214, plates.
1824 .DAVISON. – The Traveller’s Guide through the Middle and Northern States and the Provinces of Canada. Sixth edition, enlarged and improved. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1824. 18mo, pp. 452. Seventh edition. By G.M. Davison. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1837. 18mo, pp. 465. Eighth edition, 1840. 18mo, pp. 395. Map. A valuable guide, by a Saratogian.
1824 .SPAFFORD, H.G. – A Gazetteer of the State of New York: embracing an ample survey and description of its counties, towns, cities, villages, canals, mountains, lakes, rivers, creeks, and Natural Topography. . . . By Horatio Gates Spafford, LL.D. Albany: B.D. Packard, 1824. 8vo, pp. 620. Mr. Spafford’s first New Gazetteer was issued in 1813. Albany: H.C. Southwick. 8vo, pp. 334, with an appendix and maps.
1825 .DWIGHT, THEODORE. – The Northern Traveller; containing the routes to Niagara, Quebec, and the Springs; with descriptions of the principal scenes, and useful hints to strangers. With maps and copperplates. New York: Wilder & Campbell, 1825. 18mo, pp. 222. Third edition, New York: G. & C. Carvill, 1828. Sixth edition, New York: J.P. Haven, 1841. 18mo, pp. 250, 17 maps. This work devotes more than usual space to Saratoga and Ballston.
1828 .DWIGHT, THEODORE. – The Northern Traveller; containing the routes to Niagara, Quebec, and the Springs; with descriptions of the principal scenes, and useful hints to strangers. With maps and copperplates. New York: Wilder & Campbell, 1825. 18mo, pp. 222. Third edition, New York: G. & C. Carvill, 1828. Sixth edition, New York: J.P. Haven, 1841. 18mo, pp. 250, 17 maps. This work devotes more than usual space to Saratoga and Ballston.
1828 .STEEL, J.H. – An Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Saratoga and Ballston, with practical remarks on their use in various diseases, containing observations on the Geology and Mineralogy of the surrounding country, with a geological map. Second edition, enlarged and improved. By Dr. John H. Steel, resident at the Springs, President of the Saratoga Medical Society, etc. Albany: D. Steele, 1819. 18mo, pp. 118, with map. The first edition of this work was published in 1817. This work with precisely the same title, and still called the “Second edition, enlarged and improved,” was reprinted at Saratoga Springs, by G.M. Davison, 1828. 18mo, pp. 118.
1829 .MACAULAY, J. – The National, Statistical, and Civil History of the State of New York. New York: Gould & Barnes. Albany: William Gould & CO., 1829. 3 vols., 8vo, pp. 24, 534, 14, 459, 16, 451. Vol. I. (Chap. IX.) contains an extended account of the mineral springs of the State, with analyses; Vol. II. (Chaps. I. And III.) affords descriptions of Saratoga County and of the villages of Saratoga Springs and Ballston; Vol. III. give some account of their settlement, etc.
1830 .DAVISON, G.M. – The Fashionable Tour in 1825. An Excursion to the Springs, Niagara, Quebec, and Boston. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1830. 18mo, pp. 169.
1830 .DAVISON. – The Traveller’s Tour, and Guide to Travellers through the Northern and Middle States and Canada. G.M. Davison, Saratoga, 1830. 12mo.
1831 .BELL, J. – On Baths and Mineral Waters. In two parts. . . . . By John Bell, M.D., etc. Philadelphia: Henry H. Porter, 1831. 12mo, pp. 532.
1831 .STEEL. – An Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Saratoga and Ballston, with practical remarks on their medical properties; together with a History of the discovery and settlement of these celebrated Watering Places and observations on the Geology and Mineralogy of the surrounding country. By John H. Steel, M.D. An entire new work. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1831. 12mo, pp. xii., 203. Second edition, with preface by publisher, 1838.
1832 .LATROBE, C.J. – The Rambler in North America, 1832-1833. By Charles Joseph Latrobe. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1835. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 243, 242. See Letter IV.
1832 .TUDOR, H. – Narrative of a Tour in North America. . . . . . In a Series of Letters, written in the year 1831-2. By Henry Tudor, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. London: James Duncan, 1834. 2 vols., 8vo, pp. xix., 468; x., 458. See Letter VIII.
1833 .STUART, J. – Three Years in North America. By James Stuart, Esq., From the second London edition. New York: J. & J. Harper, 1833. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 334, 337. See Chap. X.
1835 .The Tourist, or Pocket Manual for Travellers on the Hudson River, the Western Canal and Stage Road to Niagara Falls, down Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence to Montreal and Quebec; comprising also the routes to Lebanon, Ballston, and Saratoga Springs. Fourth edition, enlarged and improved. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1835. 16mo, pp. 106, with map.
1836 .GORDON, T.F. – Gazetteer of the State of New York: comprehending its Colonial History, General Geography, Geology, and Internal Improvements; its Political State; a minute description of its several counties, towns, villages; statistical tables, etc., with a Map of the State and a Map of each County, and Plans of the Cities and Principal Villages. By Thomas F. Gordon. Philadelphia: Printed for the Author by T.K. & R.G. Collins, 1836. 8vo, pp. xii., 801.
1836 .POWER, T. – Impressions of America during the Years 1833, 1834, and 1835. By Tyrone Power. Philadelphia: Carey, Lea & Blanchard, 1836. 2 vols., 12mo, pp. 262, 219. See the last Chap. Of Vol. I.
1837 .DAVISON. – The Traveller’s Guide through the Middle and Northern States and the Provinces of Canada. Sixth edition, enlarged and improved. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1824. 18mo, pp. 452. Seventh edition. By G.M. Davison. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1837. 18mo, pp. 465. Eighth edition, 1840. 18mo, pp. 395. Map. A valuable guide, by a Saratogian.
1838 .GILMAN, C. – The Poetry of Travelling in the United States. By Caroline Gilman. . . . . New York: S. Coleman, 1838. 12mo, pp. 430. Saratoga and Saratoga Lake are pleasantly described in this volume, and the lake is the subject of a poem.
1838 .STEEL. – An Analysis of the Mineral Waters of Saratoga and Ballston, with practical remarks on their medical properties; together with a History of the discovery and settlement of these celebrated Watering Places and observations on the Geology and Mineralogy of the surrounding country. By John H. Steel, M.D. An entire new work. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1831. 12mo, pp. xii., 203. Second edition, with preface by publisher, 1838.
1838 .WILLIS, N.P. – American Scenery; or, Land, Lake, and River. Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature. From Drawings by W.H. Bartlett. The Literary Department by N.P. Willis. London and New York: George Virtue. 4to, 2 vols., pp. 140, 146. Contains four steel views of Saratoga and Ballston scenery, with descriptions by Willis. The work was first published in 1838-40.
1839 .MURRAY, C.A. – Travels in North America during the years 1834, 1835, and 1836. . . . . . By the Hon. Charles Augustus Murray. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1839. 2 vols. 12mo, pp. 324, 247. See Chap. V.
1839 .The Tourist, or Pocket Manual for Travellers on the Hudson River, the Western and Northern Canals and Railroads; the Stage Routes to Niagara Falls, and down Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence to Montreal and Quebec. Comprising also the routes to Lebanon, Ballston and Saratoga Springs, with many new and interesting details. Sixth edition. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1839. 16mo, pp. 108.
1840 .DAVISON. – The Traveller’s Guide through the Middle and Northern States and the Provinces of Canada. Sixth edition, enlarged and improved. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1824. 18mo, pp. 452. Seventh edition. By G.M. Davison. Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1837. 18mo, pp. 465. Eighth edition, 1840. 18mo, pp. 395. Map. A valuable guide, by a Saratogian.
1841 .BARBER, J.W. and HOWE, H. – Historical Collections of the State of New York, containing a general collection of the most interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, etc., relating to its History and Antiquities, with Geographical Descriptions of every Township in the State. By John W. Barker and Henry Howe. New York: S. Tuttle, 1841. 8vo, pp. 603. Engravings.
1841 .BUCKINGHAM, J.S. – America: Historical, Statistic, and Descriptive, By J.S. Buckingham, Esq. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1841. 2 vols., pp. 514, 516, plates. See Chapters IX. and X., Vol. II.
1841 .DEVEAUX, S. – The Traveller’s Own Book to Saratoga Springs, Niagara Falls, and Canada, containing routes, distances, conveyances, expenses, use of mineral waters, baths, description of scenery, etc. A complete guide for the valetudinarian and for the tourist, seeking for pleasure and amusement. With maps and engravings. By S. DeVeaux. Buffalo: Faxon & Read, 1841. 18mo, pp. 258.
1841 .DWIGHT, THEODORE. – The Northern Traveller; containing the routes to Niagara, Quebec, and the Springs; with descriptions of the principal scenes, and useful hints to strangers. With maps and copperplates. New York: Wilder & Campbell, 1825. 18mo, pp. 222. Third edition, New York: G. & C. Carvill, 1828. Sixth edition, New York: J.P. Haven, 1841. 18mo, pp. 250, 17 maps. This work devotes more than usual space to Saratoga and Ballston.
1841 .McGUIRE, HENRY. – A Concise History of High Rock Spring, and the Natural History of the Mineral Fountains of Saratoga. By Henry McGuire. Albany: C. Van Benthuysen & Sons, 1841. 16mo, pp. 42.
1841 .McLAREN, D. – The Pavilion Fountain at Saratoga. By D. McLaren. New York: Thompson & Hart, 1841. Small 12mo, pp. 42.
1841 .NORTH, M.L. – Saratoga Waters; or, the Invalid at Saratoga. By M.L. North, N.D., a resident physician. Second edition, with the analyses of various mineral springs. New York: Saxton & Miles, 1843. 16mo, pp. 72. The first edition of this work was published in 1841.
1842 .DISTURNELL, J. – A Gazetteer of the State of New York: comprising its Topography, Geology, Mineralogical Resources, Civil Divisions, Canals, Railroads, and Public Institutions. . . . . Albany: J. Disturnell, 1842. 8vo, pp. 475, with a township map.
1842 .HOLLEY, O.L. – A Gazetteer of the State of New York. Albany: J. Disturnell, 1842. 12mo, pp. 475, map.
1843 .ENDICOTT, G. – Endicott’s Pictures of Saratoga for 1843. Containing thirteen accurate views, from original drawings, of the principal buildings and places of the village, with a brief description of each. Respectfully dedicated to the Visitors of the Springs. New York: G. Endicott, 1843. 13 views; pages 12 by 17; 2 pp. letter-press.
1844 .ALLEN, R.L. – A Historical, Chemical, and Therapeutical Analysis of the principal Mineral Fountains at Saratoga Springs, together with general directions for their use. By R.L. Allen, M.D., resident and consulting physician. Third edition, revised. Saratoga Springs: B. Huling, 1853. 16mo, pp. 72. The first edition was published in 1844; second, 1848.
1844 .DISTURNELL. – The Northern Traveller; containing the Hudson River Guide and Tour to the Springs, Lake George, and Canada, passing through Lake Champlain. By J. Disturnell. New York, 1844. Two maps.
1844 .HOLLEY. – The Picturesque Tourist; being a Guide through the Northern and Eastern States and Canada; giving an accurate description of cities and villages, celebrated places of resort, etc., with maps and illustrations. Edited by O.L. Holley. New York: J. Disturnell, 1844.
1846 .BARBER and HOWE. – Pictorial History of the State of New York. Cooperstown, 1846, 8vo. “This is a new title to the Historical Collections.” – Sabin .
1846 .NORTH. – North’s Guide for Invalids. Analysis of Saratoga Waters; also of Sharon, Avon, Virginia, and other mineral waters of the United States, with directions for invalids. By M.L. North, a resident physician at Saratoga. Fourth edition, New York: Saxton & Miles, 1846. 16mo, pp. 72.
1846 .SMITH, J.C. – The Illustrated Hand-Book, a new Guide for Travellers through the United States of America: containing a description of the states, cities, towns, villages, watering-places, colleges, etc., etc. . . . Embellished with one hundred and twenty-five highly-finished engravings. Accompanied by a large and accurate map. By J. Calvin Smith. New York: Sherman & Smith, 1846. 18mo, pp. 233.
1846 .WATSON. – Annals and Occurrences of New York City and State in the Olden Time: being a collection of Memoirs, Anecdotes and Incidents concerning the City, County, and Inhabitants, from the days of the founders. Intended to preserve the recollections of olden times, and to exhibit society in its changes of manners and customs, and the city and country in their local changes and improvements. In two books – one volume, octavo, embellished with pictorial illustrations. By John F. Watson. Philadelphia: Henry F. Anners, 1846. 8vo, pp. 390.
1847 .DISTURNELL. – Disturnell’s Guide through the Middle, Northern, and Eastern States. New York: J. Disturnell, June, 1847. July, 1847, 18mo, pp. 80, map; January, 1848, 18mo, pp. 79.
1847 .DWIGHT. – Summer Tours, or Notes of Traveller through some of the Middle and Northern States. By Theodore Dwight. Second edition. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1847. 12mo, pp. 252.
1848 .ALLEN, R.L. – A Historical, Chemical, and Therapeutical Analysis of the principal Mineral Fountains at Saratoga Springs, together with general directions for their use. By R.L. Allen, M.D., resident and consulting physician. Third edition, revised. Saratoga Springs: B. Huling, 1853. 16mo, pp. 72. The first edition was published in 1844; second, 1848.
1848 .DISTURNELL. – Disturnell’s Guide through the Middle, Northern, and Eastern States. New York: J. Disturnell, June, 1847. July, 1847, 18mo, pp. 80, map; January, 1848, 18mo, pp. 79.
1849 .EMMONS, E. – The Empire Spring, its Composition and Medical Uses, together with a notice of the Mineral Waters of Saratoga, and those of other parts of New York. By E. Emmons, M.D. Albany: C. Van Benthuysen, 1849. 16mo, pp. 36.
1850 .DISTURNELL. – Railroad, Steamboat, and Telegraph Book, being a Guide through the Middle, Northern, and Eastern States, and Canada, etc. New York: J. Disturnell, 1850. 18mo, pp. 108, map. The same, 1855, 18mo, pp. 108; 1865, sq. 18mo, pp. –.
1850 .PECK, W.B. and C.E. – Peck’s Tourists’ Companion to Niagara Falls, Saratoga Springs, the Lakes, etc. Buffalo, 1850. 12mo, pp. –.
1852 .CURTIS, G.W. – Lotus-Eating: A Summer Book. By George William Curtis, author of “Nile Notes,” “Howadji in Syria,” etc. Illustrated by Kensett. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1852. 12mo, pp. 206. Contains a chapter on Saratoga.
1853 .ALLEN, R.L. – A Historical, Chemical, and Therapeutical Analysis of the principal Mineral Fountains at Saratoga Springs, together with general directions for their use. By R.L. Allen, M.D., resident and consulting physician. Third edition, revised. Saratoga Springs: B. Huling, 1853. 16mo, pp. 72. The first edition was published in 1844; second, 1848.
1855 .BELL. – The Mineral and Thermal Springs of the United States and Canada. BY John Bell, M.D., author of “Baths and Mineral Waters,” “Baths and the Watery Regimen,” etc. Philadelphia: Parry & McMillan, 1855. 18mo. pp. 394.
1855 .DISTURNELL. – Railroad, Steamboat, and Telegraph Book, being a Guide through the Middle, Northern, and Eastern States, and Canada, etc. New York: J. Disturnell, 1850. 18mo, pp. 108, map. The same, 1855, 18mo, pp. 108; 1865, sq. 18mo, pp. –.
1855 .DISTURNELL. – Springs, Waterfalls, Sea-Bathing Resorts, and Mountain Scenery of the United States and Canada; giving an Analysis of the principal Mineral Springs, with a brief description of the most fashionable watering places, mountain resorts, etc., with illustrations. New York: Published by J. Disturnell, 1855. 18mo, pp. 227.
1855 .WILLIS. – The Prose Works of N.P. Willis. New edition, in one volume. Philadelphia: Henry C. Baird, 1855. Royal 8vo, pp. 798. Contains the “Ghost Ball at Congress Hall” (Dashes at Life with a Free Pencil), and various letters from or notices of Saratoga (Ephemera).
1856 .SHEPHERD, D. – Saratoga. A Story of 1787. New York: W.P. Fetridge & Co., 1856, 12mo, cloth, pp. 400. This book was written by the late Daniel Shepherd, of Saratoga, whose name appears in the notice of copyright. In the preface the author says: “For all artistic purposes, whatever might be true is true; and this book is presented to the public as a faithful though, of course, an incomplete picture of Saratoga in 1787.”
1856 .STEEL. – An Analysis of the Congress Spring, with practical remarks on its Medical Properties. By John H. Steel, M.D. Revised and corrected by John L. Perry, M.D., Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1847. 16mo, pp. iv., 34. The same, New York: Wm. W. Rose, 1856, pp. iv., 34. The same, New York, 1860.
1857 .RICHARDS, T.A. – Appleton’s Illustrated Hand-Book of American Travel. A full and reliable Guide by Railway, Steamboat and State, to the Cities, Towns, Waterfalls, Battle-fields, Mountains, Rivers, Lakes, Hunting and Fishing Grounds, Watering Places, Summer Resorts, and all scenes and objects of importance and interest in the United States and the British Provinces. By T. Addison Richards, with careful maps of all parts of the country, and pictures of famous Places and Scenes, from original drawings by the author and other artists. . . . New York: D. Appleton & Co. 12mo, pp. 412. Copyrighted 1857. The same, for the Eastern and Middle States. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 12mo, pp. 216.
1858 .ALLEN. – An Analysis of the Principal Mineral Fountains of Saratoga Springs, embracing an account of their history; their chemical and curative properties; together with general directions for their use; also, some remarks upon the natural history and objects of general interest in the County of Saratoga. By R.L. Allen, M.D. New York: Ross & Tousey, 1858. 16mo, pp. 114.
1858 .DISTURNELL. – The Picturesque Tourist: being a Guide through the State of New York and Upper and Lower Canada, including a Hudson River Guide; giving an accurate description of Cities and Villages, celebrated places of resort, etc., with maps and illustrations. New York: Published by J. Disturnell. 16mo, pp. 298. Copyrighted 1858.
1858 .NORTH. – Book of the Spring. Title-page and contents same as above. Seventh edition, with an appendix. Saratoga Springs: B. Huling, 1858. 16mo, pp. 72.
1858 .Our Summer Retreats. – A Hand-Book to all the Chief Waterfalls, Springs, Mountain and Seaside Resorts, and other Places of Interest in the United States. With views taken from sketches by Washington Friend, Esq., and from photographs. New York: T. Nelson & Sons, 1858. 16mo, pp. 64.
1858 .SOMBRE, SAMUEL ( pseudon .) – Aquarelles; or, Summer Sketches. By Samuel Sombre. New York: Stanford & Delisser, 1858. 12mo, pp. 95. Contains a lengthy poem entitled Saratoga.
1859 .ALLEN. – Hand-Book of Saratoga, and Stranger’s Guide. By R.L. Allen, M.D. New York: W.H. Arthur & Co., 1859. 8vo, pp. 131. The same. Albany: J. Munsell, 1866. 8vo, pp. 147. The same. New York: William L. Stone & Jordan, 1860. 8vo, pp. 141.
1860 .ALLEN. – Hand-Book of Saratoga, and Stranger’s Guide. By R.L. Allen, M.D. New York: W.H. Arthur & Co., 1859. 8vo, pp. 131. The same. Albany: J. Munsell, 1866. 8vo, pp. 147. The same. New York: William L. Stone & Jordan, 1860. 8vo, pp. 141.
1860 .BEDORTHA, N. – Practical Medication, or the Invalid’s Guide, with Directions for the Treatment of Disease. By N. Bedortha, N.D., of the Saratoga Water Cure, Saratoga Springs, N.Y. Albany: Munsell & Rowland, 1860. 12mo, pp. 281.
1860 .STEEL. – An Analysis of the Congress Spring, with practical remarks on its Medical Properties. By John H. Steel, M.D. Revised and corrected by John L. Perry, M.D., Saratoga Springs: G.M. Davison, 1847. 16mo, pp. iv., 34. The same, New York: Wm. W. Rose, 1856, pp. iv., 34. The same, New York, 1860.
1864 .NICHOLS, T.L. – Forty Years of American Life. By Dr. Thomas L. Nichols. London: John Maxwell & Company, 1864, 2 vols. 8vo, pp. xii., 408; xi., 368. See Chap. XXXI., on “American Recreations and Amusements.”
1864 .The Traveller’s Guide to the Hudson River, Saratoga Springs, Lake George, Falls of Niagara and Thousand Islands, Montreal, Quebec, and the Saguenay River; also to the Green and White Mountains, and other parts of New England, etc. New York: American News Company, 1864. 16mo, pp. 324, with maps and illustrations.
1865 .DISTURNELL. – Railroad, Steamboat, and Telegraph Book, being a Guide through the Middle, Northern, and Eastern States, and Canada, etc. New York: J. Disturnell, 1850. 18mo, pp. 108, map. The same, 1855, 18mo, pp. 108; 1865, sq. 18mo, pp. –.
1865 .RICHARDS. – Miller’s Guide to Saratoga Springs and Vicinity. Illustrated. By T. Addison Richards. New York: James Miller, 1871. 12mo., pp. 91. Copyrighted, 1865.
1865 .STONE, W.L. – The Life and Times of Sir William Johnson, Bart. By William L. Stone. Albany: J. Munsell, 1865, 2 vols., 8vo, pp. xv., 555; xv., 554. Contains an account of Sir William Johnson’s visit to the Springs in 1767.
1866 .ALLEN. – Hand-Book of Saratoga, and Stranger’s Guide. By R.L. Allen, M.D. New York: W.H. Arthur & Co., 1859. 8vo, pp. 131. The same. Albany: J. Munsell, 1866. 8vo, pp. 147. The same. New York: William L. Stone & Jordan, 1860. 8vo, pp. 141.
1866 .BATES, G.H. – The Uses and Value of Congress, Empire, and Columbian Waters of Saratoga Springs, in the treatment of various diseases, and as a refreshing beverage, embracing facts and information for the benefit of invalids generally, and visitors at the Springs. New York: Hotchkiss’ Sons. Copyrighted 1866. 32 pp., 3 by 4 ½. Written by G.H. Bates, whose initials are signed to the preface.
1866 .STONE. – Saratoga Springs: being a complete Guide to the Mineral Springs, Hotels, Drives, and all points of interest around and in the immediate vicinity of this celebrated watering place. By William L. Stone, author of the “Life and Times of Sir W. Johnson, Bart.” Views taken on the spot by William Gellatly. New York: T. Nelson & Sons, 1866. 12mo, pp. 32.
1866 .WALWORTH, R.H. {Original text has “R.W.”.} – The Use of Congress Water in Cholera. Letter of the late Chancellor Walworth, of New York, containing much valuable information, derived from his experiences during the ravages of this disease in 1832, and all its subsequent visits to this country. Addressed to and published in the Albany Argus of April 23, 1866. Second pamphleted. New York: Russell Bros., 1872. 24mo., pp. 24.
1867 .CHANDLER, C.F. – Saratoga Seltzer Spring Company. Report on the Saratoga Seltzer Spring, by C.F. Chandler, Ph.D., Professor of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, etc. New York: Wynkoop & Hallenbeck, printers, 1867. 8vo, pp. 12.
1867 .MOORMAN, J.J. – The Mineral Waters of the United States and Canada, with a Map and Plates, and general directions for reaching Mineral Springs. By J.J. Moorman, M.D. Baltimore: Kelly & Piet, 1867. 12mo, pp. 507.
1868 .BATES. – Uso y Eficacia de las Aguas de los Manantiales de Saratoga llamados Congress, Empire y Columbian, en el Tratamiento de varios Enfermedades, y como bebeda refrescante; tambien hechos e informes en beneficio de los enfermos en general y de los que visiten los manantiales. New York: B.B. Hotchkiss & Co. Copyrighted 1868. 32 pp., 3 by 4 ½. A translation of the above.
1868 .DAWSON, C.C. – Saratoga: Its Mineral Waters, and their Use in Preventing and Eradicating Disease, and as a Refreshing Beverage. By C.C. Dawson. New York: Russell Bros., 1868. 16mo. Pp. 64. Reprinted 1871, 1873.
1871 .CHANDLER. – Lecture on Water, delivered before the American Institute of the City of New York, in the Academy of Music, January 20, 1871. By C.F. Chandler, Ph.D., Professor of Analytical and Applied Chemistry, School of Mines, Columbia College, etc. [Extract from the Transactions of the American Institute for 1870-71.] Albany: The Argus Company, printers, 1871. 8vo, pp. 49.
1871 DAWSON, C.C. – Saratoga: Its Mineral Waters, and their Use in Preventing and Eradicating Disease, and as a Refreshing Beverage. By C.C. Dawson. New York: Russell Bros., 1868. 16mo. Pp. 64. Reprinted 1871, 1873.
1871 .DEARBORN, R.F. – Saratoga and How to See It. Containing a full account of its Mineral Springs and attractions, with numerous illustrations. Saratoga: R.F. Dearborn, 1871. Square 16mo, pp. 70. The same, revised, 1871, pp. 72.
1871 .KIRKMAN’S Saratoga Guide, and Magazine of Fashion and Gossip. Issued in numbers, folio, 1871, and the set (8 numbers, 4 pp. each) issued as Kirkman’s Saratoga Gossip, complete for the season of 1871.
1872 .COLT, S.S. – New York State Illustrated; or, The Tourist’s Guide through the Empire State, from New York by old and new paths to Niagara, embracing all Cities, Towns, and Watering Places, by Hudson River and New York Central Route. Describing all Routes of Travel, and Places of Popular Interest and Resort along the Hudson River, Susquehanna Road, Cooperstown, Sharon, Richfield Springs, Lake George, Lake Champlain, the Adirondacks, Trenton Falls, Saratoga, Niagara Falls, etc. Edited and published by Mrs. S.S. Colt, Albany, N.Y., 1872. 8vo, pp. 196.
1872 .DEARBORN. – Saratoga and How to See It. A complete description of the American Watering Place, by R.F. Dearborn, with steel engravings, photo-plates, and woodcuts. Troy: The Northern News Company, 1872. Square 16mo, pp. 126.
1872 .PERKINS, ELI ( pseudon .) – Saratoga in 1901. By Eli Perkins. Illustrated by 200 photo-etchings by Arthur Lumley. New York: Sheldon & Co., 1872. 12mo, pp. 249.
1872 .WALWORTH, R.H. {Original text has “R.W.”.} – The Use of Congress Water in Cholera. Letter of the late Chancellor Walworth, of New York, containing much valuable information, derived from his experiences during the ravages of this disease in 1832, and all its subsequent visits to this country. Addressed to and published in the Albany Argus of April 23, 1866. Second pamphleted. New York: Russell Bros., 1872. 24mo., pp. 24.
1873 .Appleton’s Hand-Book of American Travel, Northern and Eastern Tour. . . . . Being a Guide to the Niagara, the White Mountains, the Alleghanies, the Catskills, the Adirondacks, the Berkshire Hills, the St. Lawrence, Lake Champlain, Lake George, Lake Memphremagog, Saratoga, Newport, Cape May, the Hudson, and other famous localities. . . With Maps and various Skeleton Tours. Revised for summer of 1873, with appendix. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1873. 12mo, pp. 294. See Richards, T.A. – The above is a revision of Mr. Richards’ work, but without his name.
1873 .BUTLER, B.C. – From New York to Montreal. By B.C. Butler, author of “Lake George and Lake Champlain.” New York: American News Company, 1873. 12mo, pp. 155.
1873 .DAWSON, C.C. – Saratoga: Its Mineral Waters, and their Use in Preventing and Eradicating Disease, and as a Refreshing Beverage. By C.C. Dawson. New York: Russell Bros., 1868. 16mo. Pp. 64. Reprinted 1871, 1873.
1873 .DEARBORN. – Saratoga and How to See It. Containing a description of the Watering Place, with a Treatise on its Mineral Springs. By Dr. R.F. Dearborn. Albany: Weed, Parsons, & Co., printers, 1873. Square 16mo, pp. 181, with many engravings.
1873 .MORFORD, H. – Morford’s Short Trip Guide to America (United States and Dominion of Canada). By Henry Morford. . . . . . New York: Sheldon & Co.; London: W.H. Smith & Son and S. French. 12mo, pp. 329. Copyrighted in U.S., 1873.
1873 .SPARKLE, SOPHIE ( pseudon .) – Sparkles from Saratoga. By Sophie Sparkle. New York: American News CO., 1873. 12mo, pp. 340.
1873 .WALTON, G.E. – The Mineral Springs of the United States and Canada, with Analyses and Notes on the Prominent Spas of Europe, and a List of Seaside Resorts. By Geo. E. Walton, M.D., New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1873. 12mo, pp. 390 with map. Second edition, revised and enlarged, 1874. 12mo, pp. 414, with map.
1874 .BACHELDER, J.D. – Popular Resorts and How to Reach Them. Containing a brief description of the principal Summer Retreats in the United States and the routes of travel leading to them. By John B. Bachelder. Second edition. Boston: John B. Bachelder, 1874. 8vo, pp. 192.
1874 .BULKELEY, J.S. – Leading Men and Leading Pursuits of Ballston and Vicinity. With a Sketch of Ballston, Past and Present, by E.R. Mann. {Original text has “Maan”.} By J.S. Bulkeley. Ballston Spa, N.Y.: W.S. Waterbury, printer, 1874. 12mo, pp. 48.
1874 .DEARBORN. – Saratoga and What is to be Seen There: and Annual Guide, with a Treatise on the Mineral Waters. New York, 1874. 12mo, pp. 72. Copyrighted by R.F. Dearborn.
1874 .McQUILL, THURSTY ( pseudon .) – The Hudson River by Daylight. New York to Albany, Saratoga Springs, Lake George, Lake Champlain, Plattsburg, the Adirondacks, Montreal, The Thousand Islands, Niagara Falls, Watkins’ Glen, Richfield Springs, Cooperstown, Sharon, Howe’s Cave, the Green Mountains, Manchester, Middleton, and Lebanon Springs. By “Thursty McQuill.” New York: John Featherstone, 1874. Square 12mo, pp. 168.  The author of this valuable guide is Mr. Wallace Bruce, of Poughkeepsie, N.Y.
1874 .Osgood’s Middle States. – The Middle States: A Hand-Book for Travellers. A Guide to the Chief Cities and Popular Resorts of the Middle States, and to their Scenery and Historic Attractions; with the Northern Frontier from Niagara Falls to Montreal; also, Baltimore, Washington, and North Virginia, with Seven Maps and fifteen Plans. Boston: James Osgood & Company, 1874. 16mo, pp. xvi., 469. This work contains a map of Saratoga, with notices of the Springs, etc.
1874 .PAUL, JOHN ( pseudon .) – John Paul’s Book: Moral and Instructive: Consisting of Travels, Tales, Poetry and like Fabrications. By John Paul, author of “Liffith Lank,” “St. Twel’mo,” and other works too humorous to mention. With several portraits of the author, and other spirited engravings. Hartford Conn., and Chicago, Ill.: Columbian Book Company, 1874. 8vo, pp. 621. The New York Tribune has been noted as a scientific and educational newspaper ever since it gave to the world the remarkable series of Saratoga letters from “John Paul” (Mr. Charles H. Webb), now forming a part of this volume.
1874 .STODDARD, S.R. – Lake George. Illustrated. Saratoga, Luzerne, and Schroon Lake. By S.R. Stoddard. Third edition. Albany: Weed, Parsons & Co., 1874. 12mo, pp. 195.
1874 .The Englishman’s Illustrated Guide-Book to the United States and Canada. London: Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer, 1874. 12mo, pp. 262.
1874 .WALTON, G.E. – The Mineral Springs of the United States and Canada, with Analyses and Notes on the Prominent Spas of Europe, and a List of Seaside Resorts. By Geo. E. Walton, M.D., New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1873. 12mo, pp. 390 with map. Second edition, revised and enlarged, 1874. 12mo, pp. 414, with map.
1875 .An Illustrated Guide to the principal Summer Resorts of the United States, including careful descriptions of the Hudson River, Saratoga Springs, Lakes George and Champlain, the Adirondack Region, Niagara Falls, the St. Lawrence, Long Branch, Cape May, and others. With routes, cost of travel, best hotels, prices, etc., etc. New York: The American and Foreign Publishing Company, 1875. 16mo.

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