The Linnaean Dissertations

Partially copied from

Personal notes added throughout in brackets–[].  Blue wording emphasizes North American medical plants or Colonial New York related medical history.



Carolus Linnaeus, photograph of original painting by Martin Hoffman (1737). HI Archives portrait no. 36.
     There were 186 academic dissertations defended by students of Carolus Linnaeus during the period 1743–1776. The Hunt Institute Library has a complete set in our Strandell Collection of Linnaeana, which will soon be accessible online. Unlike the common practice today in which doctoral students write their own theses and defend them, in 18th-century Sweden the respondents typically expounded upon and defended the ideas of the praeses. 
Linnaeus served as praeses [presiding reviewer] for 185 of the 186 dissertations, with Carl von Linné fil. acting as praeses for the last one, Hellens’ Hypericum. Thus what are usually referred to as the Linnaean dissertations are attributed to Linnaeus, even though they are also associated with the respondents who defended them and whose names appear on their title pages.
 Resources  Many of these dissertations appear in Google Books.  Links will be added once further researched.
The Process of Approval..Perhaps a week before each dissertation was to be defended, copies would be printed up and circulated. Most were a few dozen pages long, and they were produced quickly, for an immediate and short term purpose. The paper was often rough, the printing sometimes uneven. The text was in Latin, employed as a universal language of scholarship. The range of topics is astonishing, given the fact that they all emanated from one individual.


Captured in these printed remnants of the academic process are Linnaeus’ thoughts on all manner of things. Steeped from boyhood in a love of plants, trained as a medical doctor, reaching to embrace the three realms of nature (animal, vegetable, mineral) in a single comprehensive scientific system, Linnaeus was an exceptional individual who was interested in and had opinions about everything in the natural world. The dissertations cover a wide range of topics on botany, zoology, mineralogy, medicine, nutrition, and a handful of other subjects.

The digitized dissertations are being added in PDF format to our Original Linnaean Dissertations database, which also contains brief bibliographic records compiled from reference sources. This is one of two searchable databases of information on our Web site relating to the dissertations. The other is an index to over 30,000 scientific names as cited in the dissertations, compiled by director Robert W. Kiger.

Although we don’t have full English translations of the dissertations available, we can provide short summary descriptions of nearly all of them. The summaries are presented along with short titles, dates of defense, names and dates of the respondents, and Lidén numbers. The short titles are those used in G. Drake af Hagelsrum’s Linnés Disputationer (Nässjö, 1939). The Lidén numbers, often used as a standard sequencing for the Linnaean dissertations, are provided for reference and to facilitate searching the database. They come from Johan Henrik Lidén’s Catalogus Disputationum (Uppsala, 1778–1856, continued by others).

The information for the abstracts was compiled by Hunt Institute staff from Richard Pulteney’s A General View of the Writings of Linnaeus, ed. 2 (London, 1805) and other sources.

REVIEW NOTES:  Important essays on medicine and/or New York/North American plants are in blue.


English summaries of the Linnaean dissertations

Betula nana. Defended {30} June 1743 by Lars Magnus Klase (1722-1766). Lidén no. 1
TOPIC: Linnaeus’ first dissertation, concerning the European arctic and subarctic dwarf shrubby birch, a soboliferous species rarely more than 1 meter high..Ficus. Defended 15 September 1744 by Cornelius Hegardt (1715-1772). Lidén no. 2
TOPIC: An account of the common fig, with an emphasis on its medicinal uses.


Peloria. Defended 19 December 1744 by Daniel Rudberg (ca. 1724-1797). Lidén no. 3
TOPIC: An account of colonies of Antirrhinum linaria (Linaria vulgaris Hill), which at one time was considered to be a distinct genus (Peloria L.) and in this dissertation is recognized correctly as a teratological form which produced actinomorphic gamopetalous corollas lacking any nectariferous spur. He observed, in some instances, that these flowers and the typical zygomorphic spurred corollas occurred on the same plant, and that the teratological flowers were sterile.


Corallia baltica. Defended 8 June 1745 by Henric Fougt (1720-1782). Lidén no. 4
TOPIC: An essay on corals of the Baltic Sea.


Amphibia Gyllenborgiana. Defended 18 June 1745 by Barthold Rudolph Hast (1724-1784). Lidén no. 5
TOPIC: Linnaeus’ first publication to present his adopted method of zoological description. It provides an account of 24 species of amphibia in the collection of Count Carl Gyllenborg (1679-1746), which he presented to the University of Uppsala.


Plantae Martino-Burserianae. Defended 12 December 1745 by Roland Martin (1726-1788). Lidén no. 6
TOPIC: An account of what Linnaeus held to be the 240 rarest species of plants in the herbarium of Joachim Burser (1583-1639), a collection of 25 volumes, presented to the University of Uppsala by M. Coijet.


Hortus Upsaliensis. Defended 16 December 1745 by Samuel Nauclér (1724-1770). Lidén no. 7
TOPIC: An essay on the history of European botanic gardens, and of the botanic garden at Uppsala, which had been founded by Olof Rudbeck the elder. By the time Linnaeus assumed responsibility for the garden, it had fallen into disrepair. Restoration was made possible in a few years due to the funds at his disposal, generous gifts of plants and the hiring of additional gardeners. Included in the dissertation are biographical accounts of Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702) and of his son, Olof Rudbeck (1660-1740). Reference is made to Linnaeus’ centigrade thermometer.


Passiflora. Defended 18 December 1745 by Johan Gustaf Hallman, d.a. (1726-1797). Lidén no. 8
TOPIC: Enumerates 22 species of Passiflora, adding a list of those which appeared to be of dubious specific rank. Includes an historical review of the introduction of the plants from Latin America. The morphological features of the flower and their association with the passion and death of Christ are reviewed.

Anandria. Defended 20 December 1745 by Erland Zacharias Tursén (1720-1778). Lidén no. 9
TOPIC: This Siberian plant (Tussilago anandria L.) was earlier named Anandria by Johann Georg Siegesbeck (1686-1755), a St. Petersburg botanist, who believed it to provide indisputable proof that Linnaeus’ doctrine of the sexes of plants was false.

Acrostichum. Defended 23 December 1745 by Johan Benjamin Heiligtag (1716-1771). Lidén no. 10
TOPIC: A study of the then-known species of the fern genus Acrostichum. No Linnaean trivial names or Latin binomials are given.

Museum Adolpho-Fridericianum. Defended 31 May 1746 by Lars Balk, filius (1726-1790). Lidén no. 11
TOPIC: An account of 65 of the rarer kinds of animals, chiefly amphibia and fishes, in the collection of the Crown Prince Adolf Fredrik, which he presented to the Museum of the University of Uppsala.

Sponsalia plantarum. Defended {11} June 1746 by Johan Gustaf Wahlbom (1724-1808). Lidén no. 12
TOPIC: A commentary on chapter 5 of Linnaeus’ Fundamenta botanica (1736), defending his views on the sexuality of plants.

Vires plantarum. Defended {20} June 1747 by Fredrik Hasselquist (1722-1752). Lidén no. 13
TOPIC: An essay on the strength and energy of growing plants, with an account of 43 new genera reported later in Genera plantarum (ed. 5, 1754).

Nova plantarum genera 1747. Defended {15} June 1747 by Carl Magnus Dassow (1719-1751). Lidén no. 14
TOPIC: An account of 43 new genera of plants later included in Genera plantarum (ed. 5, 1754). Includes “Corollarium continens nova, in morbis specifica dicta medicamenta, ex Tr. de Plantis Coldinghamensibus in Provincia Noveboracensi Americes conscr. 1742 a Codwald Colden. [by Cadwallader Colden]”, a commentary on chapter 12 of Linnaeus’ Fundamenta botanica (1736).

Crystallorum generatio. Defended 22 December 1747 by Mårten Kähler (1727-1773). Lidén no. 15
TOPIC: An essay on the formation of crystals and crystalline substances.

Surinamensa [sic] Grilliana. Defended 18 June 1748 by Peter Sundius (1725-1786). Lidén no. 16
TOPIC: A description of 25 animals, mostly serpents, collected in Surinam and eventually given to M. Grill who gave them to the museum at Uppsala. Includes accounts of the rattlesnake and boa constrictor.  [The rattlesnake history and folklore are New York and Cad Colden related events.]

Flora oeconomica. Defended 25 June 1748 by Elias Aspelin (1721-1795). Lidén no. 17
TOPIC: A compilation of the economic uses of some 300 species of Swedish native plants.

Curiositas naturalis. Defended {30} June 1748 by Olof Andersson Söderberg (1728-1758). Lidén no. 18
TOPIC: An essay encouraging the recognition and study of natural history as a science and not as a frivolous pursuit by amateurs only.

Taenia. Defended {9} December 1748 by Gottfrid Dubois (1723-1790). Lidén no. 19
TOPIC: An essay on the tapeworm, a parasite in humans, accounting for two species then distinguished, with notes on their morphology, reproduction, and control. Refers to other writers on the subject.

Oeconomia naturae. Defended 4 March 1749 by Isaac J. Biberg (1726-1804). Lidén no. 20
TOPIC: An essay on the general composition of the three kingdoms of nature, on the effective balance that exists within each, and among the three as a whole. Points discussed include the formation of soils by erosion of rock and action of water; the dissemination of plants (especially by modifications of seeds and fruits), the ecology of community succession; and, in the animal kingdom, the migration, hibernation, and multigeneric communities of animals and their relation to rarity or commonness of species. The conclusion is made that a balance and harmony of nature exists, and that a correlation exists between reproduction and survival.

Lignum colubrinum. Defended 11 March 1749 by Johan Anders af Darelli (1718-1780). Lidén no. 21
TOPIC: On the medicinal use of strychnine from the roots of the snakewood or Mungos tree, Strychnos colubrina L. (Loganiaceae), especially for snakebite poisoning. Its use is contrasted with that of the related drug, nux-vomica.

Generatio calculi. Defended 5 April 1749 by Johan Otto Hagström (1716-1792). Lidén no. 22
TOPIC: An essay on urine and the origin and treatment of bladder gallstones and gout.

Radix Senega. Defended {8} April 1749 by Jonas Andersson Kiernander (1721-1778). Lidén no. 23
TOPIC: An account of the botanical and medical properties of Senega snakeroot, or milkwort (Polygala senega L.), a plant of eastern North America used by the indians to treat snake bites.

Gemmae arborum. Defended 18 November 1749 by Pehr (Petrus) Löfling (1729-1756). Lidén no. 24
TOPIC: An essay on the buds of deciduous trees, with a morphological classification, based on structure and position, of 108 species of trees and shrubs, designed to provide a means of identifying them in winter.

Haemorrhagiae uteri sub statu graviditatis. Defended 6 December 1749 by Eric Elff (1718-1761). Lidén no. 25
TOPIC: A medical essay on uterine hemorrhaging at or hemorrhaging following parturition, and treatment to be given.

Pan svecicus. Defended 9 December 1749 by Nils L. Hesselgren (b. 1729). Lidén no. 26
TOPIC: This is a tabulation, in six columns, of 856 species of forage plants named and described in Linnaeus’ Flora Suecica (1745). Linnaeus’ adoption of the name Pan is from classical application to the pastoral life (especially of shepherds and herdsmen). The work introduced a binary name for each species, the second publication in which Linnaeus did this (for the first, see his dissertation, Gemmae arborum, 1749). The remaining columns identify the kind of animal that was observed to eat (or reject) the plant.

Splachnum. Defended {28} March 1750 by Lars Jonasson Montin (1723-1785). Lidén no. 27
TOPIC: Splachnum L. is a moss genus (Splachnaceae), with a capsule that bears spores only in the upper portion, and whose swollen lower half is chlorophyll-bearing. The note on p. 3 provides a description ofJuncus biglumis L. (see also fig. 3).

Semina muscorum detecta. Defended 25 April {1750} by Peter Jonas Bergius (1730-1790). Lidén no. 28
TOPIC: On the fructification (spore production) of mosses.

Materia medica in regno animali. Defended 25 June 1750 by Jonas Sidrén (1723- 1799). Lidén no. 29
TOPIC: A compendium of material medica from the animal kingdom, accounting for 67 subjects (mostly animal species) used in medicinal preparations. [New York species?]

Plantae rariores camschatcenses. Defended 22 December 1750 by Jonas Petri Halenius (1727-1810). Lidén no. 30
TOPIC: An account of 26 species of Siberian plants new to Linnaeus, who received them from Johan Georg Gmelin (1709-1755). Gmelin spent much of the period from 1733 to 1743 exploring the natural history of Siberia, on orders from Empress Anne of Russia.

Sapor. medicamentorum. Defended 23 February 1751 by Jacob Rudberg (1725-1778). Lidén no. 31
TOPIC: A compendium of materia medica restricted to those medications identified by the sense of taste, and arranged in 11 classes.

Nova plantarum genera [1751]. Defended 19 October 1751 by Leonhard Johan Chenon (1732-1808). Lidén no. 32
TOPIC: This is part II of the earlier work (1747) of the same title of which Carl M. Dassow was the respondent. It is chiefly an account of eight new genera and their species, of plants collected by Pehr Kalm (1716-1779) in North America. A review of pre-Kalmian collectors in North America is provided.

Plantae hybridae. Defended 23 November 1751 by Johan Johansson Haartman (1725-1787). Lidén no. 33
TOPIC: An essay on plant hybridization in nature, acknowledging fertilization of one species by pollen of another, and reporting some fertile intergeneric crosses. Interspecific hybrids are cited in Geranium (=Pelargonium), Erica, and Mesembryanthemum (sensu latiore). A list of 34 species believed to be of hybrid origin is given with supporting notes for each. A second list of those of putative hybrid origin is also supplied.

Obstacula medicinae. Defended {19} February 1752 by Johan Georg Beyersten (1717-1804). Lidén no. 34
TOPIC: A discussion of barriers to medical progress, with emphasis on faulty prescription of medications and ignorance by apothecaries of materia medica and of botany.

Plantae esculentae patriae. Defended 22 February 1752 by Johan Hiorth (1729-1804). Lidén no. 35
TOPIC: An enumeration of 127 native plants of Sweden that have been or could be used for food, condiments, and flavoring.

Euphorbia. Defended 6 May 1752 by Johannes J. F. Wiman. Lidén no. 36
TOPIC: An essay comprising a medico-botanical monograph of the genus Euphorbia, in which 53 species are described, with synonymy, with an emphasis on their medical uses.

Materia medica in regno lapideo. Defended 15 May 1752 by Johan Lindhult (1723-1770). Lidén no. 37
TOPIC: A compendium of 72 mineral substances prescribed by Linnaeus for medicinal needs arranged according to his classification, with pertinent mineralogical and medical data for each.  [Predisposes Samuel Mitchell’s work on New York geology and medicine.]

Morbi ex hyeme. Defended 2 June 1752 by Sven Brodd (1722-1773). Lidén no. 38
TOPIC: A compendium of diseases associated with weather conditions in Sweden, on the effects of intense cold on humans and animals, on meteorological phenomena of winter months, and on signs predictive of weather changes.

Noctiluca marina. Defended {9} June 1752 by Carl Fredric Adler (1720-1761). Lidén no. 39
TOPIC: A report, with historical background, on the cause of phosphorescent luminescence of the sea, called “mareld” in Swedish, as seen in the wake of ships when in tropical waters, on wave crests in severe storms, or in western coastal areas in evening from August to September. Reported to be due to the minute flagellate worm, Nereis noctiluca, for which genus 11 species are described herein. Identity of the organism is reported to have been made first in 1749.

Odores medicamentorum. Defended {30} June 1752 by Anders Magnus Wåhlin (1731-1797). Lidén no. 40
TOPIC: An essay on the value of medicinal odors by which to predict the therapeutic use of a medication. For this, Linnaeus classified such odors into seven classes.

Rhabarbarum. Defended 17 July 1752 by Samuel Ziervogel (1730-1797). Lidén no. 41
TOPIC: : On the medicinal use of rhubarb (Rheum palmatum) of the Polygonaceae.

Cui bono. Defended 21 October 1752 by Christopher Eliasson Gedner (1730-1773). Lidén no. 42
TOPIC: This dissertation embodies Linnaeus’ thoughts on his philosophy of nature, and asks the question: “To what purpose are the researches of the naturalist?”

Hospita insectorum flora. Defended 4 November 1752 by Jonas Gustaf Forsskåhl (1727-1783). Lidén no. 43
TOPIC: A history of entomological literature and its authors, with a classification system for the insects of Sweden, including identifications of host plants.

Nutrix noverca. Defended 7 November 1752 by Fredric Lindberg (1733-1779). Lidén no. 44
TOPIC: An essay on the advantages of breast-feeding infants, in which it is stressed that diseases and temperaments are transmitted to the child via the mother’s milk and that for this reason alone the use of wet nurses is discouraged.

Miracula insectorum. Defended 11 November 1752 by Gabriel Emanuel Avelin. Lidén no. 45
TOPIC: Treats the physiology of some insects.

Noxa insectorum. Defended {18} December 1752 by Michaël A. Baeckner (1728-1759). Lidén no. 46
TOPIC: A compendium of noxious insects that affect animals and plants, classified among 11 divisions based on the subjects of prey or infestation. These divisions include: humans, domestic animals, fruit trees, culinary herbs, wood structures and furniture, clothes and furs, forage and seed grains, ornamental trees and shrubs and house plants, pastures and grain crops (in the field).

Vernatio arborum. Defended 5 May 1753 by Harald Barck (1722-1782). Lidén no. 47
TOPIC: A compilation of results of inquiries made throughout Sweden on the vernaliation of trees and shrubs, together with meteorological data, to aid in determination of times to plant grains and related crops.

Incrementa botanices. Defended 2 June 1753 by Jacob Bjuur (1732-1774). Lidén no. 48
TOPIC: A brief history of botany, which contains information concerning the introduction of woodcuts into herbals, particularly those printed by Christopher Plantin and John Norton.

Demonstrationes plantarum in horto upsaliensi 1753. Defended 3 October 1753 by Johan Christian Höjer (1730-?). Lidén no. 49
TOPIC: An enumeration of some 1,450 species of exotic plants grown in the Uppsala botanic garden. This is the first publication after Species plantarum (1753) to use Linnaean binomials. William T. Stearn (1911-2001) considered this a first supplement to Species plantarum as it names and describes (in the footnotes) species not included therein.

Herbationes upsalienses. Defended 13 October 1753 by Anders Niclas Fornander (1719-1794). Lidén no. 50
TOPIC: About the organization and conduct of Linnaeus’ field excursions in the environs around Uppsala, and of the plants, animals, and habitats encountered. The popularity and flamboyance of these excursions were frowned upon by Linnaeus’ university colleagues.

Instructio musei rerum naturalium. Defended 14 November 1753 by David Hultman (1732-1798). Lidén no. 51
TOPIC: An account of the 18th-century Swedish natural history collections of Queen Lovisa Ulrika, King Adolph Fredrik, and Count Carl Gyllenborg, at Stockholm; of Kilian Stobaeus, at Lund; of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Samuel Ziervogel, at Stockholm.

Plantae officinales. Defended 15 December 1753 by Nils Gahn (1733-1820). Lidén no. 52
TOPIC: A pharmaceutical essay for Swedish apothecaries, forming the first enumeration of medicinal plants to be equated with Linnaean Latin binomials. It provides three catalogues: (1) Plants of the Materia medica (ca. 580 spp.), with binomials, identifying the parts used medicinally, with directions for preparation and use of selected parts; (2) Native plants of Sweden, which should be used for medicinal needs rather than any imported material of the same species; (3) Plants that should be cultivated in Sweden to preclude any excuse for their importation.

Censura medicamentorum simplicium vegetabilium. Defended {19} December 1753 by Gustaf Jacob Carlbohm (1731-1758). Lidén no. 53
TOPIC: Cautionary notes on medical uses of herbs and other vegetables.

Cynographia. Defended 21 December 1753 by Eric Magnus Lindecrantz (1729-1788). Lidén no. 54
TOPIC: This account of the domesticated dog is held by historical zoologists to exemplify Linnaeus’ first and complete zoological description according to the format prescribed by Linnaeus in his “Methodus demonstrandi” of his Systema naturae.

Stationes plantarum. Defended 3 April 1754 by Anders Hedenberg (1737-1798). Lidén no. 55
TOPIC: An essay on plant habitats, with examples of flowering plants found in each.

Flora anglica. Defended 3 April 1754 by Isaac Olof Grufberg (1736-1764). Lidén no. 56
TOPIC: This is the first publication to classify English plants according to Linnaeus’ system. It enumerates some 700 species common to England and Scandanavia, plus another 300 not known in Sweden.

Herbarium amboinense. Defended 11 May 1754 by Olof Stickman (1731-1798). Lidén no. 57
TOPIC: A commentary on the Herbarium Amboinense (1741-1755) of George Eberhard Rumph (1627-1702), with Linnean equivalent names given for Rumph’s polynomials.

Methodus investigandi vires medicamentorum chemica. Defended 2 October 1754 by Lars Hiortzberg (1727-1789). Lidén no. 58
TOPIC: A pharmacological dissertation on the chemical method of examining pharmaceutical preparations to analyze their odors, flavors and chemical compositions. The work points out that poisonous plants may possess toxic qualities in some parts and not in others and that careful chemical study of all parts of a plant is essential to a reliable knowledge of its pharmaceutical nature.

Consectaria electrico-medica. Defended 12 October 1754 by Pehr Zetzell (1724-1802). Lidén no. 59
TOPIC: A study in the medical value of electrical treatments in curing human disorders.  [Electric Medicine, 1750]

Cervus Rheno. Defended 23 October 1754 by Carl Fredrik Hoffberg (1729-1790). Lidén no. 60
TOPIC: History of the reindeer, an animal of vital importance to inhabitants of Lapland and other arctic areas. Includes observations on reindeers’ diet.

Ovis. Defended 30 October 1754 by Isaac Nilsson Palmér (1735-1787). Lidén no. 61
TOPIC: A dissertation on the domestic sheep (Ovis aires L.), its relatives, the breeds known to Linnaeus, their diseases (including the liver fluke) and alleged remedies, and an enumeration of some 140 species of plants which sheep will not eat, plus those that are poisonous when eaten.

Mus indicus. Defended 20 {18} November {December} 1754 by Johan Justus Nauman (1735-1778). Lidén no. 62
TOPIC: A zoological account of the guinea pig, Cavea porcellus, of the Guianas and Brazil. Linnaeus first placed it in the genus Mus and later in Cavea as C. cobaga in Systema naturae (ed. 13, 1767).

Horticultura academica. Defended 18 December 1754 by Johan Gustaf Wollrath (1736-1791). Lidén no. 63
TOPIC: A discussion of the status of horticultural education in Sweden and on gardening as an art.

Chinensia Lagerströmiana. Defended {23} December 1754 by Johan Lorens Odhelius (1737-1816). Lidén no. 64
TOPIC: An account of collections from China made by Linnaeus’ pupils Pehr Osbeck (1723-1805), Christopher Tärnström (1711-1746) and Olof Torén (1718-1753) while attached as naturalists to ships of the Swedish East India Company.

Centuria plantarum I. Defended 19 February 1755 by Abrahamus Danielis Juslenius (1732-1803). Lidén no. 65
TOPIC: This dissertation and another, Centuria II, Plantarum, include descriptions of rare or previously undescribed plants sent to Linnaeus from various parts of the world.

Centuria plantarum II. Defended 2 June 1756 {1755} by Eric Torner (1731-1767). Lidén no. 66
TOPIC: This dissertation and another, Centuria I, Plantarum, include descriptions of rare or previously undescribed plants sent to Linnaeus from various parts of the world.

Metamorphis [sic] plantarum. Defended {3} June {July} 1755 by Nils Ericsson Dahlberg (1736-1820). Lidén no. 67
TOPIC: This is Linnaeus’ exposition on plant physiology and morphology in which he held the calyx of the flower to be an extension of the epidermis or outer bark; the corolla to be an extension of the inner bark; the androecium to be that of the wood or xylem and the gynoecium to be that of the pith. It is proposed that variations in these structures are due to differences in soil, climate and other environmental factors.

Somnus plantarum. Defended 10 December 1755 by Peter Petersson Bremer (1731-1765). Lidén no. 68
TOPIC: This account of the “sleep of plants,” treating and classifying those flowering plants whose flowers opened or closed in relation to daylight or darkness, or the time of day, attracted great interest to the subject.

Fungus melitensis. Defended 20 December 1755 by Johan Pfeiffer (1731-1806). Lidén no. 69
TOPIC: A monograph of the “Maltese fungus” (Cynomorium coccineum L., Balanophoraceae), a parasitic flowering plant of the southern Mediterranean. It reports the results of medical studies of this and related plants, particularly for use as astringents and antiseptics.

Flora palaestina. Defended {10} March 1756 by Bengt Johan Strand (1738-1790). Lidén no. 70
TOPIC: The work is an enumeration of the plants of Palestine, based largely on the collections of Frederik Hasselquist (1722-1752).

Flora alpina. Defended 24 March 1756 by Nilsson Åmman (1731-1783). Lidén no. 71
TOPIC: An essay on the kinds of plants suitable for culture on the arid mountains of Lapland and adjoining alpine areas, with a list of over 400 European alpine plants from which selections could be made for Lapp culture. A Royal Alpine Garden in Lapland is proposed for the evaluation of alpine plants of potential value for economic uses.

Calendarium florae. Defended 31 March 1756 by Alexander Malachias Berger (1737-1804). Lidén no. 72
TOPIC: Of all Linnaean dissertations, none captured public attention as did this, nor has any other been the subject of more editions, reprints, translations, and commentary. The work, based on observations made in Uppsala in 1755, provided an enumeration of the flowering times of plants in each of the four seasons, and by month within each season.

Pulsus intermittens. Defended 5 May 1756 by Anders Magnus Wåhlin (1731-1797). Lidén no. 73
TOPIC: This essay treats irregular pulse rates due to such heart diseases as inflammation, polyps, tumors and abscesses, valvular ossifications and irregular activity of the heart nerves. Attention is also given to arterial disease and blood conditions caused by fever.

Flora monspeliensis. Defended 15 June 1756 by Theophilus Erdman Nathorst (1734-1804). Lidén no. 74
TOPIC: The work is based on Pierre Magnol’s (1638-1715) Botanicum monspeliense (Montpellier, 1676) and François Boissier de Sauvages de la Croix’s (1706-1767) Methodus foliorum, seu plantae florae monspeliensis (La Haye, 1751).

Fundamenta valetudines. Defended 17 June 1756 by Peter Engström (1735-1803). Lidén no. 75
TOPIC: An essay on the fundamentals of good health, with recommendations for correct living in each period.

Specifica canadensium. Defended {19 June} 1756 by Johan von Coelln (1725-1808). Lidén no. 76
TOPIC: A compiled account mostly of Canadian animals and plants (but also of northeastern United States), based on letters and writings of Peter Kalm (1716-1779), on John Bartram’s (1699-1777)Observations … (London, 1751), and on Cadwallader Colden’s (1688-1776) articles in Acta Soc. Reg. Sci. Upsaliensis 1743: 81-136 and 1744/50: 47-82.

Acetaria. Defended 29 June 1756 by Hieronymus von der Burg (1730-1811). Lidén no. 77
TOPIC: This medico-botanical thesis presents Linnaeus’ views on the dietary and medical importance of salad greens, with special reference to those from plants native to or readily available in Sweden.

Phalaena bombyx. Defended 4 December 1756 by Johan Lyman (1734-1790). Lidén no. 78
TOPIC: An essay on the silkworm (Phalaena bombyx), discussing its history, culture and the species of mulberry (Morus spp.) on which it feeds.

Migrationes avium. Defended 2 March 1757 by Carl Daniel Ekmarck (1734-1789). Lidén no. 79
TOPIC: An enumeration of exotic and indigenous birds in Sweden observed during their annual migrations. Basil Soulsby (1864-1933) reported this to be the most complete of such lists published to 1757.

Morbi expeditiones classicae 1756. Defended 18 May 1757 by Pehr af Bjerkén (1731-1774). Lidén no. 80
TOPIC: An account of shipboard diseases (especially the Uppsala fever) and their treatment.  [Historically important]

Febris upsaliensis. Defended 21 May 1757 by Anders Boström (1724-1769). Lidén no. 81
TOPIC: A discussion of the causes, symptoms and cures of an epidemic in Uppsala in 1756 of a tertian form of malaria, attributed to moist and foul air, from the closeness of the city’s streets and its stagnating canals and waters.  [Historical medical geography]

Flora danica. Defended 2 June 1757 by Jørgen Tyge Holm (1726-1759). Lidén no. 82
TOPIC: Basil Soulsby (1864-1933) reported this work to have been based mainly on Peder Kylling’s (1640-1696) Viridarium danicum (1688), which accounts for about 1,100 species of plants native to Denmark.

Panis diaeteticus. Defended 8 June 1757 by Isaac Svensson (1726-1795). Lidén no. 83
TOPIC: An essay on bread, including the kinds of grain from which it may be made (including substitutes such as rice, millet, sago flour, yams, sea-rush, etc.). Details of flour grinding, dough preparation and baking, as well as nutritional value of various kinds of bread are given. The merits and faults of leavened, unleavened and fermented breads are discussed. The eating of hot, freshly made bread is considered unwholesome.

Natura pelagi. Defended 18 June 1757 by Johan Henrik Hager (d. 1770). Lidén no. 84
TOPIC: An essay on the biological life of the oceans, including maritime birds. Describes the Sargasso Sea and its Fucus, birds, invertebrate marine life, marine fish and amphibia, and marine mammals (whales, dolphins, seals).

Buxbaumia. Defended 22 June 1757 by Anton Rolandsson Martin (1729-1785). Lidén no. 85
TOPIC: Buxbaumia is a genus of mosses whose leaves fall off before capsule maturity, named for Johannes Christian Buxbaum (1694-1730), German botanist, who first discovered it near Astrakhan.

Exanthemata viva. Defended 23 June 1757 by Johan Carl Nyander (1734-1814). Lidén no. 86
TOPIC: An essay on the origins of contagious diseases of man.  [Medical]

Transmutatio frumentorum. Defended 28 September 1757 by Bogislaus Hornborg (1739-1789). Lidén no. 87
TOPIC: An attempt by Linnaeus to refute the then popular notion that one kind of cereal crop could be transformed to another by edaphic factors, such as soil or soil nutrients.

Culina mutata. Defended 16 November 1757 by Magnus Gabriel Österman (1730-1794). Lidén no. 88
TOPIC: This essay deals with the superiority of modern vegetable foodstuffs over those used by the ancients.

Spigelia anthelmia. Defended 22 {30} March 1758 by Johan Georg Colliander (1728-1796). Lidén no. 89
TOPIC: On the Indian pink and its use to expell worms from the human body. Includes discussion of various worms that invade the human body and the symptoms which indicate their presence. The history of the plant is taken mainly from contemporary accounts of Patrick Browne (1720-1790) and Alexander Garden (1730-1791).  [Early American Flora]

Cortex peruvianus. Defended {10} May 1758 by Johan Christian Peter Petersen (1739-1774). Lidén no. 90
TOPIC: A discourse on the medicinal value of quinine from cinchona bark (Cinchona sp.) in the treatment of malaria and other fevers.

Frutetum svecicum. Defended 23 May 1758 by David Magnus Virgander (1734-1783). Lidén no. 91
TOPIC: On the culture of fruit trees and fruit-producing shrubs in Sweden, and the importance of native plants for food.

Medicamenta graveolentia. Defended 13 June 1758 by Jonas Theodor Fagraeus (1729-1797). Lidén no. 92
TOPIC: A compendium of materia medica restricted to those medications having strong unpleasant odors, believed by Linnaeus to serve as a group useful for treatment of disorders of the nervous system.

Pandora insectorum. Defended 15 July 1758 by Eric Olof Rydbeck (1732-1795). Lidén no. 93
TOPIC: An essay on the metamorphosis of insects, with an enumeration of Swedish plants on which they feed. The plate is of nearly 50 rare kinds of insects with identifying numbers from Linnaeus’ Systema naturae (ed. 10, 1758).

Senium Salomoneum. Defended {21} February 1759 by Johan Pilgren (1735-1782). Lidén no. 94
TOPIC: An essay on King Solomon’s description of old age, mostly a paraphrase from the Bible, Ecclesiastes, XII.

Auctores botanici. Defended 14 March 1759 by Augustin Loo (1736-1772). Lidén no. 95
TOPIC: The work provides an alphabetical enumeration of some 350 authors of botanical works, giving for each his surname, first name, year of birth, professional or academic position, and title (abbreviated) of first botanical publication.

Instructio peregrinatoris. Defended 9 May 1759 by Eric Anders Nordblad (1739-1810). Lidén no. 96
TOPIC: A manual of etiquette for scientists and collectors going into foreign countries, treating of daily records to be made of observations, collections, local customs and expenses. It is one of the earliest directives of this character and detail.

Plantae tinctoriae. Defended 16 May 1759 by Engelbert Jörlin (1733-1810). Lidén no. 97
TOPIC: An account of some 100 plants, mostly European, useful in dying vegetable fibers and animal hair.

Animalia composita. Defended 23 May 1759 by Albrect Bäck (1737-1791). Lidén no. 98
TOPIC: Provides descriptions of Lithophyta (corals) and Zoophyta (corallines).

Flora capensis. Defended 30 May 1759 by Carl Henriksson Wännman (1733-1797). Lidén no. 99
TOPIC: A flora of generic names with specific epithets only and no descriptions or distributions data, based on collections made in Cape Province, South Africa, by Johannes Burman (1710-1779), Joannes Hartog, Paul Herman (1646-1695) and Hendrik Bernhard Oldenland (d.1699).

Ambrosiaca. Defended 20 June 1759 by Jacob Hidén (1731-1769). Lidén no. 100
TOPIC: Dissertation on Ambrosian medicines.

Arboretum svecicum. Defended {30} June 1759 by David Davidsson Pontin (1733-1809). Lidén no. 101
TOPIC: An account of the growth and size of native trees of Sweden.

Plantarum jamaicensium pugillus. Defended 28 November 1759 by Gabriel Elmgren (1730-1765). Lidén no. 102
TOPIC: An account of 130 of the more rare of the 1,200 or so species of Jamaican plants of which specimens were presented to Linnaeus by Patrick Browne. The specimens are now in the Linnaeus herbarium at the Linnean Society of London.  [Carribean]

Genera morborum. Defended 5 December 1759 by Johan Schröder (1727-1764). Lidén no. 103
TOPIC: This is Linnaeus’ first published classification of human diseases, based substantially on Francois Boissier de Sauvages de la Croix’s (1706-1767) Nosologia methodica sistens morborum classes … (Amsterdam, 1763), a symptomatic classification of deseases.

Generatio ambigena. Defended 12 December 1759 by Christian Ludvig Ramström (1740-1782). Lidén no. 104
TOPIC: An essay on sexual reproduction, with emphasis on that among animals. Study is made of the relative influence of each parent on resultant offspring, with the conclusion that external form and libido are derived largely from the male parent. Examples from both the animal and plant kingdoms are given in support of the contention.

Flora jamaicensis. Defended {22} December 1759 by Carl Gustaf Sandmark (1738?-1769). Lidén no. 105
TOPIC: This work is based on specimens of some 1,200 species of Jamaican plants received by Linnaeus from Patrick Browne (1720-1790) and information on some 800 species collected by Hans Sloane (1660-1753). Linnaeus also used information in Browne’s A civil and natural history of Jamaica (London, 1756) and in Sloane’s A voyage to the islands Madeira… and Jamaica (London, 1707-1725).  [Flora Jamaica]

Aer habitabilis. Defended 22 December 1759 by Johan Victor Siefvert (1738-1791). Lidén no. 106
TOPIC: A medical treatise on the effects of the earth’s atmosphere on health, economy, and the manners of man.  [Medical Climatology]

Nomenclator botanicus. Defended {24} December 1759 by Bengt Berzelius (1739-1777). Lidén no. 107
TOPIC: A tabular account of vernacular names of plant genera, especially those of European gardens, in Dutch, English, French, German, and Italian, equated with the Linnaean Latin name of the respective genus. Many of the vernacular names were taken from Christian Mentzel’s (1622-1701) Index nominum plantarum universalis multilinguis … (Berolini, 1682).

Pingvedo animalis. Defended 24 December 1759 by Jacob Lindh (173?-1778). Lidén no. 108
TOPIC: An essay on the natural history of swine (Sus scrofa L.), their economy and usefulness to man.

Politia naturae. Defended 29 March 1760 by Henric Christian Daniel Wilcke (1739-1788). Lidén no. 109
TOPIC: An essay on the balance that exists among the three natural kingdoms, their interdependence, and the proliferation of diversity of kinds within each. The account is patterned on the plan of the dissertation Oeconomia naturae.

Theses medicae. Defended 14 June 1760 by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber (1739-1810). Lidén no. 110
TOPIC: An essay on the interrelationship between the anatomy and physiology of the plant, in which it is held that every higher plant is composed essentially of a medulla, the basis for which species have characters in common that unify them as a genus, and a cortex by which nutrition is supplied to the individual. Recognition is given to the presence in a genus of interspecific hybrids. Species are held to have in common certain characteristics of taste and odor. As Frans Stafleu (1921-1997) noted, “This dissertation contained the terms of Linnaeus’s theory on the hierarchy of taxa” (Linnaeus and the Linnaeans, p. 145).

Anthropomorpha. Defended 6 September 1760 by Christian Emmanuel Hoppius (1736-?). Lidén no. 111
TOPIC: An account of four species of the genus Simia, considered by Linnaeus to include most apes and monkeys (restricted by later authors to the chimpanzee). Much of the data are from literature accounts, later known to be erroneous. The dissertation generated dissension among some theologians for its alliance of humans with the apes.

Flora belgica. Defended 15 October 1760 by Christian Fredrik Rosenthal (1740-1810). Lidén no. 112
TOPIC: Essay based on Jan Commelin’s (1629-1692) Catalogus plantarum indigenarum, 1709 and David de Gorter’s (1717-1783) Flora Gebro-Zutphanica, 1745-1747.

Macellum olitorium. Defended {20} December 1760 by Pehr Jerlin (1739-1773). Lidén no. 113
TOPIC: An essay on 77 species of plants native to Sweden or commonly cultivated there and useful as culinary vegetables, providing for each: data on parts eaten, preparation for eating, taste, nutritional value, and growth duration.

Prolepsis plantarum. Defended 22 December 1760 by Henrik Ullmark (1740-1771). Lidén no. 114
TOPIC: An essay on the ontogeny of the flower, from time of bud initiation to anthesis. Linnaeus conceived the flower bud, the reproduction unit of higher plants, to be analagous with animal sexual anatomy, and held that for trees, six years were required for complete bud formation. Without supporting evidence, he adduced that in the first year medullary and cortical material are produced; in the second, the bud scales are formed; in the third, the floral cup of perianth; in the fourth, the petals; in the fifth, the stamens; and in the sixth, the pistil (gynoecium). Includes a dedication by Adam Kuhn, Linnaeus’ only pupil from America.

Plantae rariores africanae. Defended {22} December 1760 by Jacob Printz (1740-1779). Lidén no. 115
TOPIC: Describes 100 South African plants, based on a collection sent from the Cape of Good Hope. Also includes a list of African plants, intended as a supplement to the dissertation defended by Carl Henriksson Wänman, Flora Capensis.

Diaeta acidularis. Defended 18 February 1761 by Eric Vigelius (1730-after 1797). Lidén no. 116
TOPIC: An essay on some human diseases and their treatment with mineral waters.

Inebriantia. Defended {7 April} 1761 {1762} by Olof Reinhold Alander (b. 1739). Lidén no. 117
TOPIC: The term “inebriant” is used in this dissertation in the broadest sense, for any drug that was known to be a narcotic or intoxicant. The thesis is an account of both natural and artificial intoxicants.

Potus coffeae. Defended 16 December 1761 by Henric Sparschuch (1742-1786). Lidén no. 118
TOPIC: : A medico-botanical study of coffee as a beverage, of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica L.), and of the harvesting and preparation of coffee beans. An historical review of the use of the beverage is given, noting that Europe’s first “coffee house” was opened in Marseilles in 1671. The preparation of different kinds of coffee, utilizing many other ground seeds as flavorants, is described.The account treats it to be more important for medicinal usage than as a beverage, noting it to be an anti-aphrodisiac, noxious to mental illnesses, and responsible for excessive flatulence and indigestion (allegedly sometimes fatal) when ingested to excess. Linnaeus reported that headaches are frequently relieved by drinking coffee.

Morsura serpentum. Defended 16 June 1762 by Johan Gustaf Acrel (1741-1801). Lidén no. 119
TOPIC: A medico-zoological study of venomous snakes and snakebite poisoning. The skeletal and muscular anatomy of snakes’ heads are discussed and figured. The symptoms of snakebites are given for many species, together with treatments for same. The uses of strychine and Polygala senega as antidotes, as well as olive oil, are documented.

Termini botanici. Defended 22 June 1762 by Johan Elmgren (1740-1794). Lidén no. 120
TOPIC: : A classified glossary, with explanatory notes, of 673 latin terms used by Linnaeus in his plant descriptions. The work, which was the first of its kind, was widely translated and re-published.

Planta Alströmeria. Defended 23 June 1762 by Johan Peter Falck (1733-1774). Lidén no. 121
TOPIC: Linnaeus received seed of this Chilean plant, Alstroemeria ligtu L., from Claes Alströmer, who sent it from Cadiz, Spain.

Nectaria florum. Defended 25 June 1762 by Birger Martin Hall (1741-1814). Lidén no. 122
TOPIC: An essay on the presence, kinds and functions of nectar glands in flowers. It is the first detailed report on the subject and it gives examples of plants having the various kinds of nectaries.

Fundamentum fructificationis. Defended 16 October 1762 by Johan Martin Gråberg (1741-1793). Lidén no. 123
TOPIC: An essay on the morphology of all floral parts and organs, with a review of their concepts and terminology by pre-Linnaean authors.

Meloe vesicatoria. Defended 20 {22?} December 1762 by Knut Augustin Lenaeus (1738-1799). Lidén no. 124
TOPIC: A study of European vesicatory (blister-producing) insects having the properties of the Cantharides fly, chiefly the blistering fly (Meloe cichorii). The report describes the insects, hosts and habitats and includes prescriptions for the use of vesicating plasters.

Reformatio botanices. Defended 18 December 1762 by Johan Martin Reftelins (Reftelius) (1740-1799). Lidén no. 125
TOPIC: A treatise on botanical history, divided into three periods: (1) post-Renaissance, (2) that of the pre-Linnaean systematists, and (3) under the aegis of Linnaeus. The third period received the most attention. Here Linnaeus cited (as of 1762) those of his pupils who travelled to foreign lands, and the contemporary writers who adopted his system of classification in their works.

Raphania. Defended 27 May 1763 by Georg (Jöran) Rothman (1739-1778). Lidén no. 126
TOPIC: A botanico-medical treatise on the disease Raphania (ergotism), recognized by Linnaeus to result from eating bread from freshly harvested grain and erroneously ascribed to presence of seed of the weedRaphanus raphanistrum L. (radish). The latter is included in the plate, with a botanical description.

Fructus esculenti. Defended 11 June 1763 by Johan Salberg (1741-1810). Lidén no. 127
TOPIC: An account of 133 edible fruits including those of native Swedish species, classified under berries, plums, pomaceous fruits, podded fruits, grains and nuts.

Lignum Quassiae. Defended 28 May 1763 by Carl Magnus Blom (1737-1815). Lidén no. 128
TOPIC: An account of Surinam quassia wood (Quassia amara L.) of the Simaroubaceae, whose bitter root was used medicinally to treat numerous illnesses, including malaria.

Centuria insectorum rariorum. Defended 23 June 1763 by Boas Johansson (1742-1809). Lidén no. 129
TOPIC: Descriptions of 100 rare insect species that were sent to Linnaeus from Carolina and Pennsylvania as well as from Surinam and Java. Discusses improvements that the Linnaean system has brought to the study of insects.

Disquisitio de prolepsi plantarum. Defended 22 June 1763 by Johan Jakob Ferber (1743-1790). Lidén no. 130
TOPIC: The plan of this speculative essay is similar to that of his dissertation Prolepsis plantarum on flower bud ontogeny, but deals with the ontogeny of the vegetative plant with emphasis on the physiology of growth and the development of bulbs and vegetative buds.

Motus polychrestus. Defended 23 December 1763 by Christian Lado (1741-after 1770). Lidén no. 131
TOPIC: An essay on the importance of physical exercise as a preservative and restorative of good health. Diseases caused by inactivity include hypochondriasis, asthmatic conditions, constipation, tuberculosis, and severe hemi-cranial headaches.  [Timely, early writing on exercise]

Hortus culinaris. Defended 20 {21} June 1764 by Jonas Carl Tengborg (1740-1788). Lidén no. 132
TOPIC: An essay on edible and economic plants of Sweden, their culture and hardiness. Includes those then in use and others suggested.

Spiritus frumenti. Defended 19 December 1764 by Peter Bergius (1740-1819). Lidén no. 133
TOPIC: An historical account of the distillation of spirits from grains and other fruits, first reported in Europe by Arnold de Villa Nova (ca. 1315), after which a grape brandy was an important article of commerce in Venice. Details are given on manufacture of grain spirits in Sweden, together with their use when treating various disorders medicinally. The physical penalties from excessive use as intoxicants are reviewed from both moral and political viewpoints.

Diaeta aetatum. Defended {20 December} 1764 by Daniel Johan Öhrqvist (1738-?). Lidén no. 134
TOPIC: A medical essay on physiological changes experienced by man, from birth to death, with diet prescriptions for each period, and the disorders that may be avoided by adherence to the author’s recommendations.

Opobalsamum declaratum. Defended 22 December 1764 by Wilhelm Le Moine (ca. 1735-1790). Lidén no. 135
TOPIC: This is about the shrub Commiphora opobalsamum (L.) Engler (Burseraceae) from whose gum the Balm of Gilead is produced. It was discovered by Pehr Forsskål, a pupil of Linnaeus, near Medina, Felix Arabia (Yemen).

Hirudo. Defended {6} May {March} 1764 {1765} by Daniel Weser (1743-1784). Lidén no. 136
TOPIC: An essay on the use and efficacy of leeches for blood-letting, including the anatomy and natural history of leeches, the means of obtaining them and the opinions of the ancients.

Fundamenta ornithologica. Defended 4 May 1765 by Anders Petrus Bäckman (1744-1766). Lidén no. 137
TOPIC: An exposition of the fundamentals of Linnaeus’ classification of birds, with a glossary. Includes biographical notes on ornithologists.

Fervidorum et gelidorum usus. Defended 12 June 1765 by Carl Ribben (1734-1803). Lidén no. 138
TOPIC: Discusses the medical hazards of eating extremely hot or cold foods and the resultant human ailments.

Morbi artificum. Defended 15 June 1765 by Nils Skragge (1738-1787). Lidén no. 139
TOPIC: A study of industrial and occupational diseases, based in part on the writings of Bernardin Rammazini, 1633-1714. It treats the problems of miners, stone-quarrymen, painters, and also the hazards attendant to too close an application to any business or profession.

Lepra. Defended 17 June 1765 by Isaac Uddman (1731-1781). Lidén no. 140
TOPIC: An overview of leprosy, including hypotheses about causes, types of leprosy, possible treatments.

Potus chocolatae. Defended 18 June 1765 by Anton Hoffman (1739-1782). Lidén no. 141
TOPIC: A botanico-medical essay on the merits of drinking chocolate, flavored with vanilla. Botanical accounts are given of the cacao tree (Theobroma cacao L.) and of the vanilla orchid (Epidendrum vanillaL. = Vanilla fragrans). The preparation of the chocolate beans and of the beverage by the Spaniards is described. Linnaeus advocated use of the beverage as a pleasant drink and for treatment of hypochrondria and hemorrhoids

Potus thaeae. Defended 7 December 1765 by Pehr Cornelius Tillaeus (1747-1827). Lidén no. 142
TOPIC: The first living plants of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) were brought to Sweden in 1763 by Captain Carl Gustaf Ekeberg (1716-1784), with help from Linnaeus. This was said to be the first successful introduction of the plant into Europe. This dissertation discusses the plant, its preparation and uses, the qualities of tea, and its medicinal use.

Purgantia indigena. Defended 26 February 1766 by Peter Strandman (1743-1779). Lidén no. 143
TOPIC: Provides a list of 24 plant species known or reported to have purgative qualities on ingestion. The plants listed were indigenous to or easily cultivated in Sweden.

Necessitas promovendae historia naturalis in Rossia. Defended { } May 1764 by Alexander Von Karamyschew (1744-1791). Lidén no. 144
TOPIC: An essay encouraging the study of natural history in Russia, which mentions important naturalists of that country. Also includes a list of plants native to Russia. First issue printed in 1764, but not publicly submitted intil May 16, 1766.

Necessitas promovendae historia naturalis in Rossia. Defended 16 May 1766 by Alexander Von Karamyschew (1744-1791). Lidén no. 144.1
TOPIC: An essay encouraging the study of natural history in Russia, which mentions important naturalists of that country. Also includes a list of plants native to Russia. First issue printed in 1764, but not publicly submitted intil May 16, 1766.

Usus historiae naturalis in vita communi. Defended 17 May 1766 by Matvey Ivanovic Aphonin (1739-1810). Lidén no. 145
TOPIC: An essay on the importance of a knowledge of natural history to greater improvement of agriculture and horticulture, with emphasis on those kinds of plants best suited as food for each kind of domestic animal. The plate includes an illustration of Actaea cimicifuga L. (= Cimicifuga foetida L.), a plant then widely used in eastern Russia as an insecticide (especially against bedbugs).

Siren lacertina. Defended 21 June 1766 by Abraham Österdam (1745-1776). Lidén no. 146
TOPIC: An account of the two-legged Siren lizard of South Carolina, Sirena lacertina L., sometimes known as the Carolina mud iguana.

Cura generalis. Defended 10 December 1766 by Johan Gabriel Bergman (1732-1793). Lidén no. 147
TOPIC: A medical commentary, in amplification of part one of Linnaeus’ pamphlet Clavis medicinae, on cardiovascular diseases. Physiological considerations are reviewed and their importance stressed. The influence of emotional stress is rejected. Arthritis, considered as a vascular disease, is reported as favorably responsive to a diet high in salted meat.

Usus muscorum. Defended 17 December 1766 by Andreas Henricsson Berlin (1746-1773). Lidén no. 148
TOPIC: An historical study of the economic uses of lichens in Sweden (including Lapland)

Mundus invisibilis. Defended 6 {7} March 1767 by Johan Carl Roos (1745-1828). Lidén no. 149
TOPIC: A medico-botanical treatise on airborne spores and microorganisms, some of which Linnaeus believed to be responsible for infectious diseases. The thesis is based on the studies of Baron Otto von Münchausen, who corresponded with Linnaeus and whose observations of fungus-caused smut of barley and wheat, along with the dust of fungi, led him to conclude that these are the ova of animalcules, which raised doubts as to whether fungi should be classed with animals or plants.

Haemoptysis. Defended 13 May 1767 by Johan Gråberg (1741-1793). Lidén no. 150
TOPIC: A medical essay on spitting of blood, a condition which Linnaeus held should not be confused with other bleeding from the mouth, since it was of pulmonary origin and not from the nose or stomach. Tuberculosis of the lungs is given as its primary cause.

Venae resorbentes. Defended 2 June 1767 by Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828). Lidén no. 151
TOPIC: A medico-physiological study of the interrelationship of the lymphatic system and the vascular anatomy.

Fundamenta agrostographiae. Defended 27 June 1767 by Henric Gahn (1747-1816). Lidén no. 152
TOPIC: Provides a classified list of some 850 species of grasses of economic importance, preceded by a history of prior studies of grasses.

Menthae usus. Defended 30 June 1767 by Carl Gustaf Laurin (1737-1773). Lidén no. 153
TOPIC: An essay on the kinds of mints (Mentha spp.) useful in medicinal preparations.

Fundamenta entomologiae. Defended {14} June 1767 by Anders Johan Blad (1748-1834). Lidén no. 154
TOPIC: Provides an historical review of entomology with a list of 32 pre-Linnaean authors, instructions on how to collect and preserve insects, and the fundamentals of their classification.

Metamorphis [sic] humana. Defended 16 December 1767 by Johan Adolph Wadström (1748-1809). Lidén no. 155
TOPIC: A classification establishing 12 periods through which the human body develops from birth to death, based on anatomical, physiological and pathological factors.

Varietas ciborum. Defended 19 December 1767 by Adolph Fredric Wedenberg (1743-1828). Lidén no. 156
TOPIC: A medico-nutritional essay on the wide range of foodstuffs eaten by man and a classification of these foods into 10 groups. Discusses effects of diets in which each group dominates and the diseases which might result. Linnaeus’ concluding advice is “Ne quid nimis,” nothing in excess.

Rariora norvegiae. Defended 27 February 1768 by Henrik Tonning (1732-1796). Lidén no. 157
TOPIC: A treatise on the natural history of Norway, with credits to Johan Ernst Gunnerus (1718-1773), Bishop of Trondheim and to J. Ström of Bergen. Presented are lists of rare animals and plants, with emphasis on those not found in Sweden. Report is given also of fruits of tropical American plants deposited from the sea along the coast in quantity. Among them are seeds of Cassia, Anacardium (cashew nuts),Cucurbita lagenaria L., the coconut, and Piscidia erythrina L. Included is an interpretation by Bishop Gunnerus of the identity of a sea-serpent, presuming it to be a number of sturgeon swimming in a row. Medicinal plants are enumerated separately, with notes on their uses. The thesis concludes with a description of an African plant named Gunnera L.

Coloniae plantarum. Defended 15 June 1768 by Jöns Flygare (1746-1806). Lidén no. 158
TOPIC: Treats the migrations and colonizations of plants, in Sweden and elsewhere.

Medicus sui ipsius. Defended {11} January 1768 by Johan Grysselius (1738-1788). Lidén no. 159
TOPIC: An essay on being one’s own physician, the abuses that are injurious to a healthy constitution and the diseases for which each one may be the causal agent.

Morbi nautarum Indiae. Defended 5 November 1768 by Carl Henriksson Wänman (1733-1797). Lidén no. 160
TOPIC: This brief work concerns diseases observed during a voyage to the East Indies.

Iter in Chinam. Defended 30 November 1768 by Anders Sparrman (1748-1820). Lidén no. 161
TOPIC: An enumeration of natural history subjects observed by Sparrman during his voyage to China.  [ACUPUNCTURE or MOXI??]

Flora åkeröensis. Defended 23 December 1769 by Carl Johan Luut (1746-1816). Lidén no. 162
TOPIC: An enumeration of 478 species of plants on the island of Åkerö, in Lake Yngaren, in the province of Södermandland in southeast Sweden.

Erica. Defended 19 December 1770 by Johan A. Dahlgren (1744-1797). Lidén no. 163
TOPIC: An account of the genus Erica, noting species found in Europe, the tropics and South Africa.

Dulcamara. Defended 29 May 1771 by Georg Hallenberg (1746-1814). Lidén no. 164
TOPIC: The herb Solanum dulcamara L. (nightshade, or deadly nightshade) was used as an internal medicine and as a heart stimulant by Linnaeus in the Royal Naval Hospital, Stockholm, in 1738.

Pandora et flora rybyensis. Defended 26 June 1771 by Daniel Henric Söderberg (1750-1781). Lidén no. 165
TOPIC: A record of the plants and insects observed by Söderberg at Ryby (near Stockholm), the residence of Linnaeus’ closest friend, Abraham Bäck (1713-1795).

Fundamenta testaceologiae. Defended 29 June 1771 by Adolf Murray (1751-1803). Lidén no. 166
TOPIC: A monograph of mollusks and other shellfish, with details on their structure, terminology, physiology and classification. Includes a history of pre-Linnaean conchology with brief biographical notes on the authors of that literature.

Febrium intermittentium curatio varia. Defended 11 December 1771 by Pehr Cornelius Tillaeus (1747-1827). Lidén no. 167
TOPIC: On the causes and cures of intermittent fever.

Respiratio diaetetica. Defended 29 April 1772 by Jonas Ullholm (1746-1819). Lidén no. 168
TOPIC: An essay on the kinds of air alleged to be most beneficial to health, accompanied by an explanation of the respiratory process and the anatomy of the lungs.

Haemorrhagia ex plethora. Defended 23 May 1772 by Ernst Joachim (Magnus) von Heidenstam (1745-1803). Lidén no. 169
TOPIC: An essay on bleeding caused by a greater volume of blood in the circulatory sytem than the heart can accommodate and keep in constant circulation.

Fraga vesca. Defended 26 May 1772 by Sven Anders Hedin (1750-1821). Lidén no. 170
TOPIC: On the medical usefulness of strawberries (Fragaria vesca L.) in the treatment of gout, based largely on Linnaeus’ favorable findings when so treating himself in the summers of 1750 and 1751.

Observationes in materiam medicam. Defended 5 June 1772 by Johan Lindwall (1743-1796). Lidén no. 171
TOPIC: A compendium on the medicinal and pharmacological uses of the enumerated species of plants, to which is appended a second listing of species of only putative therapeutic value. Linnaeus supported in this thesis the opinion that medicinal qualities of plants often are correlated with a group of species having common botanical affinities.

Suturae vulnerum. Defended 27 June 1772 by Christian Ernst Boecler (1742-1800). Lidén no. 172
TOPIC: On the different methods of sewing up wounds.

Planta cimicifuga. Defended { } September 1774 by Johan Hornborg (1750 – ?). Lidén no. 173
TOPIC: A medico-botanical account of the genus Cimicifuga L. (Ranunculaceae), and especially of the Eurasian species.

Esca avium domesticarum. Defended {26} November 1774 by Petrus Holmberger (1745-1807). Lidén no. 174
TOPIC: An account of the results of experiments directed to ascertain what kinds and numbers of insects and seeds are eaten by poultry.

Marum. Defended 3 December 1774 by Johan Adolph Dahlgren (1744-1797). Lidén no. 175
TOPIC: On the medicinal properties of the Mediterranean shrub Teucrium marum L. (Labiatae).

Viola Ipecacuanhae. Defended 16 December 1774 by Daniel Wickman (1741-1800). Lidén no. 176
TOPIC: A dissertation on the medical use and botany of ipecac root, Hybanthus ipecacuana.

Plantae surinamenses. Defended 23 June 1775 by Jacob Alm (1754-1821). Lidén no. 177
TOPIC: An account of a collection of herbarium specimens of Surinam (Dutch Guiana) plants, given to Linnaeus by Sweden’s King Gustavus III. Many of the new species were later included by Carl von Linné fil. in his Supplementum plantarum systematis vegetabilium (1781),

Ledum palustre. Defended 25 October 1775 by Johan Peter Westring (1753-1833). Lidén no. 178
TOPIC: An essay on the botany and history, as well as the medicinal and pharmacological properties, associated with the shrub of northern bogs, Ledu palustre L. (Ericaceae), noting that its aromatic odor is offensive to most insects and herbivorous animals and reporting its alleged effectiveness in the treatment of leprosy in Kamtschatka.

Opium. Defended 15 November 1775 by Georg Eberhard Georgii (1755-1816). Lidén no. 179
TOPIC: A medical essay on the properties and medicinal uses of opium, based substantially on a 1757 study by Balthsar Ludwig Tralles (1708-1797).

Scorbutus. Defended {22} November 1775 by Ernst Diedrich Salomon (1746-1790). Lidén no. 180
TOPIC: An essay on scurvy, which reports that in Sweden, scurvy is rare in districts where meat and vegetables are eaten, but common in those places where fish is predominant in the diet. Linnaeus concluded the cure to be vegetables, especially from his class Tetradynamie, which includes cider, fruits and cinchona bark.

Medicamenta purgantia. Defended 22 November 1775 by John Rotheram (1751-1804). Lidén no. 181
TOPIC: A compendium of materia medica restricted to those medications (mostly of plant origin) useful as purgatives.

Perspiratio insensibilis. Defended {25} November 1775 by Nils Avellan (1749-1780). Lidén no. 182
TOPIC: [Abstract not available]

Canones medicae. Defended 29 November 1775 by Sven Anders Hedin (1750-1821). Lidén no. 183
TOPIC: [Abstract not available]

Bigae insectorum. Defended 18 December 1775 by Anders Dahl (1751-1789). Lidén no. 184
TOPIC: This work provides descriptions of two new genera of insects, Diopsis (a dipterous fly) and Paussus, from the collection of John Fothergill, M.D. (1712-1780), who sent much New World material to Linnaeus.

Planta Aphyteia. Defended 22 June 1776 by Erik Acharius (1757-1819). Lidén no. 185
TOPIC: An account of Hydnora africana Thunb. (Hydnoraceae), a leafless parasite discovered by Carl Peter Thunberg in South Africa. This dissertation is the last over which Linnaeus acted as praeses.

Hypericum. Defended 20 November 1776 by Carl Niclas Hellens (1745-1820). Lidén no. 186
TOPIC: A monograph of the plant genus Hypericum, in which are named and described 35 species. Detailed notes are given on H. Perforatum L. and its medicinal properties as a febrifuge. Carl von Linné fil. acted as praeses.