The following series of questions were developed back in 2004/5 for the educational program I wrote up on my results, used to teach students and some data entry specialists how to read and interpret the above types of population pyramid graphs. [Tentative class schedule will be posted separately once I find it.]  For much of the training see all pages related to


1.  What are the makings of a population pyramid?  What are the format standards (include standard color coding of text/numbers and horizontal bars, inclusion of legends, etc.)  

2.  What are the differences, the pros and cons, regarding how we demonstrate age-gender relationships?  Define this for 1, 2, 5 and 10 age range horizontal bar increments.  Which are used most commonly and when? 

3.  What are the main advantages and disadvantages to small group analyses?  What are the population and group min-max limits pertaining to this graphing technique? 

4.  Define a standardized uniform group analysis technique.  How is this technique modified for the special format problems that varying populations present analysts with?

5.  What N defines the limit as to whether or not 1-year age bands can be used?  What min and max define the formula multiplier employed for this type of uniform group analysis technique?

6.  What is the name of the technique employed for this analysis.  What standard formula does it make use of?  Define how it is employed.

7.  Provide one or two research questions this methodology might be applied to.

8.  Define your dependent and independent variables for this research. 

9.  Define how to employ this math modeling technique to two dependent variables, treating one as a dependent variable.

10.  How would you use the above methods to correlate cost to age-gender variables.


1.  Define and name the stages each of  the following charts best relate to.

2.  Do the following represent maladies that require preventive or palliative treatment forms to be established?

3.  Define the age groups in the following disease types for which prevention programs can be developed.  How would you apply the standard disease prevention practices differently to each of these age groups?

[insert Disease A, B, C, D]

4.  For the above four graphs, which of the four most likely represents a genetic disease with a relatively high mortality rate?

5.  Which represents a disease that is life long and relatively speaking is the least fatal of the above four illustrated?

6. Which represents a disease that is more than likely unpreventible in terms of onset and treatment, and generally speaking is not very fatal to its primary age group?

7.  Is the follow graph most likely indicative of a biological-physiological malady, a mostly behavior-psychological malady, or a mixed sociocultural, physical and psychological malady?  Based on this graph, how might you describe your treatment for this disease were it your responsibility to treat it as a only as biological and physiological event?  as a purely psychiatric event?

8. Which of the following best represents an event that presents itself mostly as a young to midlife event?  What is the most likely type of disease or disease related behavior related to this malady or condition? 



“. . . the solutions to our problems lie outside the box.”

Aviation Week & Space Technology, July 1975




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