At the end of this page is the list of herbs, given in the order that they appear in Amy Bess Miller’s Shaker Herbs.   This information was entered onto a simple Excel sheet for the following statistical review.

Description of data

Four hundred herbs, identified by a key common name, were noted in Miller’s book.  They appear in alphabetical order in the book based on the common name used for the particular notes provided.

Some of these herbs were entered under more than one name.  Thirty three of these distinct names were actually duplications of another herb name, with the same Latin identity defined by Miller.  One plant had three common names given resulting in 3 distinct entries in the book (Jack in the Pulpit, Arisaema triphyllum, referred to by Miller with Latin name Arum triphyllum).

The entry “Composition Powders” in Miller’s book (p. 160) was excluded from this review.  It was a powdered herb blend noted in records related to Watervliet (1850) and Mt. Lebanon (1872, 1874).

A fair number of errors were also noted in various other parts of this section of the book.  To resolve this problem, the herbs were resorted by Latin name, in alphabetical order, so these duplications could be identified. 

Following a correction of this count, the final number of herbs reviewed by Miller was 366. 

A number of erratic behaviors were noted in the printed text.  Those most noticeable were the mistakes made with note taking and recall, and/or the final summarizations made for preparing the manuscript of Miller’s work for publication.  Some of these mistakes were made on Miller’s behalf, others probably by the editors and proofreaders of her work.  Nearly all of these mistakes were due to common nomenclature mishaps (assigning wrong common names to plants that are obviously not of the nature inferred by the name) and erroneous Latin-name-common name associations. 

It is important to note here that all of these errors could have been all prevented by focusing just on the final identification of the plant–the Latin name.   But these statements are not  to be taken as a judgment of the work done by Miller and colleague.  This is a very important work on Shaker herbalism.  My statements are more intended to provide a perspective about the level at which the research for this book was managed, and hints to future researchers.   Latin nomenclature may be a hassle to read and spell correctly, but relying upon it as the main identifier does help in preventing errors in interpretations from being presented.

One plant is mentioned but no years are given for its marketing–Cinnamon lacks any data on the years of sale; its description contains just a generic statement stating it was at all villages and sold often over the years. 

Several of the herbs had two Latin names provided, indicating close relatives known by the same common name. 

Another possible error in the data  reconstructed by Miller was in the manner in which either she or the individuals she interviewed for this work tended to lump certain common names together as if they all related to the same specific plant.  A significant number of these common names were out of context with the actual plant identified using the Latin nomenclature.  The common nature of this problem suggests the people interviewed (perhaps elders), were reflecting on personal knowledge but possibly misidetinfying the plant being discussed or applying the wrong common name to a plant.  In some cases, this misapplication of the common name was obvious.  The plant itself did not closely match the description suggested by its common name.

More details about these mistakes and the general review of these herbs by Miller will be provided on another set of pages (a work in process).   

Shaker Herbs Statistics

The following are brief statistical overviews of this herb data, in process of being evaluated.

(Preliminary results)

 

The development of medical, food and other plant products, as well as notes and pamphlets marketing these products, occurred in stepwise fashion.   The above graph demostrates these stepwise increases in numbers of herbs sold at particular times in the history of this market.  Prior to 1830, the business was probably successful but yet to be established in some large regional or national level.  The first peak in 1829/1830 represents a time when a certain series of events suddenly increased the popularity of the Shaker herbs.   More herbs were grown and catalogued for sale than just a few years before.  The reasons for these events remain unidentified. 

The second rise in the Shaker herb market is documented by records indicating there was a second boost in the numbers of herbs being sold around 1834/5.  This is right after the Asiatic cholera epidemic struck the United States and may represent a reduction in public trust in members of the regular medical profession.  In 1829, the first Thomsonian trade magazine was beginning publication.  In 1834, this alternative medical profession and the marketing of its wares and publication had a second boost in publication and sales of Thomsonian remedies.  This history is important since by 1850 we know that the Thomsonians managed to secure nearly 50% of the Shaker’s herbal products being gathered in their growing fields.  Between 1850 and 1854, another event or series of events took place thereby increasing the length of the herbs listed in the catalogues, and increasing the numbers  and varieties of products put up for sale by the Shakers.  Coincidental with this period in Shaker herbal medicine history, the second Asiatic cholera epidemic impacted the United States from Fall of 1849 to Fall 1853/4.

Another way of visualizing the data from Miller’s book is as follows.

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(Preliminary results)

The numbers provided by Miller represent listings or records obtained from specific years.  If we ignore the assumption that throughout the years in between the maximum and minimum year for an herb’s inclusion in the market, that this herb was also constantly available for sale, then we can look at these years in which the herb is documented as peak years unrelated to the marketplace, just its production by the herbal medicine industry itself. 

The above peak is based on the counts of the specific years when an herb is mentioned, ignoring any other years until the next yearly document is found also noting this herb.  This way of reviewing the herbal medicine list reveals a peak for the 1860 documents collection, followed by secondary peaks ten years before and fifteen years after this peak year.   The beginning years and end years of this market are also clearly represented.

During the Civil War years, two items are worth mentioning related to this part of the Shaker’s data. 

First, the production of pamphlets, sales of products, etc. decreased during to the war itself.  This is more clearly represented in the second figure. 

Secondly, wartime often has a positive political and economic impact on medicine, usually improving the fields of surgery, medicine, pharmacy, preventive medicine and the sanitation-based field of medicine that already exist and helping to define nerw specialities previously unrecognized by both the profession or the public. 

This means that the popularity of Shaker herbs may have simply declined following the war due to the numerous new discoveries and advancements in medicine being made due to the war.  Following the war, other well established field reblossomed as well, even the iregular medical fields.  Following the war, water cure, the use of spas, mountain retreats increased in popularity (and financial investments) once again.  The bacterium had not been fully discovered, it was still about five or ten years away from gaining the recognition and momentum needed for it to ultimately replace the climate theory for medicine popular right after the war.    Third, the most financially successful non-allopathic forms of medicine were about to expand in size and popularity.  This resulted in the growth or Eclectic Medicine as a subnstitute and replacement for the smaller, older professions like physiomedicine, botanic medicine, chronothermalism and Thomsonianism.  To some extent, Indian medicine had a revival as well during this period in American medical history.

This suggests that another possible reason for this decline is mostly market related.  A number of new businesses specializing in herbal medicine established themselves soon after the war.  These businesses produced catalogues offering to same type of product as the Shaker medicine, often at a comparable if not lower cost.  These events would have increased the competition the Shaker market had to bear during the next several generations.  It is possible that the now 75 year old shaker way of living was near its peak in social maturity and its ability to persist due to a decline in its participating members. 

Classes of Products

A basic review of the herb list demonstrated the following about plant or herb types.  Domestic plants are those normally planted in gardens.  Plants which were historically planted in gardens before the shaker settlement, and which have escaped, are referred to as Introduced.  Those of foreign origin and which usually were difficult if not impossible to cultivate are referred to as Foreign plants.   Those native to the local setting, and not introduced or not brought into the region from another part of North American down south are noted as Native

Foreign Origins

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Domestic

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Introduced

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Native

Trees

Shrubs

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Vines

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Herbs

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The List

 The following is the List of plants as they appear in Miller’s Book.  These plants will reviewed in more detail on another page, correcting for some of the errors found in Miller’s writing.

 

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HERBS LISTING

  • ABCESS.  Polemonium reptans. Greek Valerian, blue bells, jacob’s ladder.
  • ACONITE.  Aconitum napellus. Monkshood, wolfbane. 
  • AGRIMONY.  Agrimona eupatoria.  Cocklebur, stickwort.
  • ALDER, BLACK.  Prinos verticillatus.  Striped alder, winterberry, fake alder.
  • ALDER, RED or TAG.  Alnus serrulata. Tag alder, smooth alderm brook alder.
  • ALUM ROOT.  Heuchera pubescens. Cranesbill, splitrock.
  • ANGELICA.  Angelica atropurpurea.  Purple angelica, masterwort, high angelica, archangel.
  • ANGOSTURA.  Galipea officinalis. 
  • ANISE.  Pimpinella anisum.
  • APPLETREE.  Pyrus malus.
  • ARNICA.  Arnica montana.  Mountain Tobacco, Leopardsbane.
  • ASH, MOUNTAIN.  Pyrus americana.  Roundwood.
  • ASH, PRICKLY.  Zanthoxylum americanum.  Yellow wood, toothache bush, suter berry.
  • ASH, WHITE.  Fraxinum americana.
  • ASPARAGUS ROOT.  Asparagus officinalis.
  • ASPEN, QUAKING.  Populus tremuloides.  European poplar.
  • AVENS, WATER.  Geum rivale.  Chocolate root, throat root, cure-all, evan’s root.
  • BACKACHE BRAKE.  Athyrium filix-femina.  Female Fern.
  • BALM OF GILEAD.  Commiphora opobalsamum.
  • BALM, LEMON.  Melissa officinalis.  Bee balm, blue balm, cure-all, dropsy plant.
  • BALM, MOLDAVIAN.  Dracocephalum moldavica.  Sweet balm, tea balm, Dragonhead.
  • BALMONY.  Chelone glabra.  Snakehead, Turtlebloom, turtlehead, Salt Rheum weed, fishmouth, shell flower, bitter herb.
  • BALSAM, SWEET.  Gnaphalium polycephalum.  white balsam, Indian Posy, Old Field Balsam.
  • BARBERRY.  Berberis vulgaris.  Sowberry.
  • BASIL, SWEET.  Ocimum basilicum.
  • BASSWOOD.  Tilia americana.  Linden, Lime Tree, Spoonwood.
  • BAYBERRY.  Myrica cerifera.  Wax Myrtle, myrtle, wax berry, candle berry.
  • BEECH.  Fagus ferruginea.
  • BEECHDROPS.  Epifagus virginiana.
  • BELLADONNA.  Atropa belladonna.  Deadly Nightshade, dwale.
  • BELLWORT.  Uvularia perfoliata.  Mohawkweed.
  • BENNE.  Sesamum indicum.  Sesame, gingili, tell.
  • BETHROOT.  Trillium pendulum.  Birthroot, indian balm, ground lily, wake robin, true love, coughroot, pariswort.
  • BETONY, WOOD.  Betonica officinalis.
  • BIRCH, BLACK.  Betula lenta.  Cherry birch, sweet birch, mahogany birch, spice birch.
  • BIRD PEPPER.  Capsicum frutescens.  Cayenne Pepper, chillies.
  • BITTER HERB.  Erythraea centaurium.  Lesser centaury, European centaury.
  • BITTERROOT.  Apocynum androsaemifolium.  Honeybloom, milk ipecac, dogbane, dogsbone, wandering milkweed, flytrap.
  • BITTERSWEET, FALSE.  Celastrus scandens.  Staff Tree, staff vine,climbing orange root, waxwort.
  • BITTERSWEET.  Solanum dulcamara.  Garden nightshade, woody nightshade, violet bloom, fever twig, scarlet berry.
  • BLACKBERRY.  Rubus villosus, Rubus occidentalis.  Dewberry, bramble, gout berry, cloudberry.
  • BLAZING STAR.  Aletris farinosa.  Devil’s Bit, Unicorn, Stargrass, Colic Root, Ague Root.
  • BLOODROOT.  Sanguinaria canadensis.  Red Puccoon, Indian Paint, Tetterwort.
  • BLUE FLAG.  Iris versicolor.  Poison flag, flag lily, water flag, fleur-de-lis, liver lily, snake lily.
  • BONESET.  Eupatorium perfoliatum.  Thoroughwort, feverwort, throughstem, vegetable antimony, crosswort, sweating plant, Indian sage, ague weed, eupatorium.
  • BORAGE.  Borago officinalis.  Burrage, bugloss.
  • BOXBERRY.  Gaultheria procumbens.  Wintergreen.
  • BOXWOOD.  Cornus florida.  Dogwood, flowering dogwood, flowering cornel, budwood.
  • BROOKLIME.  Veronica beccabunga.  Water Pimpernel, water purslane, beccabunga.
  • BROOM.  Cytisus scoparius.  Link, genista, banal.
  • BUCHU.  Barosma betulina.   Bookoo, bucku, diosma belutina.
  • BUCKBEAN.  Menyanthes trifoliata.  Bogbean, Trefoil, Marsh Trefoil, water shamrock, bitterworm, bog myrtle. 
  • BUCKHORN BRAKE.  Osmunda regalis.  Male fern, royal fern, king’s fern.
  • BUCKTHORN.  Rhamnus cathartica.  Purging berries, redroot, new jersey tea, arrow wood, alder dogwood, bird cherry.
  • BUGLE, BITTER.  Lycopus europaeus.  Bugleweed, gipseywort.
  • BUGLE, SWEET.  Lycopus americanus.  Water bugle, water horehound, green archangel, Paul Betony.
  • BURDOCK.  Arctium lappa.  Clotbur, bardana.
  • BURNET, GREAT.  Sanguisorba officinalis.  Garden or Common Burnet.
  • BUTTERCUP.  Ranunculus acris.  Crowfoot.
  • BUTTERNUT.  Juglans cinerea.  White walnut, oil nut, lemon walnut.
  • CANCER ROOT.  Orobanche virginiana.  Beech Drops, Broom Rape.
  • CANELLA.  Canella alba.  Wild Cinnamon, White Wood.
  • CANKER ROOT.  Prenanthes alba.  Rattlesnake Root.
  • CANKER WEED.  Prenanthes serpentaria.
  • CARAWAY.  Carum carui.
  • CARDAMOM.  Elattaria cardamomum.
  • CARDINAL, BLUE.  Lobelia syphilitica.   Blue lobelia.
  • CARDINAL, RED.  Red Lobelia, Hog Physic, Cardinal Flower, Indian Pink.
  • CARDUIS, SPOTTED.  Cnicus benedictus.  Blessed Thistle, Holy Thistle, Milk Thistle.
  • CARPENTER’S SQUARE.  Scrophularia marilandica.   Heal-all, square stalk, figwort.
  • CARROT, WILD.  Daucus carota.  B ee’s nest seed, Queen Anne’s Lace.
  • CASTOR OIL PLANT.  Ricinus communis.  Castor Bean.
  • CATMINT.  Nepeta cataria.  catnip.
  • CAYENNE.  Capsicum annuum.  Bird Pepper Chilies.
  • CEDAR, RED.  Juniperus virginiana.
  • CELANDINE, GARDEN.  Chelidonium majus.  Tetterwort, Turmeric, Great Celandine.
  • CELANDINE, WILD.  Impatiens pallida.  Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, Balsamweed.
  • CENTAURY, AMERICAN.  Sabatia angularis.  Red Centaury, Eyebright.
  • CHAMOMILE.  Anthemis nobilis.  Roman Chamomile, Mayweed.
  • CHAMOMILE, LOW.  Anthemis arvensis.  Garden Chamomile, Corn Chamomile.
  • CHECKERBERRY.  Gaultheria procumbens.  Wintergreen, Tea Berry, Box Berry.
  • CHERRY, WILD.  Prunus serotina.  Black Cherry.  Choke-cherry.
  • CHESTNUT.  Cerastium vulgare.
  • CHICKWEED.  Stellaria media.  Mouse Ear.
  • CHICORY.  Cichorium intybus.  Succory, wild succory, endive, centaury.
  • CHOLIC ROOT.  Dioscorea villosa.  Colic Root, Rheumatism Root.
  • CICELY, SWEET.  Osmorhiza longistylus.  Anise Root, Sweet Anise, Sweet Jarvil. 
  • CICUTA.  Conium maculatum.  Spotted Cowbane, spotted hemlock, Beaver poison, Musquash Root, Poison Hemlock, Water Hemlock, Poison parsley, poison root.
  • CINCHONA. Cinchona succirubra.  Peruvian bark, foso bark, red bark, crown bark.
  • CINNAMON.  Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
  • CLARY.  Salvia sclarea.  Clammy sage, clarry.
  • CLEAVERS.  Galium aparine.  Goose grass, clivers, catchweed, bedstraw, rough cleavers.
  • CLOVER, RED.  Trifolium pratense.  Sweet clover, king’s clover, clover blows.
  • CLOVER, WHITE.  Melilotus alba.  Sweet white clover, sweet melilot.
  • CLOVER, YELLOW.  Trifolium filiforme.
  • CLOVES. Eugenia caryophyllata.
  • COCASH.  Aster puniceus.  Squawweed, life root, cocash weed, red-stalked aster, cold water root, september weed.
  • COHOSH, BLACK.  Cimicifuga racemosa.  Rattle Root, Black Snakeroot, Bugbane, rattle weed, Squawroot, baneberry.
  • COHOSH, BLUE.  Caulophyllum thalictrioides.  Squaw Root, Pappoose Root, Blue Berry.
  • COHOSH, RED.  Actaea rubra.
  • COHOSH, WHITE.  Actaea alba.  Baneberry.
  • COHOSH, YELLOW.  Flavus pulvus.
  • COLCHICUM.  Colchicum autumnale.
  • COLOCYNTH.  Cucumis colocynthis.  Bitter Cucumber, Bitter Apple.
  • COLOMBO, AMERICAN.  Cocculus carolinus.  Indian Lettuce, Yellow Gentian, pyramid flower, meadowpride, yellow gentian.
  • COLTSFOOT.  Tussilago farfara.  Bullsfoot, ginger root, Coughwort.
  • COMFREY.  Symphytum officinale.  Gum plant, healing herb, slippery root.
  • COOLWORT.  Mitella cordifolia.  Mitrewort, Bishop’s Cap.
  • CONSUMPTION BRAKE.  Botrychium lunaria.  Moonwort.
  • COOLWORT.  Mitella cordifolia.  Mitrewort, bishop’s cap.
  • CORIANDER.  Coriandrum sativum.
  • COTTON ROOT.  Gossypium herbaceum.
  • COW PARSNIP.  Heracleum lanatum.
  • COWPARSNIP, ROYAL.  Imperatoria ostruthium.  Masterwort, golden alexanders.
  • CRAMP BARK.  Viburnum opulus.  High Cranberry, Squawbush.
  • CRANESBILL.  Geranium maculatum.  Spotted Geranium, Alum Root, Storksbill, American Tormentilla.
  • CRAWLEY.  Corallorhiza odontorhiza.  Dragon’s Claw, Coral Root, Fever Root, chicken toe.
  • CUBEBS.  Piper cubeba.  Tail peper, java pepper.
  • CUCKOLD.  Biden frondosa.  Swamp Beggar’s Tick, Leafy Bur Marigold, Spanish Needles, Cow Lice, leafy burr marigold.
  • CULVER’S ROOT.  Leptandra virginiana.  Blackroot, Culver’s Physic, Tall Speedwell, Tall Veronica.
  • DAFFODIL.  Narcissus pseudo-narcissus.  Daffy Downdillies.
  • DAISY, WHITE.  Leucanthemum vulgare.  White Weed, Ox-Eye Daisy.
  • DANDELION.  Taraxacum officianle.  Blow Ball, Cankerwort.
  • DILL.  Anethum graveolens.  Dilly, Dillseed.
  • DITTANY.  Cunila mariana.  Stone Mint, Mountain Dittany, American Dittany, Wild Basil.
  • DOCK, BROADLEAF.   Rumex obtusifolius.
  • WATER, DOCK.  Rumex aquaticus.  Great Water Dock, Sour Dock, Narrow Dock.
  • DOCK ROOT, YELLOW.  Rumex crispus.  Sour Dock, Narrow Dock, Curled Dock.
  • DOG GRASS.  Agropyron repens.  Witch Grass, Quick Grass, Couch Grass, Scratch Grass, Triticum, Durfa Grass.
  • DOGWOOD.  Cornus sericea.  Boxwood, Green Ozier, Flowering Cornel, rose willow.
  • DRAGON ROOT.  Arum triphyllum.  Jack-in-the-Pulpit, wild turnip, Indian turnip, wake robin.
  • ELDER.  Sambucus canadensis.  Sweet elder, American elder, panicle elder, sambucus.
  • ELDER, DWARF.  Aralia hispida.  Wild Elder, bristlestem sarsaparilla.
  • ELECAMPANE.  Inula helenium.  Scabwort.
  • ELM, SLIPPERY.  Ulmus fulva.  Red elm, Indian elm, sweet elm, moose elm.
  • ERGOT.  Secale cornatum.  Spurred rye, smut rye.
  • EUPHORBIA.  Euphorbia ipecacuanha.  Spreading spurge, dysentery-weed, milk purslance, American ipecac.
  • FENNEL.  Foeniculum vulgare.  Wild fennel, sweet fennel, large fennel.
  • FERN, MAIDENHAIR.  Adiantum pedatum.
  • FERN, MALE.  Dryopteris filix-mas.  Male shield fern.
  • FERN, POLYPODY.  Polypodium vulgare.  Rock Polypod, rock brake, brake root, female fern.
  • FERN, SWEET.  Comtonia peregrina.  Spleenwort bush, fern gale, sweet fern, sweet bush.
  • FEVERBUSH.  Lindera benzoin.  Wil allspice, spice bush, snap wood, fever wood, benjamin bush.
  • FEVERFEW.  Chrysanthemum parthenium.   Featherfew.
  • FEVERROOT.  Triosteum perfoliatum.  Wild ipecac, horse gentian, tinker’s weed, wild coffee.
  • FIREWEED.  Erechtites hieracifolia.  Pilewort.
  • FITROOT.  Monotropa uniflora. Pipe plant, bird’s nest, ice plant, indian pipe, fit plant, dutchman’s pipe, ghostflower, ova ova.
  • FIVE-FINGER GRASS.  Potentialla canadensis.  Cinquefoil.
  • FLAX.  Linum usitatissimum.  Linseed, lint bells, toad flax, flax.
  • FLEABANE.  Erigeron canadense.  Colt’s tail, pride weed, scabious, horse weed, butter weed.
  • FLOWER DE LUCE.  Iris sambucina.  Fleur-de-lis, blue flag, water flag.
  • FOXGLOVE.  Digitalis purpurea. 
  • FROSTWORT.  Helianthemum canadense.  Rock rose, frost plant, scrofula weed.
  • FUMITORY.  Fumaria officinalis.  Hedge fumitory, earth smoke, fumatory.
  • GALANGAL.  Alpinia galangal.  East India catarrh root, catarrh root, kassamak root.
  • GARGET.  Phytolacca decandra.  Pidgeon berry, poke, poke root, skoke, scoke root, coakum.
  • GARLIC.  Allium sativum. 
  • GELSEMIUM.  Gelsemium sempervirens.  Yellow jasmine, wild woodbine, false jasmine.
  • GENTIAN, BLUE-FRINGED.  Gentiana crinita.
  • GINGER.  Asarum canadense.  Wild ginger, canada snakeroot.
  • GINGER, AFRICAN.  Zingiber officinale.  Jamaican ginger.
  • GINSENG.  Panax quinquefolium.  Ninsin, Chinese seng, five fingers, garantogen.
  • GOLDENROD.  Solidago odora. Sweet-scented goldenrod, blue mountain tea.
  • GOLDENSEAL.  Hydrastis puccoon, Ohio cucurma, ground raspberry, eye balm, orange root, turmeric root.
  • GOLDTHREAD.  Coptis trifolia.  Mouth root, canker root, yellow root.
  • GRAVEL PLANT.  Epigaea repens.  Trailing arbutus, winter pink, gravel weed, mountain pink, mayflower, ground laurel.
  • HARDHACK.  Spiraea tomentosa.  Meadowsweet, white leaf, steeple bush.
  • HARVEST LICE.  Bidens connata.  Cockhold herb, beggar’s tick, swamp beggar’s tick.
  • HEAL-ALL.  Prunella vulgaris.  Self-Heal, figwort, stone root.
  • HEART’S EASE.  Polygonum persicaria.  Ladie’s thumb, spotted knotweed.
  • HELLEBORE, BLACK.  Helleborus niger.  Christmas rose.
  • HELLEBORE, WHITE.  Veratrum viride.  Swamp hellebore, American hellbore, false hellebore, itchweed, indian poke.
  • HEMLOCK.  Abies canadensis.  Hemlock spruce.
  • HEMLOCK.  Pinus rigida.  Pitch pine.
  • HENBANE, BLACK.  Hyoscyamus niger. 
  • HOLLYHOCK.  Althaea rosea.
  • HOPS.  Humulus lupulus.
  • HROEHOUND.  Marrubium vulgare. 
  • HORSEMINT.  Monarda punctata.
  • HORSERADISH.  Armoracia lapathifolia.
  • HYDRANGEA.  Hydranga arborescens.  Seven barks, wild hydrangea.
  • HYSSOP.  Hyssopus officanlis.
  • ICELAND MOSS.  Cetraria islandica.  Eryngo-leaved liverwort.
  • IGNATIA BEAN.  Ignatius amara.  Saint Ignatius’s bean.
  • INDIAN CUP.  Silphium perfoliatum.  Indian cupweed.
  • INDIAN HEMP.  Apocynum cannabinum.  Canadian hemp, indian physic, indian hemp.
  • INDIAN HEMP, WHITE.  Asclepias incarnata.  Swamp milkweed, rose-colored silk weed, water nerve root.
  • INDIAN PHYSIC.  Gillenia trifoliata.  Bowmand;s root, dropwort.
  • INDIAN TURNIP.  Arum triphyllum.  Wake robin, wild turnip, dragon root.
  • INDIGO, WILD.  Baptisia tinctoria.  Horsefly weed, rattlebush, indigo weed, indigo broom, yellow broom.
  • IPECAC, AMERICAN.  Euphorbia ipecacuanha.  Indian physic, bitter root, ipecac milk, fever root, emetic root, blooming spurge.
  • IRIS.  Iris florentina.  Orris root.
  • IRONWEED.  Vernonia fasciculata.
  • IVY, GROUND.  Nepeta glechoma.  Gill run, Cats paw, alehof, gill-over-the-ground, field balm, turnhoof, ground joy.
  • JACOB’S LADDER.  Polemonium coeruleum.
  • JALAP.  Ipomoea jalapa.  Bindweed.
  • JOB’S TEARS.  Onosmodium virginianum.  Gromell, false gromwell.
  • JOHNSWORT.  Hypericum perfoliatum.  Saint Johnswort.
  • JUNIPER.  Juniperus communis.  Juniper bush.
  • KING’S CLOVER.  Melitlotus officinalis.  Melilote, sweet clover.
  • KNOT GRASS.  Triticum repens.  Dog grass, couch grass, quickens, witch grass.
  • LABRADOR TEA.  Ledum latifolium.
  • LADY’S SLIPPER.  Cypripedium flavum.
  • LADY’S SLIPPER, YELLOW.  Cypripedium pubescens.
  • LARKSPUR.  Delphinium consolida.  Stave’s acre.
  • LAUREL, SHEEP.  Kalmia angustifolia.  Laurel, lambkill.
  • LAVENDAR, ENGLISH.  Lavandula vera.
  • LEATHERWOOD.  Dirca palustris.  Moosewood, American mezereon.
  • LETTUCE, GARDEN.  Lactuca sativa.
  • LETTUCE, WILD.  Lactuca virosa.  Poison lettuce, acrid lettuce.
  • LIFE, EVERLASTING.  Gnaphalium polycephalum.  White balsam, indian posey, field balsma, sweet balsam.
  • LIFE ROOT.  Senecio aureus.  Ragwort, golden senecio, uncum, squaw weed, female regulator, cocash weed, false valerian.
  • LILY, WHITE WATER.  Nymphaea odorata.  Toad lily, pond lily, sweet-scented water lily.
  • LILY, YELLOW WATER.  Nuphar advena.  Spatterdock, frog lily, beaver root.
  • LIQUORICE.  Glycyrrhiza glabra.  Licorice.
  • LIVERWORT.  Hepatica americana.  Noble liverleaf, kidney liver leaf, liver leaf.
  • LOBELIA.  Lobelia inflata.  Wild tobacco, indian tobacco, emetic root, puke weed, eye-bright, asthma weed.
  • LOGWOOD.  Haematoxylon campechianum.  Peachwood, bloodwood.
  • LOVAGE.  Levisticum officinale.  Smellage, lavose.
  • LUNGWORT.  Pulmonaria virginica.  Virginia cowslip, maple lungwort.
  • MALLOW, LOW.  Malva rotundifolia.  Cheeses, cheese plant, maller.
  • MALLOW, MARSH.  Althaea officinalis.
  • MANDRAKE.  Podophyllum peltatum.  Mayapple, wild lemon, raccoon berry, wild mandrake.
  • MAN ROOT.  Convolvulus panduratus.  Wild jalap, man-in-the-ground, man-in-the-earth, wild potato, bindweed, wild scammony.
  • MAPLE, RED.  Acer rubrum.  Soft maple, whistle wood.
  • MAPLE, STRIPED.  Acer pennsylvanica.  Canada maple, moosewood.
  • MARIGOLD.  Calendula officinalis.  Pot marigold, marygold.
  • MARJORAM, SWEET.  Origanum marjorana.
  • MARSH ROSEMARY.  Statice caroliniana.  Sea lavender, ink root, meadow root, American thrift, sea thrift.
  • MASTERWORT.  Imperatoria ostruthium.  Cow parsnip, royal cow parsnip.
  • MATICO.  Piper angustifolium.  Soldier’s herb.
  • MAYWEED.  Anthemis cotula.  Wild chamomile, dog fennel.
  • MEADOW SAFFRON.  Colchicum autumnale.  Colchicum.
  • MEZEREON.  Daphne mezereum.  Spurge olive, American mezereon, leatherwood.
  • MILKWEED.  Asclepias syriaca.  Silkweed.
  • MILKWORT. Polygala vulgaris.  European seneca.
  • MONARDA.  Monarda punctata.  Horsemint.
  • MOSS, HAIRCAP. Polytrichum juniperum.  Robin’s eye, ground moss, bear’s bud.
  • MOTHERWORT.  Leonurus cardiaca.  Roman motherwort, lion’s tail, throwwort.
  • MOUNTAIN DITTANY.  Cunila origanoides.  Wild basil, stone mint, American dittany.
  • MOUNTAIN MINT.  Pycnanthemum montanum.  Basil, wild marjoram.
  • MOUSE EAR.  Gnaphalium uliginosum.  Dysentery weed, cud weed, everlasting.
  • MUGWORT.  Artemisia vulgaris. 
  • MULBERRY.  Morus rubra.  Red mulberry.
  • MULLEIN.  Verbascum thapsus.
  • MUSTARD, BLACK.  Brassica nigra.
  • MUSTARD, WHITE. Brassica alba.
  • NANNY BUSH.  Viburnum lentago.  Sheep berry, sweet viburnum, nanny berry.
  • NETTLE.  Urtica dioica,  Stinging nettle.
  • NIGHTSHADE, BLACK.  Solanum nurgum.  Black cherry, garden nightshade.
  • NUX VOMICA.  Strychnos nux-vomica.  Poison nut, ratsbane.
  • OAK BARK, BLACK.  Quercus tinctoria.
  • OAK BARK, RED.  Quercus rubra,
  • OAK BARK, WHITE.  Quercus alba.
  • OAK OF JERUSALEM.  Chenopodium botyris.  Worm seed, Jesuit tea, Jerusalem tea, Jerusalem oak.
  • OAK OF JERUSALEM.  Chenopodium anthelminthicum.  Worm seed, Jesuit tea, Jerusalem tea, Jerusalem oak.
  • ORANGE.  Citrus aurantium.
  • OSIER, GREEN.  Cornus circinata.  Broa-leaved dogwood, dogachamus, alder-leaved dogwood, round-leaved cornel.
  • OSWEGO TEA.  Monarda didyma.  Mountain balm, highy balm, bee balm, bergamot, monarda. 
  • PAPOOSE ROOT.  Caulophyllum thalictrioides.  Blue Cohosh, blueberry root, squaw root.
  • PEREIRA BRAVA.  Chondrodendron tomentosum.  Velvet leaf, ice vine, cissampelos.
  • PARILLA, YELLOW.  Menispermum canadense.  Canadian moonseed, vine maple.
  • PARSLEY.  Petroselenium sativum.  Rock parsley.
  • PEACH.  Amygdalis persica.
  • PENNYROYAL.  Hedeoma pulegioides.  Tickweed, squaw mint.
  • PEONY.  Paeonia officinalis. 
  • PEPPERMINT.  Mentha piperita.
  • PILEWORT.  Amaranthus hypochondriacus.  Prince’s feather, lovely bleeding, red cockscomb.
  • PINE, WHITE.  Pinus strobus.  Spanish pine.
  • PINK ROOT.  Spidelia marylandica.  Canadian maryland pink, wormgrass, starbloom.
  • PIPSISSEWA.  Chimaphila umbellata.  Prince’s pine, noble pine, ground holly, rheumatic weed, false wintergreen.
  • PITCHER PLANT.  Sarracenia purpurea.  Huntsman’s cup, eve’s cup, fly trap.
  • PLANTAIN.  Plantago major.  Common plantain, greater plantain, bitter plantain.
  • PLANTAIN, DOWNY RATTLESNAKE.  Goodyera pubescens.  Adder’s violet, rattlesnake leaf, spotted plantain, rattlesnake root.
  • PLEURISY ROOT.  Asclepius tuberosa.  Butterfly weed, wind root, tuber root.
  • POISON IVY.  Rhus toxicodendron.  Poison vine.
  • POKE.  Phytolacca decandra.  Garget, pigeon berry, scoke, coakum, inkberry, scokeroot.
  • POMEGRANATE.  Punica granatum.
  • POPLAR.  Populus tremuloides.  White poplar, aspen, American poplar, trembling poplar.
  • POPPY.  Papaver somniferum.  Opium poppy, white poppy.
  • PRIVET.  Ligustrum vulgare.  Privy, prim.
  • PTELEA.  Ptelea trifoliata.  Wingseed, wafer ash, shrubby trefoil.
  • PUMPKIN.  Cucurbita pepo.
  • QUASSIA.  Picraena excelsa.  Bitter wood, bitter ash.
  • QUEEN OF THE MEADOW.  Eupatorium purpureum.  Joepye, trumpet weed, gravel root, purple bonseset.
  • QUEEN’S ROOT.  Stillingia sylvatica.  Queen’s delight, yaw root, silver leaf, cock-up hat.
  • RASPBERRY.  Rubus strigosus.  Red raspberry.
  • RED ROOT.  Ceanothus americanus.  New jersey tea, jersey tea, wild snowball.
  • RHATANY.  Krameria triandria.
  • RHUBARB.  Rheum palmatum.
  • RICHWEED.  Collinsonia canadensis.  Stoneroot, hardrock, horseweed, wild citronella, oxbalm.
  • ROCKBRAKE.  Pellea atropurpurea.  Winter fern, cliff brake, Indian dream.
  • ROMAN WORMWOOD.  Artemisia pontica.  Ragweed, hogweed. 
  • ROSE.  Rosa centifolia. Hundred-leaved rose, cabbage rose.
  • ROSE, DAMASK.  Rosa damascena.  Pale rose.
  • ROSE, RED.  Rosa gallica officinalis.
  • ROSE, WHITE.  Rosa alba.
  • ROSEMARY.  Rosmarinus officinalis.
  • ROSIN-WEED.  Silphium laciniatum.  Compass plant, polar plant.
  • RUE.  Ruta graveolens.
  • SAFFRON.  Crocus sativus.
  • SAGE.  Salvia officinalis.
  • SAGE WILLOW  Salix tristis.  Rainbow weed, purple willow herb, loose strife.
  • SANICLE, BLACK.  Sanicula marilandica.  Pool root, American sanicle, self-heal.
  • SARSAPARILLA, AMERICAN WILD.  Aralia nudicaulis.  Wild Licorice, small spikenard, dwarf elder, bristly stem.
  • SASSAFRAS.  Sassafras officinale.
  • SAVIN.  Juniperus sabina.
  • SAVORY, SUMMER.  Satureia hortensis.  Bean herb, Bohnenkraut.
  • SAVORY, WINTER.  Satureia montana.
  • SCABBISH.  Oenothera biennis.  Tree primrose, wild evening primrose.
  • SCABIOUS.  Scabiosa succisa.  Sweet scabious, devil’s bit, primrose scabious.
  • SCROFULA.  Scrophularia marilandica.  Heal-all, square stalk, Carpenter’s square, figwort.
  • SCULLCAP.  Scutellaria lateriflora.  Maddog, hoodwort, blue scullcap, virginia scullcap.
  • SCURVY GRASS.  Cochlearia officinalis.
  • SELF-HEAL.  Prunella vulgaris.  Blue curls, woundwort, all-heal, brownwort, heal-all.
  • SENNA, AMERICAN.  Cassia marilandica.  Locust plant.
  • SHEPHERD’S PURSE.  Capsella bursa-pastoris.  Shepherd’s heart.
  • SHIELD FERN.  Aspidium spinulosum. 
  • SILVER WEED.  Potentialla anserina.  Sinver cinquefoil, cramp weed, goose tansy, moor grass.
  • SKUNK CABBAGE.  Symplocarpus foetidus.  Meadow cabbage, skunk weed, polecat week.
  • SNAKEHEAD.  Chelone glabra.  Balmony, bitter herb, shell flower, white turtlehead, turtlebloom.
  • SNAKEROOT, BLACK.  Cimicifuga racemosa.  Black cohosh, snakeroot.
  • SNAKEROOT, BUTTON.  Liatris spicata.  Gayfeather, devil’s bit, blazing star.
  • SNAKEROOT, CANADA.  Asarum canadense.  Indian ginger, Vermont snake root, heart snakeroot.
  • SNAKEROOT, SENECA. 
  • SNAKEROOT, VIRGINIA.  Aristolochia serpentaria.  Snakeroot, Snake weed, Snagrel.
  • SOAPWORT.  Saponaria officinalis.  Bouncing bet, old maid’s pink, London pride.
  • SOLOMON’S SEAL, GIANT.  Polygonum multiflorum.
  • SOLOMON’S SEAL, SMALL.  Smilacina racemosa.  Seal root, dropberry, false spikenard
  • SORREL, LADY’S.  Oxalis acetosella.  Wood sorrel, common sorrel.
  • SORREL, SHEEP.  Rumex acetosella.  Red top sorrel, field sorrel.
  • SOUTHERNWOOD.  Artemisia abrotanum.  Old man’s tree, boy’s love.
  • SPEARMINT.  Mentha viridis.
  • SPEEDWELL, COMMON.  Veronica officinalis.  Paul betony.
  • SPICEBUSH.  .Linder benzoin.  Fever bush, feverwood.
  • SPIKENARD.  Aralia racemosa.  Life-of-man, petty morrel, spignet.
  • SPLEENWORT, COMMON.  Asplenium angustifolium.
  • SPURRED RYE.  Secale cereale.  Smut rye, ergot.
  • SQUAW VINE.  Mitchella repens.  Partridge berry, winter clover, deer berry, one berry, checkerberry.
  • SQUAW-WEED.  Senecio aureus.  Life root, golden ragwort, female regulator, blue cohosh, cocash weed.
  • SQUILL.  Urginea scilla. Scilla, sea onion.
  • STARFLOWER.  Aster novae-angliae.  Starwort, New England Aster.
  • STAR ROOT.  Aletris farinosa.  Star gras, ague root, colic root.
  • STEEPLEBUSH.  Spiraea tomentosa.  Meadowsweet, hardhack.
  • STILLINGIA.  Stillingia sylvatica.  Queen’s root, queen’s delight, silver leaf.
  • STONE BRAKE.  Eupatorium purpureum.  Queen of the meadow, gravel root.
  • STONE ROOT.  Collinsonia canadensis.  Horseweed, rish weed, ox balm, wound wort. 
  • STRAWBERRY.  Frageria virginiana.
  • SUMACH.  Rhus glabra.  Upland sumac, smooth sumac, Pennsylvania sumac.
  • SUNFLOWER, GARDEN.  Helianthus annuus.
  • SUNFLOWER, WILD.  Helianthus divaricatus.
  • SWEET CLOVER.  Melilotus officinalis.  King’s clover, melilot, yellow sweet clover.
  • SWEET FLAG.  Acorus calamus.  Calamus, sweet rush.
  • SWEET GALE.  Myrical gale.  Meadowfern, bog myrtle, gale fern, sweet willow.
  • SWEET GUM.  Liquidambar styraciflua.  Red gum, star-leaved gum.
  • TAMARACK.  Larix americana.  Hackmatack, American larch.
  • TANSY.  Tanacetum vulgare.  Double tansy, sweet tansy.
  • THIMBLE WEED.  Rudbeckia laciniata.  Cone-disk, coneflower.
  • THISTLE  ROOT.  Cirsium arvense.  Canada root, Canada thistle, cursed thistle.
  • THORN-APPLE.  Datura stramonium.  Apple of Peru, Jamestown weed, jimsonweed, stink weed, stramonium.
  • THYME.  Thymus serpyllum.  American wild thyme, ,other of thyme, creeping thyme.
  • THYME, ENGLISH.  Thymus vulgaris.  Common or garden thyme.
  • TILIA FLOWERS.  Tilia americana.  Lime tree, linden.
  • TOMATO.  Lycopersicum esculetum.
  • TONQUA.  Dipteryx odorata.  Tonka bean.
  • TRILLIUM, PURPLE.  Trillium purpureum.  Beth flower, bethrooffersonia diphylla.  Ground squirrel pea, rheumatism root, helmet pod.
  • TURKEY CORN.  Dicentra canadensis.  Corydalis, turkey pea, stagger weed, squirrel corn.
  • TURMERIC.  Cucurma longa.
  • TWINLEAF.  Jer
  • UNICORN ROOT, FALSE.  Chamaelirium luteum.  Drooping starwort, starwort, star root, helonias.
  • UVA-URSI.   Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.  Bearberry, upland cranberry, mountain cranberry, mountain box, arbutus uva ursi.
  • VALERIAN, AMERICAN.  Cypripedium pubescens.  Nerve root, yellow moccasin flower, yellow ladies’ slipper.
  • VALERIAN, ENGLISH.  Valeriana officinalis.  Great wild valerian, vandal root.
  • VALERIAN, GREEK.  Polemonium reptans.
  • VERVAIN.  Verbena hastata.  Wild hyssop, simpler’s joy, erect vervain, blue vervain.
  • VIOLET.  Viola pedata.  Bird’s foot violet.
  • VIOLET, CANKER.  Viola rostrata.
  • VIRGIN’S BOWER.  Clematis virginiana.    Traveller’s joy, clematis.
  • WA-A-HOO.  Euonymus atropurpureus.  Euonymus, Indian arrowwood, burning bush, spindle tree.
  • WALNUT.  Juglans cinerea.  Hickory, shagbarks, white walnut, butternut bark, oil nut.
  • WATERCUP.  Sarracenia purpurea.  Side-saddle flower, pitcher plant, flytrap, huntsman’s cup, small pox plant.
  • WATER HOARHOUND.  Lycopus europaeus.  Water bugle, gipsy wort.
  • WATERMELON.  Cucurbita vulgaris.
  • WATER PEPPER.  Polygonum hydropiper.  Smartweed, Arsmart, heartweed.
  • WHITE ROOT. Erigeron philadelphicus.  White weed, ox-eye daisy, white daisy.
  • WHITEWOOD.  Liriodendron tulipifera.  Tulip tree, cucumber tree, tulip poplar.
  • WHORTLEBERRY.  Vaccinium myrtillus, bilberry, blue berry, burren myrtle.
  • WICKUP.  Epilobium angustifolium.  Mare’s tail, rose bay, willow-herb.
  • WILD TURNIP.  Arum triphyllum.  Wake robin, jack-in-the-pulpit, dragon root.
  • WILD YAM.  Dioscorea villosa.  Colic root.
  • WILLOW, PUSSY.  Salix discolor.
  • WILLOW, ROSE.  Cornus sericea.  Red-rod, swamp dogwood.
  • WILLOW, WHITE.  Salix alba.
  • WINTERGREEN.  Gaultheria procumbens.  Tea berry plant, checkerberry, pipsissewa, spicy wintergreen, boxberry.
  • WITCHHAZEL.  Hahamaelis virginiana.  Winterbloom, snapping hazel, snapping hazel nut, spotted alder. 
  • WORMSEED.  Artemisia ambrosioides.  Oak Jerusalem seed, goosefoot.
  • WORMWOOD, COMMON.  Artemisia absinthium.
  • YARROW.  Achillea millefolium.  Millefoil, noble yarrow, lady’s mantle.
  • YELLOW JESSAMINE.  Gelsemium sempervirens.  Wild jessamine, woodbine.

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