ANALYSIS OF THE NCNM 1956-57-58 COURSES AND CURRICULUM 

      By Brian L. Altonen

Taken from notes on pages 19-28 of draft copy of first NCNM Catalog.

CURRICULUM

FRESHMAN YEAR

First Semester                                                       HOURS

                                                                               Class   Semester

Anat 311            Histology                                        90          5

Anat 312.1        Osteology                                      90          5

Phys 321            Physiology                                 126           5

Chem 331          Inorganic Chemistry                 90          4

 Nat 391             Introduction to Healing Arts  54          3

                                                    ___         __

      (25 Class Hours per Week)                           450         22

Second Semester

Anat 312.2      Syndesmology                            36          2

Anat 312.3      Myology                                        72          4

Phys 322          Physiology                                 126           5

Chem  332         Organic Chemistry                  72          4

Bact  341          Bacteriology                                72          4

Clin 381           First Aid                                         18          1

 Nat 391           Body Mechanics                         54          3

                                                    ___         __

      (25 Class Hours per Week)                        450         23

      Total Class Hours for Freshman Year    900          45

SOPHOMORE

Third Semester                                           HOURS

                                                                          Class   Semester

Anat 413          Embryology                            72          4

Anat 412.4  Angiology & Lymphatics        72          4

Anat 414.1  Anatomical Neurology            72          4

Chem  433         Biochemistry                         72          4

Path 451          General Pathology               109           5

Rntg 471          X-ray Technique                    72          4

 Nat 493.1  Manipulative Technique           72          4

                                                    ___         __

      (30 Class Hours per Week)                  540         29

Fourth Semester                                         

Anat 412.5  Splanchnology                           54          3

Anat 414.2  Anatomical Neurology          54          3

Phys 423          Advances Physiology &

                    Correlative                                       54          3

Chem 434          Biochemistry                        54          3

P.H. 442          Public Health & Preventive

                    Medicine (incl. statistics)           72          4

Path 452          Special Pathology                 90          4

Path 453          Laboratory Diagnosis          72          4

 Nat 493.2  Manipulative Technique         90          5

                                                                                       ___         __

      (30 Class Hours per Week)                           540         29

      Total Class Hours for Sophomore Year   1080         58

      Total Class Hours to date                              1980       103

JUNIOR

Fifth Semester                                                   HOURS

                                                                               Class   Semester

Anat 512.6 Dissection, Human                       144           5

Diag 561          Physical Diagnosis                       90          5

Diag 563.1  Ophthalomology                              36          2

Diag 564.1  Clinical Neurology                           72          4

Diag 565.1  Gynecology

                    (Minor Surgery 30 hrs)                      72          4

Diag 566          Orthopedics (Minor Surgery)   18          1

Clin 582          Electrotherapy                                 36          2

 Nat 594.1     Prin. & Prac. of Naturopathy      18       1

 Nat 595.1  Bot. Med.                                               36          2

Clin 585.1  Clinic

                    (Nat. Med. Pract. 50 hrs)                 144          4

                                                    ___         __

      (37 Class Hours per Week)                           666         30

Sixth Semester                                          

Diag 562          Clinical Diagnosis                        90          5

Diag 563.2  Otolaryngology                               36          2

Diag 564.2  Visceral Neurology                       54          3

Diag 565.2  Obstetrics                                          72          4

Clin 586.1  Minor Surgery                                   36          2

Clin 583          Physiotherapy                              36          2

Clin 584          Hydrotherapy                              36          2

 Nat 594.2     Prin. & Prac. of Naturopathy  36         2

 Nat 595.2  Bot. Med.                                            36          2

Clin 585.2  Clinic

                    (Nat. Med. Pract. 50 hrs)             144          4

                                                                                  ___         __

      (32 Class Hours per Week)                      576         28

      Total Class Hours for Junior Year      1242         58

                                                                                1980       103

      Total Class Hours for to date                3222       161

SENIOR

Seventh Semester                                   HOURS

                                                                       Class   Semester

Chem 635.1  Trophology                              36          2

Chem 636          Toxicology                          16          1

Path 654          Clinical Pathology              36          2

Diag 667          Pediatrics                               72          4

Rntg 673.1  X-ray Interpretation            36          2

Clin 688.1  Psychiatry

                    (Abnormal Psychology)         54          3

Clin 686.2  Minor Surgery                         36          2

Clin 689.1  Clinic (Naturae Medicina

                    Pract. 50 hrs.)                        360         18

Clin 689.3  Obstetric Internship          40          2

                                                                          ___         __

      (38 Class Hours per Week)               688         36

Eighth Semester                                         

Chem 635.2  Trophology                          18          1

Diag 668          Geriatrics                              36          2

Diag 669.1  Proctology

                    (Minor Surgery 30 hrs.)         54          3

Diag 669.2  Urology                                      18          1

Rntg 673.2  Advanced X-ray Interpretation     18          1

Clin 688.2  Psychiatry

                    (Abnormal Psychology)            54          3

 Nat 696          Semantics                                 18          1

 Nat 697          Jurisprudence                       36          2

 Nat 698          Endocrinology                       36          2

Clin 689.2  Clinic (Naturae Medicina

                    Pract. 50 hrs.)                            360         18

Clin 689.3  Obstetric Internship            40          2

                                                                               ___         __

      (38 Class Hours per Week)                     688         36

      Total Class Hours for Senior Year      1376         72

                                                                               3222       161

      Total Class Hours for graduation        4598       233

.

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

CLASSROOM AND SEMESTER HOUR REQUIREMENTS

                                                                               HOURS

                                                                      Class   Semester

Basic Science Departments

  I. Department of Anatomy                    756         39

 II.  Department of Physiology              306         13

III. Department of Chemistry               360         19

 IV. Department of Bacteriology           144         8

  V. Department of Pathology                 306         15

                                          SUM                       2172       94

Clinical Departments

       VI. Department of Diagnosis              720         40

      VII. Department of Roentgenology    126         7

    VIII. Department of Clinical Therapeutics

                                                                             1394          65

                                                SUM                   2240        112

                                                                               2172       94

                                        TOTAL SUM              4412      206

TOTAL NON-TUITION COSTS FOR SCHOOLING: BY DEPARTMENTS

                                                                        Expense  #items  

Basic Science Departments                    

  I. Department of Anatomy                       $64.00      5

 II.  Department of Physiology                  $74.15      6    

III. Department of Chemistry                  $29.75      4

 IV. Department of Bacteriology           $14.00      2

  V. Department of Pathology                  $20.50      2

                                          SUM                       $202.40   19

Clinical Departments

       VI. Department of Diagnosis                     $87.50    11

      VII. Department of Roentgenology          $20.50    2

    VIII. Department of Clinical Therap.       $33.35      5

                                          SUM                                 $141.35    18

                            SUM-BOTH DEPTS                  $343.75   37

TOTAL NON-TUITION COSTS: TEXTBOOKS

Textbooks                                                         

                                                     Expense  #items  

Basic Science Departments (Freshman-Sophomore)                 

  I. Department of Anatomy                       $48.00      4

 II.  Department of Physiology                  $22.00      4    

III. Department of Chemistry                    $29.75      4

 IV. Department of Bacteriology                $14.00      2

  V. Department of Pathology                     $20.50      2

                                          SUM                            $134.25   16

Clinical Departments (Junior-Senior years)

       VI. Department of Diagnosis                $87.50   11

      VII. Department of Roentgenology       $20.50    2

    VIII. Department of Clinical Therap.     $30.75   4

                                          SUM                              $137.25   17

                            SUM-BOTH DEPTS               $271.00   33

TOTAL NON-TUITION COSTS: LAB & DIAGNOSTIC EQUIPMENT

Textbooks                                                         

                                                     Expense  #items  

Basic Science Departments (Freshman-Sophomore)                 

  I. Department of Anatomy                         $15.00      1

            Dissection Kit

 II.  Department of Physiology                  $52.15      2

            Stethoscope-9.65

            Baumanometer [BP Cuff]-                42.50

III. Department of Chemistry                None –

 IV. Department of Bacteriology           None –

  V. Department of Pathology                  None –

                                          SUM                        $67.15   16

Clinical Departments (Junior-Senior years)

 VI. Department of Diagnosis                             None  –

      VII. Department of Roentgenology          None –

    VIII. Department of Clinical Therap.     $3.16         1

                  Thermometer Set

                                          SUM                                 $3.16        1

                            SUM-BOTH DEPTS                   $70.31    17

The price difference is due to ???

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

I.  ANATOMY [Anat.]

Staff:

Department Head: Glenn C. Wildebour, B.S., N.D.

       Lecturers: Linden R. Launer, M.A., N.D.

                    Mather

                    Kennedy, Jr.

Courses: 

Histology [311]

Gross Anatomy [312 series]

      Osteology, Syndesmology, Myology, Angiology & Lymphatics, Splanchnology, Dissection (human cadavers).

Human Embryology [413]

Neurology [414 series]

      Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System

Textbooks:

Ham–Histology ($10.00)

Gray–Anatomy  ($16.50)

Patton–Human Embryology ($11.00) [“Ayres-Anatomy     9.50” is scratched out and replaced with Patton’s     book.]

Dorland’s Medical Dictionary ($11.50) is noted at     the bottom of this first page and suggested for     for “ALL COURSES.”

Other purchases:

Dissection Kit ($15.00)

.

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

II.  PHYSIOLOGY [Phys.]

Staff:

Department Head: Linden R. Launer, M.A., N.D.

       Lecturers: W.W. Taylor, B.S., N.D.

                    Byrd

Courses: 

Physiology [321,322]

Advanced Physiology & Correlative [423]

Textbooks:

Zoethout & Tuttle–Textbook of Physiology ($5.00)

Launer–Physiology Lab Manuals I and II.  ($2.50 each)

Fulton–Physiology ($12.00)

Other purchases:

Stethoscope  ($9.65)

Baumanometer ($42.50)

.

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

III.  CHEMISTRY [Chem.]

Staff:

Department Head: W.W. Taylor, B.S., N.D.

       Lecturers: Wildebour

                    Diebold

                    Shepherd

Courses: 

  • Inorganic Chemistry [331]
  • Organic Chemistry   [332]
  • Biochemistry            [433]
  • Biochemistry, Advanced [434]
  • Trophology        [635.1 and 635.2]
  • Toxicology        [636]

Textbooks:

  • King & Caldwell–Fundamentals of College Chem. ($4.75)
  • Luros–Essential of Chemistry ($4.50)
  • Kleiner–Human Biochemistry ($7.50)
  • Bicknell & Prescott–The Vitamins in Medicine ($13.00)

Other purchases:

None.

.

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

IV.  BACTERIOLOGY, PUBLIC HEALTH AND PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE  [Bact. and Pub.]

Staff:

Department Head: Henry M. Merritt, B.S., M.Ed., N.D.

       Lecturers: Linden R. Launer, M.A., N.D.

                    Johnston

Courses: 

Bacteriology  [Bact. 341]

Public Health [“Pub. Health”]

Textbooks:

  • Kelly & Hite–Microbiology ($7.50)
  • Shepherd–Essential of Public Health ($6.50)

Other Purchases:

      None.

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

V.  PATHOLOGY [Path.]

Staff:

Department Head: W. Martin Bleything, B.S., M.S., N.D.

       Lecturers: Henry M. Merritt, B.S., M.Ed., N.D.

                    Mather

                    Byrd

Courses: 

  • General Pathology  [451]
  • Special Pathology  [452]
  • Laboratory Diagnosis [453]
  • Clinical Pathology      [654]

Textbooks:

  • Karsner–Human Pathology ($12.00)
  • Todd & Sandford–Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory     Methods ($8.50)

Other Purchases:

      None.

.

CLINICAL DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

VI.  DIAGNOSIS [Diag.]

Staff:

Department Head: Carl Kennedy, Sr. 

       Lecturers: W. Martin Bleything, B.S., M.S., N.D.

                    Feinberg

                    Johnston

                    Shepherd

                    Spaulding

                    Bemis (scratched out)

                    Hamptom (added)

Courses: 

  • Physical Diagnosis [561]
  • Clinical Diagnosis (incl. Dermatology and Syphilology)      [562]
  • Opthalmology (sic)  [563.1]
  • Otolaryngology          [563.2]
  • Clinical Neurology      [564.1]
  • Visceral Neurology      [564.2]
  • Gynecology        [565.1]
  • Obstetrics        [565.2]
  • Orthopedics (Minor Surgery) [566]
  • Pediatrics        [667]
  • Geriatrics        [668]
  • Proctology (Minor Surgery 30 hrs.) [669.1]
  • Urology                 [669.2]

Textbooks:

  • Loewenberg–Medical & Physical Diagnosis ($13.00) 
  • Hollender–Nose, Throat, Ear ($7.50)
  • Traquair–Clinical Op[h]thalmology  ($9.00) 
  • Merritt–Fundamentals of Clinical Neurology ($7.00)
  • Pottenger–Symptoms of Visceral Disease ($7.50)
  • Crossen–Synopsis of Gynecology ($4.25)
  • Litzenberg–Synopsis of Obstetrics ($5.50)
  • Zahorsky–Synopsis of Pediatrics ($7.50)
  • Thewlis–Care of the Aged ($8.00)
  • Davis–Urology ($3.25)
  • Bleything–Advanced Concepot of Proctology ($15.00)

Other Purchases:

      None.

.

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

VII.  ROENTGENOLOGY [Rntg.]

Staff:

Department Head: Donovan E. Hampton, N.D.

       Lecturers: Bemis (scratched out)

                    Johnston

Courses 

  • Roentgenographic Technique  [471]
  • Roentgenographic Interpretation  [673.1]
  • Adv.[anced] Roentgenographic Interpretation  [673.2]

Textbooks

  • Sante–Manual of Radiological Techniques ($9.75)
  • Sante–Principles of Roentgenological Interpretation ($10.75)

Other Purchases

      None.

.

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

VIII.  CLINICAL THERAPEUTICS [Clin.]

Staff

Department Head: Donovan E. Hampton, N.D.

       Lecturers: W. Martin Bleything, B.S., M.S., N.D.

                    Kennedy, Sr.

                    Wildebour

                    Bemis (scratched out)

Courses: 

  • First Aid  [381]
  • Electrotherapy [582]
  • Physiotherapy [583]
  • Hydrotherapy   [584]
  • Clinic (Naturae Medicina Pract. 50 hrs.) [585.1 & .2]
  • Minor Surgery     [586.1]
  • Minor Surgery     [686.2]

      [sic, these two should be either 586.1 & 686.1, or    686.1 & 686.2]

  • Psychiatry (Incl. Abnormal Psychology) [688.1 & .2]
  • Clinic  (Naturae Medicina Pract. 50 hrs.) [689.1 & .2]
  • Clinic  (Obstetric Internship)  [689.3 & .4]

Textbooks:

  • Red Cross–First Aid ($0.75))
  • Kovac–Electrotherapy and Light Therapy ($10.00)
  • Thorpe & Katz–Psychology of Abnormal Behavior ($6.50)
  • Ferguson–Surgery of the Ambulatory Patient ($12.00)

Other Purchases:

      Thermometer Set ($3.60)

.

DEPARTMENT DESCRIPTIONS

IX.  NATUROPATHIC MEDICINE [Nat.]

Staff:

             Chairman: Dr. Carl Kennedy [Sr.] [see next page]

Department Head: W. Martin Bleything, B.S., M.S., N.D.

       Lecturers: Linden R. Launer, M.A., N.D.

                    Bemis (scratched out)

                    Diebold

                    Hammond

                    Watson

                    Johnston

                    Donovan E. Hampton, N.D.

Courses 

  • Introduction to the Healing Arts  [391]
  • Body Mechanics [392]
  • Manipulative Technique [493.1 & .2]
  • Principles & Practice of Naturopathy [594.1 & .2]
  • Botanical Medicine  [595.1 & .2]
  • Semantics  [696]
  • Jurisprudence     [697]
  • Endocrinology     [698]

Textbooks

  • Pepper–Etymology ($5.50)
  • Goldswaite–Body Mechanics ($8.00)
  • Kuts & Cheraux–Naturae Medicina ($12.00)
  • Regan–Doctor, Law & Patient ($12.50)
  • Thompson–Endocrinology  ($7.50)

Other Purchases:

      None

   NOTE:  The top portion of the page was significantly  modified during the first and second proofreading and rewriting of the draft. 

The first version appears as:

“IX. DEPARTMENT OF NATUROPATHY

      Lecturers: Drs. Bleything, Launer, Bemis, Diebold,    Hammond, Watson.”

This was modified using light blue ink to the following:

“IX. DEPARTMENT OF NATUROPATHIC MEDICINE

  Chairman: Dr. Carl Kennedy [Sr.?]

      Lecturers: Drs. Bleything, Launer, Bemis, Diebold,    Hammond, Watson.”

It was then modified using dark blue ink to produce this third and final version:

“IX. DEPARTMENT OF NATUROPATHIC MEDICINE

  Chairman: Dr. Carl Kennedy [Sr.] 

    Department Head: W. Martin Bleyhting, B.S., M.S., N.D.

      Lecturers: Drs. Bleything, Launer, Bemis, Diebold,    Hammond, Watson & Hampton”

A Detailed Review of Naturopathic Courses

This is pretty much the actual appearance in draft on page 28:

  • Nat. 391       a  Introduction to the Healing Arts     54   3
  • Nat. 392    a,c  Body Mechanics                                    54   3
  • Nat. 493.1 a,c  Manipulative Technique                   72   4
  • Nat. 493,2 a,c  Manipulative Technique, cont.      90   5
  • Nat. 594.1   a  Principles & Practice of Naturopathy 18   1
  • Nat. 594.2   a  Principles & Practice of Naturopathy,

                        cont.                                  36   2  Nat. 595.1 a,c  Botanical Medicine                           36   2

  • Nat. 595.2 a,c  Botanical Medicine, cont.          36   2
  • Nat. 696       a  Semantics                                         18   1
  • Nat. 697     a    Jurisprudence                               36   2
  • Nat. 698       a  Endocrinology                                36   2

Total hours required in the department of Naturopathy 486 27

Page 21 describes these symbols and their meaning:

“The period of instruction covrs four years, each year having its own course of study.  The courses are designed to be progressive, and are arragned so that each correlates with the others.  This feature is dwelt upon to the end that theory and practical instruction are closely coordinated.  The instruction consists of lectures, recitations, demonstrations, and clinics through the four years.

“Courses of instruction are arranged in nine departments or related groups.

“Courses are numbered on the following basis:  The first digit indicates the school year in which the course is offered.  The second digit indicates the department under which the course is conducted.  The third digit designates otherise the course number.  The added letter designates the kind of course: i.e. a–lecture, b–laboratory, c–technic, and d–clinic.”

Therefore, reviewing the Department descriptions (pages 22 to 28), the following distinguishing features in each course or department are seen.

1.  All courses, except the six indicated as “Clinic” in Department of Therapeutics (Naturae Medica 585 and 689, and “Obstetrical Internship” 689), have lectures attached to them, indicated by an ‘a’ preceding their titles.

2.  The following courses which include a laboratory (‘b’):

–Anat. 312 and 512 of the Gross Anatomy sessions, in particular “Anat. 312.1 Osteology” (90 class hours and 5 Semester hours) and “Anat. 512.6 Dissection (human cadavers)” (144 class hours and 5 semester hours).  Syndesmology, Myology, Angiology & Lymphatics, and Splanchnology sections did not include laboratory activities, nor did the two Neurology (Anat. 141) sources: “Anat. 414.1 a Central Nervous System  72   4” and “Anat. 141.2 a Peripheral Nervous System  54   3.”

–Anat. 413, “Human Embryology” did include a laboratory period, presumably for microscopic analysis. 

–In the “Department of Physiology,” Phys. 321 and 322, Physiology (each 126 class hours and 5 semester hours), each had a laboratory session.

–In the “Department of Chemistry…,” Chem. 331, the “Inorganic Chemistry” class had a basic chemical laboratory session.

–In the “Department of Bacteriology…,,” Bact. 341 “Bacteriology” and “P.H….Public Health & Preventative Medicine” had laboratory sessions.

–In the “Department of Pathology,” “General Pathology” (Path. 451) and “Special Pathology” (Path. 452) each had laboratory sessions, as well as Path. 453 “Laboratory Diagnosis.” 

3.  None of the courses offered by the “Clinical Departments”  (Department of Diagnosis, Department of Roentgenology, or Department of Clinical Therapeutics) offered laboratory training.  All 500 and 600 level courses in these departments offered clinical training sessions (indicated by a ‘d’).  

4.  All except the courses entitled “Clinic” (“Naturae Medicina” and “Obstetrical Internship”) offered technical training (indicated by a ‘c’).   Therefore, technician’s training was received by naturopathic externs and clinicians in:

–Physical and Clinical Diagnoses, Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology, Clinical and Visceral Neurology, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Orthopedics, Pediatrics, Geriatrics, Proctology, and Urology, [all of the Department of Diagnosis], and

–Electrotherapy, Physiotherapy, Hydrotherapy, Minor Surgery, Psychiatry, X-ray, [all of the Department of Diagnosis]. 

5.  Other Clinical, Diagnostic and Technical skills were included as part of these departments pertaining to the studies of Dermatology, Syphilology (as part of the “Clinical Diagnosis” [Diag. 562] training), and Minor Surgery (as part of the diagnostic and clinical training in Gynecology [Diag. 565.1], Orthopedics [Diag. 566], and Proctology [Diag. 699.1].)   

More on this appears in the prior notes taken on page 27 of the original draft, quoted and described previously in this section of the study of Naturopathic School history.

Of the total

                       a               b                     c                  d

I.          756:39      306:14             —                 —

II          306:13      252:10             —                 —

III         360:19        90:4              —                 —

IV          144:8         144:8              —                 —

V           306:15      270:13             —                 —

VI          720:40          —            720:40            720:40

VII         126:7     —            72:4       72:4

VIII        306:17          —            306:17          1088:40

IX          486:27          —            234:13               —

The other features of the individual courses stand out:

Botanical Medicine [Nat. 595.1 and .2] is a blending of classroom and didactic technician’s training.

Manipulative Techniques [Nat. 493.1 and .2] also makes use of classroom and didactic training.

Electrotherapy, physiotherpay and hydrotherapy [Clin. 582-4 “a,c,d”] require didactic training outside of classroom training in two areas: technical skills and clinical skills.  The same is true for Minor Surgery [Clin 586 and 686] and PSychiatry [Clin. 688.1 and .2].

Both classroom and laboratory training were utilized for teaching much needed laboratory, medical and clinical skills in Pathology, Bacteriology, “Public Health and Preventative Medicine.”  

Basic sciences which traditionally made use of lecturing and laboratory teaching methods in colleges also accomplished the same in this school’s first two-years “Basic Science” sequence.  These classes include: Inorganic Chemistry [Chem. 331],  Physiology [Phys. 321, 322], Histology [Anat. 311], Gross Anatomy [312, 412? and 512], Osteology [Anat. 312.1] and Human Embryology [Anat. 413].  

How this can be related to the individual academic year activities is as follows.

FRESHMAN YEAR

First Semester                                           HOURS

                                                   Class   Semester

Anat 311          Histology                                         90          5

Anat 312.1  Osteology                                            90          5

Phys 321          Physiology                                     126           5

Chem 331          Inorganic Chemistry                 90          4

 Nat 391          Introduction to Healing Arts    54          3

                                                    ___         __

      (25 Class Hours per Week)                          450         22

Second Semester

Anat 312.2  Syndesmology                                36          2

Anat 312.3  Myology                                           72          4

Phys 322          Physiology                              126           5

Chem  332         Organic Chemistry               72          4

Bact  341         Bacteriology                              72          4

Clin 381          First Aid                                       18          1

 Nat 391          Body Mechanics                        54          3

                                                    ___         __

      (25 Class Hours per Week)                         450         23

      Total Class Hours for Freshman Year    900          45

FIRST YEAR

First Semester

Introduction to Healing Arts       a               54          4

Histology                                           a,b               90          5

Osteology                                          a,b               90          5

Physiology                                         a,b             126           5

Inorganic Chemistry                 a,b               90          4

Second Semester

Syndesmology                               a                 36          2

Myology                                          a                 72          4

Organic Chemistry                      a                 72          4

Physiology                                  a,b             126           5

Bacteriology                              a,b               72          4

First Aid                                      a,c               18          1

Body Mechanics                      a,c               54          3    

ANALYSIS

The first year students are responsible for attending 25 class hours per week.

The emphasis on this first year curriculum is of course in the lecture and laboratory work that makes up Basic Science training; these are the pretty much same prerequisistes that exist for modern day medical schools as well. 

Note the Organic Chemistry course lacked a laboratory requirement, presumably due to lack of money to support a chemistry lab facility.  Even laboratory safety requirements were greatly lacking during the 1950s. some basic safety requirements did exist, making the operation of such a facility at the ever-moving Naturopathic School more difficult to carry out, and perhaps even more dangerous. 

Students are given didactic training in First Aid and “Body Mechanics.”  

The First Aid course used and probably matched the American Red Corss version of an [Advanced] First Aid course, and utilized the same Red Cross textbook.   Contemporary teachings of equal format inclde the Red Cross and Emergency Medical Technician’s courses used to train contemporary Naturopathic students in the preliminary knowledge and skills needed for the practice of emergency medicine in their post-graduate and clinical years. 

The course in “Body Mechanics” presumably focused on stretching techniques, exercises, and massage.

SOPHOMORE

Third Semester                                           HOURS

                                                   Class   Semester

Anat 413          Embryology                            72          4

Anat 412.4  Angiology & Lymphatics        72          4

Anat 414.1  Anatomical Neurology           72          4

Chem  433         Biochemistry                        72          4

Path 451          General Pathology             109           5

Rntg 471          X-ray Technique                 72          4

 Nat 493.1  Manipulative Technique        72          4

                                                    ___         __

      (30 Class Hours per Week)                540         29

Fourth Semester                                         

Anat 412.5  Splanchnology                         54          3

Anat 414.2  Anatomical Neurology          54          3

Phys 423          Advances Physiology &

                    Correlative                                      54          3

Chem 434          Biochemistry                        54          3

P.H. 442          Public Health & Preventive

                    Medicine (incl. statistics)          72          4

Path 452          Special Pathology                90          4

Path 453          Laboratory Diagnosis         72          4

 Nat 493.2  Manipulative Technique        90          5

                                                    ___         __

      (30 Class Hours per Week)                  540         29

      Total Class Hours for Sophomore Year   1080         58

      Total Class Hours to date                     1980       103

SECOND YEAR

Third Semester                                           HOURS

                                                   Class   Semester

Angiology & Lymphatics              a           72          4

Anatomical Neurology                 a           72          4

Biochemistry                                    a           72          4

Embryology                                    a,b         72          4

General Pathology                      a,b       109           5

Manipulative Technique           a,c         72          4

X-ray Technique                         a,c,d       72          4

                                                    ___         __

      (30 Class Hours per Week)         540         29

Fourth Semester                                         

Splanchnology                                 a           54          3

Neurology                                         a           54          3

Advanced Physiology & Correlative    a            54          3

Biochemistry                                   a           54          3

Public Health/Preventive Medicine   a,b         72          4

Special Pathology                           a,b         90          4

Laboratory Diagnosis                   a,b         72          4

Manipulative Technique              a,c         90          5

                                                    ___         __

      (30 Class Hours per Week)               540         29

ANALYSIS

Lectures are again emphasized during this second year of the Basic Science Training program.   Three of the Anatomy topics–Angiology & Lymphatic, Splanchnology and Neurology–which are taught, are learned through classroom training only.

Laboratory requirements which must be passed in the second year pertain to Embryology, Pathology, learning the various laboratory diagnostic skills, and any laboratory related skills in public health and preventive medicine.

The Technical skills being taught during the Sophomore year are in Radiology and “Manipulative Technique,” for which an entire year of didactic teachings are given.  

Responsibility as a Clinician also begin during the first half of the second year.  As a part of learning W-raying skills, a certain amount of clinical time is expected to take place.

The statistical knowledge required of medicne is also taught this year, as a part of the Public Health & Preventive Medicine program [P.H. 442].

JUNIOR

Fifth Semester                                           HOURS

                                                   Class   Semester

Anat 512.6 Dissection, Human                    144           5

Diag 561          Physical Diagnosis                  90          5

Diag 563.1  Ophthalomology                        36          2

Diag 564.1  Clinical Neurology                     72          4

Diag 565.1  Gynecology

                    (Minor Surgery 30 hrs)              72          4

Diag 566          Orthopedics (Minor Surgery)   18          1

Clin 582          Electrotherapy                               36          2

 Nat 594.1     Prin. & Prac. of Naturopathy    18       1

 Nat 595.1  Bot. Med.                                              36          2

Clin 585.1  Clinic

                    (Nat. Med. Pract. 50 hrs)                144          4

                                                    ___         __

      (37 Class Hours per Week)                         666         30

Sixth Semester                                          

Diag 562          Clinical Diagnosis                    90          5

Diag 563.2  Otolaryngology                            36          2

Diag 564.2  Visceral Neurology                    54          3

Diag 565.2  Obstetrics                                       72          4

Clin 586.1  Minor Surgery                                36          2

Clin 583          Physiotherapy                            36          2

Clin 584          Hydrotherapy                             36          2

 Nat 594.2     Prin. & Prac. of Naturopathy  36       2

 Nat 595.2  Bot. Med.                                          36          2

Clin 585.2  Clinic

                    (Nat. Med. Pract. 50 hrs)            144          4

                                                    ___         __

      (32 Class Hours per Week)                     576         28

      Total Class Hours for Junior Year      1242         58

                                                                             1980       103

      Total Class Hours for to date             3222       161

JUNIOR

Fifth Semester                                           HOURS

                                                   Class   Semester

Prin. & Prac. of Naturopathy         a               18          1

Botanical Medicine                          a,b             36          2

Dissection, Human                           a,b            144          5

Physical Diagnosis                          a,c,d            90          5

Ophthalomology                              a,c,d            36          2

Clinical Neurology                          a,c,d            72          4

Gynecology                                        a,c,d         72          4

Orthopedics (Minor Surgery)    a,c,d       18          1

Electrotherapy                                a,c,d       36          2

Clinic (Naturae Medicina)         d               144           4

                                                                    ___         __

      (37 Class Hours per eek)               666         30

Sixth Semester                                          

Prin. & Prac. of Naturopathy          a          36          2

Botanical Medicine                           a,b        36          2

Clinical Diagnosis                           a,c,d       90          5

Otolaryngology                               a,c,d       36          2

Visceral Neurology                     a,c,d       54          3

Gynecology                                    a,c,d       72          4

Minor Surgery                               a,c,d       36          2

Physiotherapy                              a,c,d       36          2

Hydrotherapy                              a,c,d       36          2

Clinic  (Naturae Medicina)       d              144           4

                                                    ___         __

      (32 Class Hours per Week)               576         28

During the Junior Year, the first Clinical Year of the curriculum, students are taught to put toegether the variety skills they learned in the Basic and Clinical Sciences during their previous two years at NCNM.  This takes place in the course titled “Principles and Practice of Naturopathy” [Nat. 594.1 and .2] which lasts the entire academic year.

Botanical Medicine is also taken, as a substitute for the Pharmacology program included in regular medical schools.  [recall the naturopathic schools were absolved from the chiropractic schools harboring them as “drugless physicians.”] 

Laboratory skills are still being practiced in the Human Cadaver dissection phase of the training [Anat. 512.6].  This occurs fairly late in the curriculum, when viewed in comaprison to today’s regular medical school teachings, which like to include the Cadaver dissection as part of the first year curriculum in regular medical school.  Presumably, the school chose this option in order to enable the students to apply their earlier teachings in anatomy and physiology during the first two eyars.  The disadvantage to thios laerning method is that during their first years of externship, these same students are actively dissecting cadavers, which makes for questionable professionalism due to the problems attached to malingering odors from remaining in the dissecting room for long periods of time; these same odors probably amde some patients rethink their participation in the school’s clinical setting.. 

An emphasis is now made on learning in the clinical and technical environments.  Most of the technical skills are designed to teach examination and diagnostic techniques. 

(Minor Surgery 30 hrs)                                 72          4

(Nat. Med. Pract. 50 hrs X 2) 

SENIOR

Seventh Semester                                   HOURS

                                                                         Class   Semester

Chem 635.2  Trophology                                36          2

Chem 636          Toxicology                              16          1

Path 654          Clinical Pathology                  36          2

Diag 667          Pediatrics                                 72          4

Rntg 673.1  X-ray Interpretation              36          2

Clin 688.1  Psychiatry

                    (Abnormal Psychology)           54          3

Clin 686.2  Minor Surgery                           36          2

Clin 689.1  Clinic (Naturae Medicina

                    Pract. 50 hrs.)                        360         18

Clin 689.3  Obstetric Internship            40          2

                                                    ___         __

      (38 Class Hours per Week)               688         36

Eighth Semester                                         

Chem 635.2  Trophology                       18          1

Diag 668          Geriatrics                         36          2

Diag 669.1  Proctology

                    (Minor Surgery 30 hrs.)     54          3

Diag 669.2  Urology                                18          1

Rntg 673.2  Advanced X-ray Interpretation    18          1

Clin 688.2  Psychiatry

                    (Abnormal Psychology)            54          3

 Nat 696          Semantics                                 18          1

 Nat 697          Jurisprudence                       36          2

 Nat 698          Endocrinology                       36          2

Clin 689.2  Clinic (Naturae Medicina

                    Pract. 50 hrs.)                            360         18

Clin 689.3  Obstetric Internship              40          2

                                                    ___         __

      (38 Class Hours per Week)                   688         36

      Total Class Hours for Senior Year      1376         72

                                                                                3222       161

      Total Class Hours for graduation        4598       233

 
SENIOR/FOURTH YEAR

Seventh Semester                                   HOURS

                                                   Class   Semester

Trophology                                a                 36          2

Toxicology                                a                 16          1

Clinical Pathology                  a                 36          2

X-ray Interpretation           a                 36          2

Pediatrics                                   a,c,d       72          4

Psychiatry                                a,c,d       54          3

Minor Surgery                       a,c,d       36          2

Clinic (Naturae Medicina)     d           360         18

Obstetric Internship              d              40          2

                                                                           ___         __

      (38 Class Hours per Week)               688         36

Eighth Semester                                         

Trophology                                  a                 18          1

Adv. X-ray Interpretation     a                 18          1

Semantics                                     a                 18          1

Jurisprudence                           a                 36          2

Endocrinology                         a                 36          2

Geriatrics                                     a,c,d       36          2

Proctology                                 a,c,d       54          3

Urology                                      a,c,d       18           1

Psychiatry                                  a,c,d       54          3

Clinic (Naturae Medicina)     d            360         18

Obstetric Internship             d              40          2

                                                                        ___         __

      (38 Class Hours per Week)            688         36

These final lectures answer malingering questions regarding the profession, licensure, marketing and business skills. 

Various clinical hours are spent learning other popular medical specialties such as Geriatrics, Pediatrics and Psychiatrics.  The Obstetrical Externship requirement almost equaivalent to that of midwifery certification is carried out.

More than half the time is spent in the clinical practica.

(Nat. Med. Pract. 50 hrs X 2) 

Psychiatry= Abnormal Psychology

Proctology (Minor Surgery 30 hrs.)     a,c,d      54          3

If we assume that a course which serves more than one teaching purpose, shared those purposes equally, then we get some idea n the emphasies made in placing the students in the classroom, technician or clinical environment forr each of the semesters they attend the school.  One would expect the majority of the clinical hours to increase as the years of schooling pass. 

Even though the hours are not evenly divided when a course classroom-technic-clinic program, evenly dividing the semester, and class hours amongst each of these one or more course goals helps to give a better understanding how much time each student is expecte4d to allot to each of these learning environments.

Equation

CH=# Classroom Hours spent learning for a particular course.

SH=# Semester  Hours spent learning for a particular course.

      CH or SH    number of hours divied up amongst the

         n        =     learning options the student goes                           through.

  i.e.

      When n=1, such as when a course is only intended to be                  classroom training, CH or SH doesn’t change.

Description of ‘n’

n=1:

      For basic lecture-type courses.

      For the final clerkship/intern/extern expereicens, the student debvotes all of his/her time in the clinical setting.  These courses–appropriately called “Clinic”–are each alloted only a ‘d.’  Therefore n=1 for these courses.

n=2:

      For a Basic Science course in which time is spent in the lab and the classroom.  Usually these times are not equally shared, but for this analysis they will be considered equal time allotments by the course instructor.  Courses effected by this analysis incldue the Physiology, Chemistry and Embryology courses, each of which have lab programs.  Thus, since ‘a’ and ‘b’ are reviewed for these classes their n value is given a value of 2.

      For a class on technical skills, such as the ones of “Manipulative Techniques” [Nat. 493.2], First Aid [Clin 381], and Body Mechanics [Nat 391].

n=3:

      For a Clinical Science course like Pediatrics or Geriatrics, all of the hours a student earns by attending these are divided by 3, since the time is divied up amongst classroom, technician’s work, and clinics.  For these classes, the n value is assumed to be 3.

Taking the sums for all CH/n and SH/n for each class for each year gives us an idea of how the teaching system in the classroom changes first to didactic and then clinical training.

First Year                                    CH          SH

                                               n=?  Class  n  Sem.   n

First Semester

Introduction-Healing Arts     a        1     54    54    4     4

Histology                                    a,b 2     90   45     5    2.5

Osteology                                   a,b 2     90   45     5     2.5

Physiology                                 a,b 2   126     63    5    2.5

Inorganic Chemistry             a,b 2     90    45    4    2

Second Semester

Syndesmology                       a         1     36   36     2     2

Myology                                   a         1     72    72    4     4

Organic Chemistry             a         1     72    72    4     4

Physiology                           a,b      2   126     63    5     2.5

Bacteriology                        a,b     2     72    36    4      2

First Aid                                 a,c     2     18      9      1     0.5

Body Mechanics                  a,c     2     54    27    3     1.5   

—————————————————

Second Year                                   CH          SH

                                                n=?  Class  n  Sem.   n

Third Semester

Angiology & Lymphatics        a        1      72    72    4     4

Anatomical Neurology           a         1     72    72    4     4

Biochemistry                              a          1     72    72    4     4

Embryology                            a,b          2     72    36    4     2

General Pathology               a,b          2   109   54.5    5    2.5

Manipulative Technique    a,c         2     72   36     4     2

X-ray Technique                    a,c,d     3     72    24    4    1.33

                                                                        ___         __

      (30 Class Hours per Week)         540         29

Fourth Semester                                         

Splanchnology                          a         1     54    54    3     3

Neurology                                   a         1     54    54    3     3

Adv. Physio./Correlative     a        1     54    54    3     3

Biochemistry                             a         1     54    54    3     3

P.H./Preventive Medicine   a,b      2     72    36    4     2

Special Pathology                a,b 2     90    45    4     2

Laboratory Diagnosis       a,b 2     72    36    4     2

Manipulative Technique    a,c 2     90    45    5     2.5

                                              ___         __

      (30 Class Hours per Week)         540         29

—————————————————

Third Year                                    CH          SH

                                       n=?  Class  n  Sem.   n

Fifth Semester

Prin./Prac. of Natur.           a           1      18     18     1      1

Botanical Medicine              a,b       2      36     18     2      1

Dissection, Human              a,b         2   144     72    5     2.5

Physical Diagnosis              a,c,d     3     90    30    5     1.67

Ophthalomology                  a,c,d     3     36    12    2     0.67

Clinical Neurology              a,c,d     3     72    24    4    1.33

Gynecology                           a,c,d     3     72    24    4     1.33

Orthopedics                          a,c,d     3     18     6     1     0.33

Electrotherapy                  a,c,d     3     36     12     2     0.67

Clinic (Naturae Medicina)    d     1    144   144      4    4

                                                                     ___         __

      (37 Class Hours per Week)         666         30

Sixth Semester                                          

Prin./Prac. of Natur.             a         1     36    12    2    2

Botanical Medicine               a,b     2     36    12    2     1

Clinical Diagnosis                 a,c,d     3     90    30    5    1.67

Otolaryngology                     a,c,d     3     36    12    2    0.67

Visceral Neurology              a,c,d     3     54    18    3    1

Gynecology                             a,c,d     3     72    24    4    1.33

Minor Surgery                      a,c,d     3     36    12    2    0.67

Physiotherapy                     a,c,d     3     36    12    2    0.67

Hydrotherapy                      a,c,d     3     36    12    2     0.67

Clinic (Naturae Medicina)   d       1   144  144      4    4

                                              ___         __

      (32 Class Hours per Week)         576         28

—————————————————

Fourth Year                                   CH          SH

                                       n=?  Class  n  Sem.   n

Seventh Semester

Trophology                           a         1     36    36   2      2

Toxicology                            a         1     16    16    1     1

Clinical Pathology              a         1     36    36    2     2

X-ray Interpretation        a         1     36    36    2     2

Pediatrics                       a,c,d     3     72    24    4     1.33

Psychiatry                    a,c,d     3     54    18    3     1

Minor Surgery            a,c,d     3     36    12    2     0.67

Clinic (Naturae Medicina)    d        1   360  360  18   18

Obstetric Internship              d         1     40    40    2    0.5   

                                              ___         __

      (38 Class Hours per Week)         688         36

Eighth Semester                                         

Trophology                                  a         1     18    18    1     1

Adv. X-ray Interpretation    a        1     18    18    1     1

Semantics                                     a         1     18    18    1     1

Jurisprudence                           a         1     36    36    2     2

Endocrinology                         a         1     36    36    2     2

Geriatrics                               a,c,d     3     36    12    2     0.67

Proctology                            a,c,d     3     54    18    3     1

Urology                                  a,c,d     3     18    6    1     0.33

Psychiatry                             a,c,d     3     54    18    3     1

Clinic (Naturae Medicina)   d        1   360  360  18   18  

Obstetric Internship             d         1     40    40    2    2

                                              ___         __

      (38 Class Hours per Week)         688         36

—————————————————

ANALYSIS [CH = Classroom Hours,  SH=Study Hours]

Sum all ‘a’ for CH/n and SH/n per semester

                  CH/n        SH/n

First       252         13.5

Second     315         16.5 

Third         366.5    19.83

Fourth      378         20.5 

Fifth           216         10.5

Sixth          144         9.67

Seventh     178         10.0

Eight          174         10.0

                  2023.5      110.5

Sum all ‘b’ for CH/n and SH/n per semester

                    CH/n        SH/n

First                198         9.5

Second            99        4.5

Third                90.5 4.5

Fourth            117         6.0

Fifth                90         3.5

Sixth                12        1.0

Seventh           —          —

Eight                 —          —         

                         606.5   29

Sum all ‘c’ for CH/n and SH/n per semester

First                 —          —

Second            36          2.0

Third                60          3.33

Fourth            45          2.5

Fifth             108           6.0

Sixth             120           6.67

Seventh         54          3.0

Eight              54          3.0

                    477         26.5 

Sum all ‘d’ for CH/n and SH/n per semester

First                 —          —

Second            —          —

Third              24         1.33

Fourth              —          —

Fifth                252         10.0   

Sixth               264         10.67

Seventh         454         21.5   

Eight             454         23.0

                       1448         76.5

SUM FOR SH/n PER SEMESTER

                         a           b           c           d           SUM

First             13.5        9.5          —           —             22.5

Second      16.5        4.5          2.0          —             23.0

Third          19.83     4.5         3.33        1.33       28.5

Fourth        20.5        6.0         2.5          —            28.5

Fifth             10.5        3.5         6.0         10.0        30.0

Sixth              9.67     1.0         6.67        10.67     38.0

Seventh        10.0        —          3.0         21.5        34.5

Eight              10.0        —          3.0         23.0        36.0

SUM            110.5         29          26.5    76.5        239.0

SUM FOR CH/n PER SEMESTER

                            a           b           c           d           SUM

First                 252         198         —            —               450

Second             315         99          36            —             450

Third               366.5       90.5        60          24          541

Fourth              378         117         45          —           540

Fifth                  216         90          108         252         666

Sixth                 144        12          120         264         540

Seventh           178         —          54          454          686

Eighth               174         —          54          454           682

SUM             2023.5      606.5 477         1448        4545

Sum all ‘c’ for SH/n per semester

  • First
  • Second
  • Third
  • Fourth
  • Fifth
  • Sixth
  • Seventh
  • Eight

Sum all ‘d’ for SH/n per semester

  • First
  • Second
  • Third
  • Fourth
  • Fifth
  • Sixth
  • Seventh
  • Eight

students.

LIVING CONDITIONS

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