As early as 1654, Governor Johann Rising gives an account of there being an ale house in his township.

[J. Rising, 1654]

John Hammond in 1656 wrote “Beare is indeed in some place constantly drunken, in other some, nothing but Water or Milk and Water or Beverage.”

[J. Hammond, 1656, p. 292]

“Our drink has been Beer and Punch, made of Rum, and Water: Our Beer was mostly made of Molosses, which well boyld, with Sassafras or Pine infused into it, makes very tolerable drink; but now they make Mault, and Mault Drink begins to be common, especially at the Ordinaries and the Houses of the more substantial People.”

[William Penn, 1685, p. 267]

Apple (Crabapple)

Apple-trees, “eat well when they are Coddled, but they are good for nothing when they’re Raw.”

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]


A beverage noted on board during many of the early expeditions and migrations.  (See Robert Juet, 1610, p. 22.)

Asps [shrubs]

“little shrubs, which grow upon the sides of Pools and Rivers.”  Salix and other Genera.

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 371]


“The women there are the most skilful star-gazers.”

[N. Van Wassenaer, 1624-30, p. 69]

Bear (Animal Spirit conjuring)

There is the eating of the Bear, followed by a healing ritual in Rev. Megapolensis’s writings: “If they are sick, or have a pain or soreness anywhere in their limbs, and I ask them what ails them they say that the Devil sits in their body, or in the sore places, and bites them there; and so they attribute to the Devil at once the accidents which befall them; they have otherwise no religion.  When we pray they laugh at us.”

[Rev. J. Megapolensis, Jr., 1644, p. 177]

“Lately one of their chiefs came to me and presented me with a beaver, an otter, and some cloth he had stolen from the French…When he opened his budget he had in it a dried head of a bear, with grinning teeth.  I asked him what that meant?  He answered me that he fastened it upon his left shoulder by the side of his head, and that then he was the devil, who cared for nothing, and did not fear anything.”

[Rev. J. Megapolensis, Jr., 1644, p. 179]

Bear’s Fat

Note about consuming clarified Bear’s fat, “clear without bread of any thing else.”  (Also: Eating of hte Bear as a part of a Manitou ritual?)

[Rev. J. Megapolensis, Jr., 1644, p. 176, 177]

Notes the natives grease themselves with “bears-fat clarified.”

[William Penn, 1683, p. 229]

Beer-see Ale

Birch Tree

“Canada Birch-trees.”  Lahontan notes the red (Betula lenta) and white variety (var. Betula spp., esp. Betula alba and B. papyrifera).  The bark of the Genuine Birch-bark tree of New-France was used to write “a Manuscript of he Gospel of St. Matthew, written in Greek” which, according to Lahontan, was owned by a Library in France.

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 370]

Bitter Cherry

Bitter Cherry-tree.

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]


Lahontan described these as “certain little Berries, not unlike small Cherries, only they are black, and perfectly round.”  These were recommended to be “made into confits, put into Pyes, [and] infused with Brandy…” The footnote for this text identifies this plant as Vaccinium canadense (blueberry).

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 372]

Cedar Tree

White and red Cedar are noted. 

White Cedar: Thuja sp.?   Red Cedar: Thuja sp.?

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 371]


Cherries, “small and extreme red…though their taste is not good.”  Also mentions Plums.

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]


“Wild Chesnuts” in “Ilinese Country.”  Also writes “two other Nut trees…The one bears round, and the other long, Nuts.”  Possibly Hickory (Hicoria sp.) and/or Oak(?) (Quercus sp.).

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]


 (Description of Podophyllum peltatum)

“The Citrons of North America are co call’d, only because their form resembles that of our Citron.  Instead of a Rind, they have only a single Skin.  They grow upon a Plant that rises three Foot high, and do’s not bear above three or four at a time.  The Fruit is as wholsome as its Root is dangerous; for the one is very Healthy, and the Juice of the other is a more subtle Poyson.”  Lahontan gives an account of its use by an Iroquois in 1684 right after her husband died.  She used it to “follow her deceas’d Husband” as follows: “after she took leave of her Friends, and sung the Death Song…The Poison quickly work’d the desir’d effect…She fell into two or three shivering Fits, and so expired.”  [Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]


Citruls (Citrouille).  Summer Squash (Cucurbita polymorpha).

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 148, 366-9]


Reverend Joans Michaelius, of New Netherland in 1628, made early comment about it: “The country is good and pleasant, the climate is healthy, not withstanding the sudden changes of cold and heat.”

[Rev. J. Michaelius, 1628, p. 132]

Description given.

[Rev. J. Megapolensis, Jr., 1644, p. 171]


Confit (def.): A confection, sweetmeat or preserve.

See Bluets and Citrouille.


Notes the “False Diety or Sham-God” of the Pennsylvanian Indians.

[G. Thomas, 1698, (W.N.J.), p. 340]

Corn (Zea mays)

Early on referred to as “Turkish wheat.”   See for example Johan de Laet (1625-40), p. 48, Nicolaes Van Wassenaer (1624-30), p. 69, and David Pietersz De Vries (1633-1643 (1655), p. 218-220.  In his letter dated 1628, Isaack de Rasieres noted Maize.  In 1650, Cornelis Van Tienhoven mentioned Indian Corn.

Of the value of this newly discovered grain to the Europeans, in A Relation of Maryland, 1635, is written: “The Indian Corne will yeeld a great increase of benefit…” making reference to its use for feeding swine. (p. 97)

Cotton Tree

“…a little bude in bigness like a wallnut, which at full time opening in the middle in to fower quarters, their appearances a know of cotton…with six seede in the middle of the bigness of vetches which with an invention of wheeles they take out and soe keep it till the merchants fetch it for them.”

[Rev. A. White, 1634, p. 35]


The Christian View of the Hand of God and the epidemics which struck the natives soonafter the Christians were settled nearby:

“…it hath been observed that where the English come to settle, a Divine Hand makes way for them, by removing or cutting off the Indians, either by Wars one with the other, or by some raging mortal Diseases.”

[D. Denton, 1670, pp. 6-7]

Epinette–see Pine

Ethnobotany (miscellaneous notes)

Genl James Grant Wilson, 1634-5, makes a comment on Canoes and houses made from the bark of trees (p. 140-141).

Fir Tree

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 371]


Lahontan mentions Strawberries, Raspberries and Gooseberries.

See Apple, Bluets, Cherry and Bitter Cherry.

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 371]

Southern Fruit noted by Rev. Andrew White, or maryland, include Oranges, Limes, Lemons, Peaches, Guava, “Charybbian Pineapple,” Plantain (fructus platani), “Avato” (Annato dye?), and “Wilde figg tree.”  Other trees noted include “Rope Trees” (Ficus sp.?), Monkey tree, Cinnamon Tree (White Cinnamon?), and “Maw forest” tree.

[Rev. A. White, 1634, p. 35-37]

Garden Plants–see Herbs

Common Garden Plants noted: Cabbage, Turnip, Parsip, Melons and Squash. 

“Garden Herbs” noted by Thomas Paschall, 1683: Turnip, Parship, Cabbage. (p. 252)

William Penn notes in his 1685 Account to the Lords Rape, Hemp, and Flax industries.  Notes fruits and melons.   The “Weeds of woods” he felt would serve as excellent cattle feed.  In the swamps were planted graminae to later in the year produce hay: “English Grass Seed takes well.” (p. 264, 265, 268)

A Letter of Doctor Nicholas More, 1686, noted crops, peach trees, etc., and served to dismiss claims of famishment lately reported. (p. 279)


“wild Gooseberries are good for nothing, but for Confits…”

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]


Grapes are mentioned throughout these accounts.  The most popular grapes were the Wild Grapes of North American, which were smaller but much richer in flavor that the European species.  The European grapes were usually red and white.  The American Grape was a deep blue or purple color, with a whitish powder coating its skin when ripe.  Repeatedly, red and white grapes are noted by the European writers.  In his recount of Hudson’s Voyage, for example, Emanuel Van Meteren, in 1610, noted “white and red grapes.”   Upon initial inspection, the Bittersweet vine (Celastrus scandens) may have been viewed as grapes, if inspected from a distance.  The Moonseed (Menispermum canadense) (which has a toxic seed which usually passed through without posining its ingester) resembled the edible Vitis, and must have been eaten by mistake by early explorers and settlers.  It would have been described as having a bland taste.  It tended to grow early on in the more southern and middle parts of the Atlantic coast.  

Notes Grapes with Juice like French or Rhenish Wine.

[Adriaen Vander Donck, 1650, p. 295-6]

“In some countries of North America, the Grape is little, but very well tasted; but towards the Mississippi; ’tis long and thick, and so is the cluster.”  Wine was then made in the south by the natives.

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]

Hemlock Tree–see Pine Tree


Herbs noted by Rev. Andrew White in 1634: saxafras, and “sallad-herbes.”  (Rev. A. White, 1634, p. 35-37,40).  In 1635, the Relation sent to England noted the trees and timber, “rootes in the woods, doe feede the swine very fat,” and “In the Spring, there are severall sorts of herbes, as Corn-sallet, Violets, Sorrell, Purslaine, all which are very good and wholsome, and by the English, used for sallets, and in broths.”  He also notes “Earth fitt to make Allum, Terra lemnia, and a red soile like Bole armoniacke.”  Other products: ptich, tarr, flax, woad, aniseed, saffron, and Mulberry to feed the silk worms.  Various typical garden vegetables are noted.(Rev. A. White, 1635, pp. 79-82).

[Rev. A. White, 1634, 1635]

Foods noted in 1635: meal, oatmeal, pease, oyle, vinegar, aqua vitae, bay salt, sugar, spice and fruit.  (Various household implements and other necessities are also noted.)

[Rev. A. White, 1635, p. 93-96]

One of the first lengthy lists of medicinal herbs noted by the Dutch was published in “The Representation of New Netherland, 1650.  In it he mentions about three dozen plants:

  • Venus’ hair
  • Hart’s tongue
  • Lingwort
  • Polypody
  • White Mullein
  • Priest’s Shoe
  • Sea-Beach Orach
  • Water Germander
  • Tower-Mustard
  • Sweet Flag
  • Sassafras
  • Crowfoot
  • Plantain
  • Shepherd’s Purse
  • Mallows
  • Wild Marjoram
  • Crane’s Bill
  • Marsh-mallows
  • False Eglantine
  • Laurel
  • Violet
  • Blue Flag
  • Wild Indigo
  • Solomon’s Seal
  • Dragon’s Blood
  • Milfoil
  • “many sorts of ferns”
  • “Wild Lilies of different kinds”
  • Agrimony
  • Wild Leek
  • Blessed Thistle
  • snake Root
  • “Spanish figs which grow out of leaves” [Prickly Pear]
  • Tarragon

[Adriaen Vander Donck, 1650]

By John Hammond in 1656, various “rootes, herbs and Garden stuff.”

[J. Hammond, 1656, p. 291]

[Maryland] George Alsop in 1666 wrote an extensive paragraph on Native herbology (p. 344-5), followed by a brief note on Nicolas Culpeper. (p. 362).  Of “Herbes and Roots with their several effects and operative virtues,” he writes:

“The Trees, Plants, Fruits, Flowers, and Roots that grow here in Mary-Land, are the only Emblems of Hieroglyphicks of our Adamitical or Primitive situation, as well as for their variety as odiferous smells, together with their vertues, according to their several effects, kinds and properties, which still bear the Effigies of Innocency according to their original grafts; by which their dumb vegetable Oratory, each herb speaks to the Inhabitants in silent acts…I shall forbear to particularize those several sorts of vegetables that flourishingly grows here, by reason of the vast tediousness that will attend upon the description, which therefore makes them much more fit for an Herbal, than a small manuscript or History.”

A few pages later (p. 361-2) he writes about Culpeper’s herbal and states,

“And I am certainly confident, that England would as soon feel her feebleness by withdrawment of so great an upholder; as well as in reference to the internal and healthful perservative of her Inhabitants, for want of those Medicinal Drugs that are landed upon her Coast every year, as the external profits Glory and beneficial Graces that accrue by her.”

Herbs noted by Daniel Denton in a review of his travels through the New-York Province ca. 1660s:  Purslain, white Orage, Egrimony, Violets, Peniroyal, Alicampane, Saxaparilla, Roses.  Denton expounds a bit on the Rose, and the various herbal natural products ready for claim by the English.  He then states “nay, did we know the viertue of all those Plants and Herbs growing there (which time may more discover) many are of the opinion, and the Natives do affirm, that there is no diseases common to the Country, but may be cured without Materials from other Nations…”

[D. Denton, 1670, p. 4]

“There are divers Plants that not only the Indians tell us, but we have had occasion to prove by Swellings, Burnings, Cuts, etc., that they are great Virtue, suddenly curing the Patient: and for smell, I have observed several, especially one, the wild Mirtle; the other I known not what to call, but are most fragrant.”

[William Penn, 1683, p. 229]

Around the Susquehanna region, after an account of some fruit bearing trees, Thomas noted:  “There are also many curious and excellent Physical Wild Herbs, Roots and Drugs of great Vertue, and very sanative, as the Sassafras, and Sarsaparilla, so much us’d in Diet-Drinks for the Cure of the Venereal Disease, which makes the Indians by a right application of them, as able Doctors and Surgeons as any in Europe, performing celebrate Cures therewith, and by the use of some particular Plants only, find Remedy in all Swellings, Burnings, Cuts, etc.  There grows also in great plenty the Black Snake-Root (fam’d for its sometimes preserving, but often curing the plague, being infused only in Wine, Brandy or Rumm) Rattle-Snake Root, Poke-Root, called in England Jallop, with several other beneficial Herbs, Plants and Roots, which Physicians have approved of, far exceeding in Nature and Vertue, those of other Countries…”

The numerous Garden Plants listed by Thomas included Grains, Hemp, Flax, Root-Vegetables, fruit, Mustard, Rye, Mint, Sage, Tanzy, Wormwood, Penny Royal, and Purslane.  

[G. Thomas, 1698, p. 323, 324]

See Poisonous Plants.


Lahontan considered this fern related to one with the same name that was native to France.  Regarding the sales of products from this natural resource to Europe by New-France, Lahontan wrote: “the Inhabitants of Quebec prepare great quantities of its syrup, which they send to Paris, Nants, Rouan, and several other Cities in France.”

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 372]

Maize–see Corn

Manitou–see religion

Maple Tree

Mapple-tree.  “It yields a Sap, which has a much pleasanter taste than the best Limonade or Cherry-water, and makes the wholsomest (sic) drink in the World.”  (A description of tapping the sap follows.)  “Of this Sap they make Sugar and Syrup, which is so valuable, ‘Tis that there can’t be a better remedy for fortifying the stomach.”

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]

Medicine Man

“When any person is sick, after some means used by his friends everyone pretending skill in Physick; that proving ineffectual, they send for Pawow or Priest, who sitting by the sick person, without the least enquiry after the distemper, waits for a gift, which he proportions his work accordingly to: that being received he first begins with a low voice calling upon his God, sometimes upon one, sometimes on another, raising his voice higher and higher, beating of his naked breasts and sides, till the sweat gone, then that little which is remaining, he evaporates upon the face of the sick person three or four times together, and so takes leave.”

[D. Denton, 1670, p. 10]

See Conjuror, Sucking.

Palm Christi

Used to make an “excellant Oyle.”

[Rev. A. White, 1634, p. 35]

Pine Tree

“Epinette is a sort of Pine, with a sharper and thicker Leaf. “Tis made use of in Carpenter’s work and the matter which drains from it smells as sweet as Incense.”  The footnote by Editor Thwaites identifies this tree as “Hemlock Spruce (Abies canadensis)”  [Tsuga canadensis or Abies sp.?].

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 371]

Poisonous Plants

“Poisonous plants have been found there, which those who cultivate the land should look out for.  Hendrick Christiaensen carried thither, by order of his employees, bucks and goats, also rabbits, but they were found to be poisoned by the herbs.” (dated Apr. 1625)

[N. Van Wassenaer, 1624-30, p. 81]

Poke Root (Phytolacca americana and other species.)

Poke Root was one of the important Root Drugs noted by Gabriel Thomas.

[G. Thomas, 1698, [W.N.J.] p. 348]

NOTE: Pokeweed may also be referred to as Jalap in early North American writings.  See Cadwallader Colden’s writings on Phytolacca as a Cancer medicine, ca. 1740 (?).  For mention made on the common name Jalap given to Phytolacca, see Trapper notes.

Poplar (Populus sp.)

Johan de Laet noted “Lonen poplar woods” [“Loonen poplar woods” = “soft poplar woods (Dutch)]

[J. de Laet, 1625…1640, p. 29]

Punch (beverage)–see Ale.


Description given.

[Rev. J. Megapolensis, Jr., 1644, p. 169-170]

Notes “Rattle Snakes” and “black Snakes.”  No mention is made of Snake medicines.

[Thomas Paschall, 1683, p. 253]


Chap V. Of the Natural Disposition of Indians which inhabite the parts of Maryland where the English are seated: And their manner of living.”  “These People acknowledge a God, who is giver of all the good things, where with their life is maintained.”  For sacrificial rites, they sacrifice corn by burning it.

[Rev. A. White, 1635, p. 88]

“The inhabitant of this country are of two kinds: first, Christians–at least so called; second, Indians.  Of the Christians I shall say nothing; my design is to speak of the Indians only.”

[Rev. J. Megapolensis, Jr., 1644, p. 172]

Of Manitou.  They are entire strangers to all religion but they have a…Genius whom they esteem in the place of God.”  The Reverend likens this Genius to the Devil. 

This writing the goes on to mention the eating of the Bear, followed by “If they are sick, or have a pain or soreness anywhere in their limbs, and I ask them what ails them they say that the Devil sits in their body, or in the sore places, and bites them there; and so they attribute to the Devil at once the accidents which befall them; they have otherwise no religion.  When we pray they laugh at us.”

[Rev. J. Megapolensis, Jr., 1644, p. 177]

George Alsop, 1666 (Susquehanock Indians): “The World had a Maker, but where he is that made it, of whether he be living to this day, they known not.  The Devil, as I said before, is all the God they own or worship.”  Alsop then makes reference to “the Oracle at Delphas and the Magic-spells of the Devil.”  The “Manner of Worship to the Devil” appears on page 377, as “A Letter to a much-honoured friend, Mr. T.B. at his house.”

[G. Alsop, 1666, p. 369, 370, 377]

Notes on their religion and dances, and later states: “I am ready to believe them of the Jewish Race.”

[William Penn, 1683, p. 234,236]

Root Drugs

Rev. Jonas Michaelius, in 1628, noted the land of New Netherland to possess “vegetables, fruits, roots, herbs and plants, both for eating and medicinal purposes, and with what wonderful cures can be effected, it would take too long to tell, nor could I tell accurately.”

[Rev. J. Michaelius, 1628, p. 131-132]

“They are great Concealers of their own Resentments, brought to it, I believe by the Revenge that hath been practised among them…A Tragical Instance fell out since I came into the Country; A King’s Daughter thinking her self slighted by her Husband, in suffering another Woman to lie down between them, rose up, went out, pluck’t a Root out of the Ground, and ate it, upon which she immediately dyed…”

[William Penn, 1683, p. 232]

“In Sickness, impatient to be cured, and for it gave anything, especially for the Children, to where they are extreamly natural; they drink at those times a Teran or Decoction of some Roots in Spring Water; and if they eat any flesh, it must be the Female of the Creature.”

[William Penn, 1683, p. 233]

For “uneasie in Sickness” used in preparing for childbirth.  “They drink a Decoction of Roots in Spring-Water, for bearing Flesh, which if they happen to eat, it must be female.”

[G. Thomas, 1698, [Pa.] p. 334-5]

After noting the reliance of “Pennsylvanian Indians” on their “False Diety or Sham-God,” Gabriel Thomas writes: “They are a People who generally delight much in Mirth, and are studious in observing the Vertues of Roots and Herbs, by which they cure themselves of many Distempers in their Bodies, both internal or external.”

[G. Thomas, 1698, [W.N.J.] p. 340]

Notes the use of “Wild Herbs,” and likewise “choice Phisical Roots, as Sassafras, Sarsaparilla, Black-Snake-Root, Rattle-Snake Root, and Poake Root.” (See notes on each of these individual medicines as well.)

[G. Thomas, 1698, [W.N.J.] p. 348]


One of the important Root Drugs noted by Gabriel Thomas.

[G. Thomas, 1698, [W.N.J.] p. 348]


One of the important Root Drugs noted by Gabriel Thomas.

[G. Thomas, 1698, [W.N.J.] p. 348]


“The rattlesnakes, however, which have a rattler on the tail, which they rattle very loudly when they are angry or intend to sting, and which grows every year a joint larger, are very malignant and do not readily retreat before a man or any other creature.  Whoever is bitten by them runs great danger of his life, unless great care be taken; but fortunately, they are not numerous, and there grows spontaneously in the country the true snakeroot, which is very highly esteemed by the Indians as an unfailing cure.”

[Adriaen Vander Donck, 1650, p. 298]

Black-Snake-Root and Rattler-Snake-Root are important Root Drugs noted by Gabriel Thomas.

[G. Thomas, 1698, [W.N.J.] p. 348]

Spring-Water–see Root Drugs


Healing by Sucking, carried out “to drive away the devil” or “to catch the devil and trample him to death”

The Medicine Man went to a sick man and took away the otter he was holding in his hands.  Next, “he sucked the sick man for a while in his neck and on the back, and after that he spat in the others’ mouth and threw it down; at the same time he ran off like mad through fear.”

[J.G. Wilson, 1634-5, p. 152]


During a meeting with Mohawks and Senecas, in which a trade was taking place:  “Sunday we looked over our goods, and found a paper filled with Sulphur, amd Jeronimus took some of it and threw it in the fire.  They saw the blue flame and smelled the smoke, and told us they had the same stuff; and when Sickarus came they asked us to let them take a  look at it, and it was the same; and we asked him where he obtained it.  He told us they obtained it from the stranger savages, and that they believed it to be good against many maladies, but principally for their legs when they were sore from long marching and were very tired.”

[J.G. Wilson, 1634-5, p. 143]

Trees and Shrubs

Lord Baron of Baltimore listed the following trees: Pine, Laurel, Fir, Sassafras and other trees, along with mentioning Balsams and Fragrant Gums.  Other uses for trees noted included ship-building (i.e. use of wood, pine sap for tar and turpentine), sinegma (?), perfumes and plasters.  Various fruits also noted.

[Lord Baron, 1633, p. 8]

Trees noted include “Rope Trees” (Ficus sp.?), Monkey tree, Cinnamon Tree (White Cinnamon?), and “Maw forest” tree.  Other plants noted: Pokiberries, “a little wild walnut hard of shell, but with a sweet kernel,” ackornes, cedar, vines, black walnut, saxafras, and “sallad-herbes.”

[Rev. A. White, 1634, p. 35-37,40]

In the Description of New Netherland is listed “different kinds of wood” suitable for building houses and ships, and two species of canoe wood.  Those noted are: Post Oak, White smooth bark, White Rough Bark, Rough Bark, Gray Bark, Black Bark, and one, “from its Softness, butter oak,”  also Nut-woods, “oil nuts large and small,” walnut, Chestnut, and three varieties of Beech–common, water and hedge, and axe-handle wood.  Also Ash, Birch, Pine, Fir, Juniper or Wild Cedar, Linden, Alder, Willow, Thorn, and Elder.

[Adriaen Vander Donck, 1650, pp. 293-6]

Listing given.

[Rev. J. Megapolensis, Jr., 1644, p. 168]

Notes black Walnut. Cedar, Cyprus, Chestnut, Poplar, Gumwood, Hickery, Sassafrax, Beech, Swamp Chestnut, Spanish Chestnut and Red, White and Black Oak.

[William Penn, 1683, p. 217]

Notes Polar, Beach (sic), Ash, Lyme-trees, Gun-trees (sic), Hickary-trees, Sassafras, Wallnuts, Chestnuts, Hazel and Mulberries.

[Thomas Paschall, 1683, p. 253]

“Turkish Wheat”–see Corn

Vegetables–see Garden Herbs.

Water–see Root Drugs


Lahontan felt they resembles the Spanish Algiers Melons, noting them to be of red, black, and white colors, and round and thick, “like a ball.”

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 366-9]

White Wood

Oak?  Maple?  White Cedar?  Tulip  Tree?

[Lahontan, 1683-94, v. 1, p. 371]