A Study of the Healing Arts with Emphasis upon Naturopathy. A Report to the Utah Legislative Council by the Legislative Council Staff. November 1958.
The original document is a bound mimeograph in black ink, probably produced as just a few dozen copies for the reporting of results. It is in possession ofthe National College of Naturopathic Medicine, Portland, OR.
Introduction to this study
This study was partaken in 1992 and 1993 due to the lack of any formidable review of the history of naturopathy. At the time of this study, alternative medicine was once again becoming quite popular and naturopathy the first “new” version of non-allopathic medicine to reach center stage. The following year a large book would be published by the government of Alternative Medicine, which was more a combined history, brief overview and professional expose about all the fields of non-allopathic medicine then popular. The intent was to shed light and make official as much as possible the state of each of these non-allopathic professions.
Two years later, the centennial history of naturopathy was the most popular topic in naturopathy. The main political members involved with this profession celebration were some of the old-timers from Kansas where a Kansas school once played a very important role in this profession’s history, and the Portland, Oregon school. The only other major school in this country for the time was the Bastyr College in Seattle. The involvement of Bastyr with this celebration was political, and perhaps financial in nature, but not overly aggressive otherwise for unknown reasons.
In 1995, the Portland School realized it had to update its presentation to the public in general. This results in the transfer fo the teaching facilities to a large abandoned Middle-High School located closer to downtown Portland, at the base of a hill on which the regular medical school resided. My first impression as well as impressions by my associates in this field was that this move was very much symbolic in nature. The new facilities at this new location were formidable in size, but perhaps too large at times to manage the student population size in an affordable fashion. Nevertheless, the school held its face at this location. Some of the internally political hopes at the time were that this might facilitate interactions with the regular medical school located just a half mile away. Such a relationship never resulted, although awareness of this school did improve and perhaps some of the regular medical students became able to attend the classes at this facility on occasion. [I never followed up on this query.]
By 1996, two book-sized histories of the alternative professions were out there. I received a call from a business periodical writer and underwent some itnerview time with her about this profession. The Bastyr College was receiving a lot of professional and public support due to the enhancement of its facilities and its affiliation with allopathy groups due to the possible use of its facilities to perform some NIH-sponsored studies of nutrition and botanical medicine practices. This left the founder of Bastyr and rejuvenator of the profession kind of hopeful, but also concerned that Bastyr failed to make mention of any of it competitors in the field. This effectively split the profession into two groups about this time. Due to its location in association with the larger city of Seattle, Bastyr financially out-performed Portland’s NCNM from this time forward. Internally you could tell there was a lot of political bickering going on from this point regarding the history and future of this profession.
The popularization of naturopathy from about 1995 to 2000 resulted in the formation of two version of this program–the accredited licensed form of this profession and the unofficially licensed, non-accredited form. Although at times there have been some circumstances in the legal profession in which ND certifications and degrees were found to be falsified, in particular regarding some degrees circulating in one midwestern state around 1996-8, nearly all of the malpractice or problematic practice procedures related to naturopathy pertain to these unofficially licensed professionals. In general, the legal claims against these individuals have tended to portray examples of clinicians poorly trained in the human biological sciences, so much that they are intellectually unaware at times of the physiological and physical consequences of some of their procedures upon the body in general; due to poor training they lack the knowledge of basic sciences to engage in much knowledge and experience-based clinical activities beyond the basic uses of the non-naturopathic fields they are trained in such as physical or movement therapy and exercise, counseling, mental, health, behavioral health and disease, and nutrition and diet.
Item 11, H.J.R. #20, 1957 Utah Legislature:
“Healing Arts–To study licensing provisions and regulation of the various branches of healing arts, with particular emphasis on the practice of naturopathy.”
A Utah State Supreme Court ruling is what led to this state’s review of the licensure for practicing healing arts.
Utah’s licenses pertained to practitioners who practiced “medicine and surgery in all branches thereof,” osteopathy, with and without surgical practices, obstetrics, and:
“[Those who] practice the treatment of human ailments without the use of drugs or medicine and without operative surgery in accordance with the tenets of the professional school, college, or institution of which the applicant is a graduate, as designated in his application for license.”
The issue which chiropractic, osteopathic, and naturopathic professions were up against in court dealt with the definition of a drug or medicine, and whether or not this pertained to the practice of naturopathy.
The Utah Council classified chiropractors and naturopaths as “those who practice healing arts without the use of drugs or surgery.” (p. 1) Each profession has established its own examination committee for review of potential licensees.
This Utah study attempted to define naturopathy, determine if the training involved the use of drugs, the practice of obstetrics, or the practice of surgery.
Naturopaths were allowed to practice minor surgery as they are taught it in their schools. [Attorney General’s Opinions May 5, 1939, May 22, 1941, August 13, 1941, July 28, 1942, Jan 18, 1946, May 2, 1946, Sept 18, 1946, Jan 8, 1948, June 13, 1950 and April 12, 1951.]
From 1939-1955, Naturopaths received two types of licenses (p.3):
“1. To practice without the use of drugs, medicine and surgery.”
“2. To practice with the use of drugs, medicine and minor surgery including the practice of obstetrics.”
Exams offered by the naturopathic examining committee had to be passed for the applicant to receive the appropriate licensure.
The availability of the Polio Vaccine by mid 1950s put the question of naturopathy back up front. Therefore, the questions asked of the Attorney General were:
“Is naturopathy actually a legal classification?”
“May a naturopath engage in the administration of drugs and surgery?”
“Which professions are allowed to give shots (vaccines)?” [Attorney General’s Opinion, 55-101, pp. 191-195, Biennial Report Atty. General, June 30, 1956.]
The Attorney General concluded “a naturopath cannot prescribe drugs or perform surgery as part of the practice of naturopathy.” (p. 3)
Utah’s Director of Registration was instructed to recall all naturopathic licenses of those who bore licenses claiming they had the right to perform minor surgery and obstetrics. This led them to take the case to the State Supreme Court, where the Director of Registrations actions were upheld, “unless they [the naturopaths] could pass an examination before the medical examining committee. If this examining committee felt that the use of drugs was essential in the practice of obstetrics, those licensed could practice acordingly. [see [Attorney General’s Opinion, 55-101, pp. 191-195, Biennial Report Atty. General, June 30, 1956. Alexander v. Bennett.]
The Naturopaths felt that since Osteopaths and Surgeons could perform obstetrics, that the naturopaths too should be allowed to practice obstetrics and the the phrase “without the use of drugs and surgery” should be removed.
The subsequent Bill to go through stated that “no additional naturopaths were to be licensed prior to May 1, 1959″ which was vetoed by the Governor.
Subsequently, the Utah Legislative Council redirected their focus to the study of these healing arts, which they forwarded the responsibility thereof to the Welfare and Education Standing Committee.” This committee carried out its researching the following fashion, reported in this 82-page report addressed to The Utah Legislative Council by the Utah Legislative Council Staff in November 1958 (p. 4-5):
–letters were sent to the states asking if naturopaths are “licensed to practice” and what studies if any were made of the profession?–letters to the healing art professions licensed by Utah
–letters to “all approved professional schools of osteopathy, chiropody, chirpractic, naturopathy, and five approved medical schools throughout the nation.”
–letters to each of the national professional accrediting agencies.
–a hearing of members these professions was set up with the Welfare and Education Standing Committee.
–professional schools were visited.
–interviews of the members of the naturopathic profession.
–files in the Department of Registration were examined.
–the laws and regulations pertaining to this issue were reviewed.
This matter relates to Oregon history in part since during the 1950s, the last Eclectic and Homeopathic members resided on the Oregon State Medical Board. These physicians were responsible for licensure of the doctors practicing in Oregon State.
Some of these writings [1955 mind you] reflect the ongoing and very slow acceptance of the germ theory of disease by practitioners of naturopathy prevailing in this profession. With the discovery of Polio vaccination at hand, some practitoners must have been doubtful about the use of this vaccine as a medicine, or alternatively might have argued that immunization followed their motto of “natural healing”. The philosophy would have been that the immunization process was very much a process that allowed the disease to take its course in the human body. Such viewpoint supported the actions many were trying to take regarding their desire to be allowed to perform in the vaccination process. Another interesting philosophical parallel here ( covered in great detail elsewhere under NY 18th C physician Cadwallader Colden) is the parallel between immunization and vaccination processes, and the dispensing of homeopathic preparations. The latter evolved at a time when inoculation was found to work, and for the first time could have a theory attached to this efficacy which led to Hahnemann’s creation of his profession, ca. 1790s.
The following state-related decisions were in effect at the time of thus study, according to the report of the Council of State Governments [“Occupational Licensing Legislation in the States,” Council of State Governients, p. 79]:
- Naturopaths are licensed separate from other healing arts by the following states: Arizona, Connecticut, Georgia, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, and Virginia.
- Georgia, South Carolina and Florida repealed their laws since 1952. The Law in Texas was declared unconstitutional, yet a State Naturopathy Board remains.
- The licensure of “drugless healers” occurs in other state, and focuses on chiropractors, physiotherapists, psychiatrists, and naturopaths.
- Five states classify Naturopaths as separate entitites from the other alternatives: Arizona, Connecticut, Oregon, Virginia, and Utah.
- The following education requirements make up part of that State Law:
courses must be taken or exams given by the State Board passed in Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Bacteroilogy, and Chemistry. A year internship in a hospital is required in Utah.
- All require the practitioner to be a graduate from High School.
- Oregon and Virginia require two years of liberal arts training to become an N.D. Utah requires one year.
- Basic Science examination must take place in Arizona, Connecticut, Oregon, and Virginia.
- All require four years of professional training.
- In Arizona and Connecticut, four years of post-high school training are required for one to be legally licensed as a naturopath in that state. Oregon, Utah and Virgina require six years of post-high school education.
- Oregon is the only state at the time of this Utah study, which allows naturopaths to perform minor surgery. The law restricts them from drugs “other than those which are botanical.” (p. 7)
As a result, the Utah Council, based upon this portion of their study, defined naturopathy as “a drugless healing art.” Their eligibility to practice obstetrics was not clear. Naturopaths were not allowed to perform minor surgery.
The Utah Council made an attempt to compare naturopathy with the regular medical practitioner’s education-related qualifications:
“The medical profession requires the greatest amount of training of all the healing arts…The actual training exceeds that required by legislation. (All medical schools, except one, require at least three years preprofessional training for entrance and 73% of all medical school applicants have a college degree.)”
Utah itself requires two years preprofessional training.
[See “Medical Education in the United States and Canada” JAMA, Vol. 165, no. 11, 1956-7, pp. 1427-1428.]
In Utah,, to become a licensed M.D., eight to nine years of post-high schooling are required, three to four of which are preprofessional and must be general science training involving bacteriology, physics and chemistry. Four years are then required for professiona lschooling, followed by two years of internship. The accepted trend in premedical education during this time was that premedical college requirements were being increased. (p. 9)
Earlier, the Utah Legislative Council found that alternative schools used the allopathic definitions to define their training requirements. [“A Study of Regulatory Legislation for Business, Trades, and Professions,” Utah Legislative Council, July 1956, Table V.]
Osteopathy definition given. p. 10-11.
Osteopaths tend to be rural practitioners.
There were only six nationally accredited schools of Osteopathy at this time. The list (p. 70., Appendix)
- Philadelphia College
- Des Moine Still College
- Kirksville College, Mo.
- Kansas City College, Mo.
- Chicago College
- College of Osteopathic Physicians & Surgeons, LA
Chiropody definition given. (p. 11)
“Any person shall be held to be practicing chiropody who examines, diagnoses, or treats medically or surgically the ailments of the human foot or massage in connection therewith…”
Chiropodists can be issued a narcotics license, and can administer drugs so long as they pertain to problems focussed on maladies of the foot.
Education to become a chiropdist involves two or three liberal arts training, and three to four years of chiropody training. There is no internship requirement and no related hospital facility. (p. 12). The list (p. 70)
- California College of Chiropody, SF
- Chicago College of Podiatry
- New York College of Podiatry, NYC
- Temple University of Chiropody, Philadelphia
- Illinois College of Chiropody, Chicago
- Ohio College of Podiatry, Cleveland
Chiropractic psychology of treatment (definition):
“the body’s functions are controlled through the nervous system and that energy passing through the system is sometimes interfered with through maladjustments of the spinal column. These maladjustments result in disease in the area of the body served by the nerve fiber affected in the spinal column. This disease masy be cured by locating the maladjustment and correcting it by hand.” [p. 13]
Chiropractic generally includes treatment concepts typical of physiotherapy. It uses phototherapy, electrotherapy, hydrotherapy (incl. mineral baths), thermotherapy, and mechanotherapy. Any reliance on drugs, surgery and therapeutic x-rays is restricted to the application to the spinal column. Obstetrics practice is prohibited. The link between chiropractic and naturopathy is stated by the Utah Council as:
“Those chiropractors who practice physiotherapy, according to many definitions, are performing a practice similar to naturopathy. naturopaths include as a basic part of their educational training the following subjects: thermotherapy, phototherapy, electrotherapy, hydrotherapy, and mechanotherapy.” [p. 13]
In September 1955, John J. Nugent published “Educational Standards for Chiropractic Schools” (National Council on Education, National Chiropractic Association, Webster City, Iowa) published the NCA requisites of accreditation of the chirpractic schools, which eliminated the naturopathy from its curriculum and disallowed the licensure of naturopaths by accredited chiropractic schools. Physiotherapy may have been in part effected by this change as well, since the practice of Physiotherapy makes use of instruments to carry out treating processes as well.
Thus there was an advantage to getting both N.D. and D.C. degrees. Since the same school often offered both, and the two tended to overlap in Physiotherapy requirements, a physician trained at a chiropractor school only need take another few course (one year?) to meet the didactic requirements for both degrees. Those who decided to change practice midway, and apply for a naturopathic school, had part of their credits transferred. Practitioners who were licensed as Chiropractors could not practice in certain states if that training included phsiotherapy training. Therefore the degree of naturopathy often enabled them to paractice as such in the state disallowing physiotherapeutic chiropractic techniques. California-Utah License holders were of this type. (p. 15)
The List (p 71)
- Logan Basic Chiropractic, St. Louis
- Chiropractic Institute of New York, NYC
- Carver College of Chiropractic, Oklahoma City
- Texas Chiropractic College, San Antonio
- Lincoln Chiropractic College, Indianapolis
- Palmer School of Chiropractic, Davenport, IA
- Columbia Institute of Chiropractic, Baltimore
The List (p 71)
- NCNM, Portland
- Sierra State University, LA
- Western States College, Portland
- Central State College of Physiatrics, Eaton, OH
- University of Natural Healing Arts, Denver
Dr. George Eason, President of the Utah Society of Naturopathic Physicians and Surgeons, Inc., defined Naturopathy as follows (this was entered into the books by Utah’s Legislative Council, May 27, 1958):
“Naturopathic Medicine is that system of healing based upon the principles of promoting normal fuinction, mentally and physically, for the restoaration and maintenance of health. This system is governed by four cardinal principles:
1. Cleanse the tissues.
2. Supply indicated nutrition.
3. Assist the recuperative efforts of the body and mind to regain their normal equilibrium.
4. Create a favorable mental attitude in the patient.
“In scope of practice it is a therapeutic system embracing a complete physianthropy employing nature’s agencies, forces, processes, and products.”
FROM: “A summary of comments made at the naturopath hearing before the welfare and education Standing Committee of the LEgislative Council May 15, 1958 at 7:00 P.M. in the Senate Chamber, Salt Lake City, Utah.” (pp. 72-82, see p. 76-77)
This profession is defined by itself as a healing art which stresses “maintaining good health [rather] than the curing of poor health.” It terms this “a therapeutic system embracing a complete physianthropy.” (p. 16) The Utah Council criticises this definition by writing:
“Evidently the definition would not preclude the use of drugs, surgery, or obstetrics because there is no specific reference to them. The practice would be limited only by what is considered the “tenet of the school.” This phrase could permit many functions of medicine, chiropractic or chiropody. It could also permit the profession to expand its definition as progress is made in the profession itself.”
NOTE: In the succeeding decades, naturopathy did redefine its curriculum and emphases several times. This in part enabled the continuation of the profession, and allowed it make use of concepts popular in society during its periods of economic stress. For example, the surge in public interest in the ecology and conservation in the 1970s was picked up by naturopaths who wrote their teachings to conform to this basic change in common philosophy. Again in th late 1970s and into the 1980s, the incerasing interst in acupuncture following the investigation of it by the American allopaths led to the rise inpopularioty of acupuncture and oriental medciines as part of the naturopathic professional training program. This in turn led to the initiation of a separate school in this field in Portland known as the Oregon College of Oriental Medicine (OCOM).
The Utah Council states Naturopathy was often considered synonymous with Chiropractic and Mechanotherapy during the period of its State investigation.
As a “drugless healing profession”, many states other than those which specifically allow naturopathy (AZ, OR, VA, CT) have practicing naturopaths.
Naturopathy schools do not require any pre-professional training for acceptance into their training programs. Utah and a select few states require pre-naturopathic schooling before a license can be granted. One year of internship-like practice carried out in a hospital or office setting is also required by Utah.
Page 18, Table.
Clock Hours required
for a Degree
Department Chiropractic Naturopathy
Anatomy 756 756
Physiology 324 324
Chemistry 360 342
Bacteriology, Public Health
and Preventative Medicine 144 144
Pathology 306 306
Diagnosis 702 720
Roentgenology 162 162
Clinical Therapeutics 1278 1278
Chiropractic 504 —
Naturopathy — 486
Total Hrs 4536 4518
1957 Utah Bill (definition):
“Physical Therapy means the treatment of any bodily or mental condition of any person by the use of physical, chemical, and other properties of heat, light, water, electricity, massage, and therapeutic exercise including physical rehabilitation procedures. The use of Roentgen rays and radium for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, and the use of electricity for surgical purposes, inclduing cauterization are not authorized under the term “physical therapy” as used in this act.” [p. 187, of the Utah Council study, quoting it from a Letter written by the Utah Physical Therapy Association to the Utah Legislative Council, Salt Lake City, Utah, and dated October 23, 1957.]
The Utah Council states the differences between physical therapists and naturopaths, chiropractors and masseuses, is that the patients of Physical Therapists need to be forwarde to them by a doctor. They also do not diagnose an illness, whereas “diagnosis is an essential part of chiropractic and naturopathy.” (p. 19)
Graduation from an accredited nursing school, with two years of approved college training which includes classes in biology and the other sciences. Coursework taken must be approved by the Council on Medical Education and Hospitals of the AMA.
NOTES: On Table 3, p. 21.
Naturopathy lies between Osteopathy and Chiropractic, both of which are accepted alternative porofessions and have little problems meeting the accreditation and licesnure requirements. Regular Medciine required an estimate of 8350 clock hours of preprofessional and professional training. Osteopathy requires 7596 hours of the same. Both of these professions include “Pre-Professional Basic Science” as one of their prerequisites, of which Medicine and Osteopathy respectively require 552 hours and 456 hours of college training.
Naturopathy and Chiropractics required no preprofessional schooling, and spend 5678 and 4485 hours respectively.
Chiropodists require 360 hours of preprofessional schooling.
Chiropodists required the least number of didactic hours before being granted a license to practice. Their clinical training requirement (1920, versus 982 for D.C., 996, for D.O., and 1134 for N.D.) makes up for this. Medicine and Osteopathy both have hours noted on the table for “Training in Hospital” expereinces. Regular doctors must undergo 4018 hours (which includes both clinical and hospital training) according to the table; Osteopaths are required to have 1600 hours of Hosptial Training to supplement their 966 hours of Clinical training. Naturopaths have no hospital hours due to the lack of such health care facilities.
Pharmacology (Drug) training hours differe greatly between these professions as well. M.D.’s undergo 288 hours of this according to the table. Osteopaths undergo 240 hours, and Chiropodists undergo 160 hours. Chiropractors are required to only prescribe medicines pertaining to spinal problems. Naturopaths are considered “drugless doctors.” Chiropractors undergo 25 hours of pharmacology training, and naturopaths under 18 hours.
This Utah Study shows a differentiation between these sects based on the following definitive courses: Obstetrics and Gynecology (none for chiropods, very little for chiropractors), Surgery (none for Chiropractors or Chiropodists), and Pharmacology. [See table 4, p. 22] Surgical training for allopaths numbered 1194 clinical and didactic hours; for Osteopaths it was 614 hours; for chiropodists it was 214 hours; naturopaths 72, and Chiropractors–none.
Taken from Accredited Higher Institutions. 1956. (U.S. Department of Health, Education, & Welfare; Office of Education; Washington, D.C.), p. 29 (Utah Council Study, p. 24-5):
“The voluntary accreditating organizations, regional and nation-wide, have no legal control over institutions of higher education. They merely promulgate standards of quality of criteria of institutional excellence and approve or admit to membership the institutions that meet those standards or criteria. The only power that the accrediting organizations have is that of giving publicity to the lists of institutions they have accredited. Inclusion on the list of a nationally recognized accrediting organization is generally accepted as the most significant available indication of institutional quality.” [p. 25]
In August 1957, the Naturopathy Examining Board listed seven schools as being accredited. Two of these schools have ceased teaching naturopathy, and along with two others, are placed under the jurisdiction of the National Chiropractic Association. Naturopathy schools in Ohio, Oregon and California are approved by Utah and were recently in operation. The Ohio School pteaches and practices “Mechanotherapy.” The California School, Sierra State University, was phasing out and was teaching only graduates of other alternative healing programs.
The distinction between chiropractic and naturopathy, for the first few years of their political separation, was based more on each sect’s title and definition, and not on the classroom experience and clinical requirements. The decision made by NCA to no longer offer naturopathy degrees did little to change their programs, only to reduce the number of schools awarding N.D. degrees and therefore the number of graduates annually in this profession. The utah Coincil found that in spite of riddance of the N.D. degree from their curriculum, the chiropractors continued to teach and learn the professions of naturopathy in these schools. [The major change was therefore probably pharmacology/ medicine-related, such as by riddance of medical botany courses. The Council then notes:
“Such a condition has caused many applicants to go to approved naturopathy schools and they have received a degree in naturopathy while only completing a portion of their training at that school. They have been allowed credit toward a degree from that school for previous training received at chiropractic schools or naturopathy schools no longer in existence.”
The Council’s investigation of the California school (Los Angeles College of Chiropractic) showed it to have
superior” training for its field and non-accredited status according to NCA policy. It awarded the largest number of N.D. degrees of those found to be practicing in Utah. The Naturopathic Examining Committee cannot approve it as a chiropractic school; nor can NCA approve it due to the N.D.’s it has granted. The Council notes:
“These degrees were all granted prior to the time the school joined the national chiropractic assocation. However, it has not changed its curriculum except for discontinuing approximately 240 to 400 hours of training in herbology. Its course in chiropractic requires 4480 hours of training.”
Schools Researched and Visited by Utah Council
Sierra States University (pp. 27-32).
Sierra States University, 1089 South Hoover Street, Los Angeles, California. George Floden, Dean.
A Non-Profit Institution, with a Board of Trustees.
Not accredited by a nationwiode association.
requires 4500 clock hours for N.D.
140 hours of training is in Botanical Medicine is the only difference with other D.C. programs.
Former chiropractic students are given a sheet of questions to determine what areas they need to take classes in. The school was chartered to give degrees in Chiropractic, naturopathy, physical therapy and psychology. The D.C. degree was dropped. Training in Physical Therapy is offered only as a certification program.
“Most of the students are graduates of chiropractic schools.” Weekend and Night Sessions are offered for students of other backgrounds.
Enrollment, 1957, 13 students training for N.D., 6 for P.T. cert. 3 for Massage Licensure.
LA College of Chiropractic has students attending there on weekends.
Approx. 2250 hours (approx, 2 years of schooling) is required for admission.
$150 tuition for naturopathy course: anatomy and physiology. etc.
The school “lIbrary” was a bookcase described as having “an estimated 100 volumes of miscellaneous books.” (p. 31)
The Upstairs portion of this school had Massage therapy and physical therapy settings. The rear portion had a section devoted to dietetic schooling, separate from Sierra States. Its classes were allowed for credit towards the naturopathy degree.
Instructors: (p. 29)
Dr. Dikkers, Ph.D. Luzanne University of Switzerland.
Dr. Ernest Athenour, D.C., Psychology prof.
Dr. Ester Floden, D.C. Teaching Technician
Dr. Edgar Magney, N.D., B.S. Lutheran Ministry.
“When asked where the name Sierra States University was obtained and why the word “Univeristy” was used, it was reported that the word “University” indicates the school gives training in more than one subject, therefore its was appropriate. It was agreed that in this particular instance it may be misleading.” [p. 30]
An examples of a D.C. [doctor of chiropractic] student transferring to a naturopathy school:
A Palmer School of Chiropractic graduate with 4485 credits was given an N.D. degree after completing the following hours at Sierra State University (p. 31):
Psychiatry 12 Clock hours
Minor Surgery 140
Physical Therapy 160
Botanical Medicine 160
Endocrinology & Vitaminology 36
Geriatology & Geriatrics 32
568 Total Clock Hours
The Naturopathy degree he was given was based on the 5053 hours they credited him with.
A second student was from the Los Angeles Naturopathic School, graduating in August 1955.” He paid $50 for schooling at Sierra States from August 15, 1955-June 30, 1956, for their N.D. degree.
A third student received 1976 hours from Sierra States Univ., rgaduating June 29, 1954. Added to his 2559 clock hours obtained from the Palmer School.
The California Legislative Committee noted two Ph.D. degrees awarded by this school in 1947 and 1954. One class, one hour per week for nine months–for the first Ph.D. Dr. Floden, October 1954, awarded the second, a “Doctor of Divinity degree.”
National College of Naturopathic Medicine. [p. 32-5]
Carl Kennedy, Exec. Director, and Chairman of the Board of Directors.
Professors: licensed naturopaths.
Course in the basic sciences are given, with three teacher bearing a Master’s Degree: in Chemistry for the courses in chemsitry; in Biochemistry for a course on the same; in Education.
“Individual clients may come to the college and welfare cases are accepted but such patients are screened so that the college will obtain the individuals requiring treatment which will provide training for the students.” [p. 33]
“In order for the institution to be certified, the Oregon State Law requires such institutions to have ten per cent of their patients as charity cases; twenty per cent of the patients are charity at the National College of Naturopathic Medicine.” [p.33]
“the college was seriously handicapped by the lack of needed facilities.” [p. 33]
“Cases are treated by diets which by concentrating on certain foods and the use of herbs or other “natural medicine,” exercise and natural body therapy, such as relaxation, massage, hydrotherapy, etc., would tend to cure people of their ailments,”
“No major operations are performed but minor surgery is used…defined as the removal of warts, treatment of scratches, etc.”
“the use of operations and any kind of surgery was discouraged in every instance possible.”
“the opinion was expressed that the practice and advancement of natural medicine was being seriously hindered by persons having no training prescribing diets and herbs for treatment and by naturopaths entering into surgery and other types of treatment for which they were not trained.”
“the naturopath could effectively utilize diets, herbs, and natural medicines for treatment of individuals, however, the opinion was expressed that various drugs, specifically the wonder drugs, were creating serious problems.”
Students were not trained in the use of any unnatural drugs. Narcotics were utilized if necessary (opium and derivatives could be used because they were considered “natural drugs”).
The college is financed by tuition payments from students and by grants and loans. “[G]grants had been forthcoming from businesses, persons who had been cured by naturopaths and from members of the profession.”
Health and X-ray facilities passed inspection by USD Health.
“The Oregon Board of Naturopathic Medicine approved the school and the Veterans Adnministration had approved training grants for students which are enrolled….[T]here is essentailly no agency which is making a detailed review of the school for accreditation outside the profession itself.”
Semester schooling. 18 weeks. With time spent in offices for clinical and private practice experience.
LA College of Chiropractic covered, pp. 35-38.
College of Osteopathic Physicains and Surgeons covered, page 38-41.
Legal definitions noted in America Jurisprudence, Corpus Jurus Secundum, and Webster’s Dict.
“Drugless Healing Art.”
The examination of the Sierra State Univerity resulted in criticism of the profession as a whole. Its small size resulted in differences in opinion, which the naturopaths suggested not be used to guage the entire profession with.
The Council responded:
“If other approved naturopathy schools do not have greater financial resources; better training facilities such as clinics and laboratories; and a greater number of qualified faculty members than did the Sierra State University, it is doubtful if applicants would be qualified to practice those privileges sought after by the profession.”
At one point the naturopaths argued that they should be allowed to perform minor surgery and prescribing drugs since they often reside in rural regions where they are the only doctor. The disallowance of this would endanger the lives of the people in these rural communities. The Council later agreed with this argument.
“The failure to grant the naturopaths these priveledges [sic] would result in the medical profession controlling the entire healing art practice.”
“The representatives stated that the naturopathic profession is confronted with the task of maintaining schools comparable to medical schools and yet medical schools have greater resources available. Naturopaths, or any healing art, cannot obtain basic training at medical schools nor intern at hospitals as these schools and hospitals are closed to all except the medical field even though they may be public institutions. Naturopaths cannot maintain adequate schools because of the persecution of their profession from the dominant (M.D.) profession.” [p. 44]
This condition is a serious problem as it relates to healing arts other than medicine. These healing arts are unable to induce new members into their profession because of inadequate schools and state legislatures are reluctant to grant them the desired scope of practice without adequate training. It was generally agreed by the Legislative Committee…no single professional association should have a monopoly in the healing arts field. The representatives of the naturopathy profession maintain that unless the professions other than medicine are permitted to practice with the use of drugs, minor surgery, and obstetrics they would be unable to maintain or retain sufficient numbers in the profession to practice in order to prevent a monopoly by the predmoninant healing art.” [pp 44-5]
CONCLUSIONS (p. 45-6)
All healing arts need to be regulated.
All should be treated equally under state law.
Rural areas have been served by naturopaths, at times as their only physicians.
Those professions without an adequate professional association to oversee their practices need laws to insure that the minimum qualifactions for practice are met.
Certain schools are considered insufficient by the Utah Council.
“[A]ccreditation agencies in existence are not sufficiently effective to assure an adequate education program.”
Expanding the license priviledge of naturopaths beyond present legal limits cannot be justified.
Recommendations (p. 46-7)
–the continuation of present licensure methods.
–Provide a new examining committee consisting of “two representative members of the naturopathic profession, two members of the medical profession, and a person not licensed to practice any healing art…This examining committee should have the authority to regulate drugless healing art applicants who have met the requirements to practice minor surgery, obstetrics and to administer drugs.”
–Establish basic educational requirements for all healing arts.
–permit practitoners of the Drugless Healing Arts to qualify for OB.
A main issue which appeared throughout the text and subsequent senate hearing was the scarcity of the doctors in rural communities. Pacific Island Native Americans assisting the Navy and the needs of rural Utah residents were cases cited as examples.