April 2015


MINNEAPOLIS (AP) — A ninth Minnesota turkey farm has been hit by a form of bird flu that’s deadly to poultry, this time in a large Jennie-O-Turkey Store operation that has 310,000 turkeys, federal authorities and company officials said Wednesday.

Source: news.yahoo.com

Lets take a look at the issue of fowl and livestock and diseases.    

 

Not that we can change the industrial farming methods that much (although modern high tech and upcoming high tech robotic methods seem atrocious to some).    

 

But farming has given us Hog Cholera, Texas Fever, Bovine Tuberculosis and Avian Flu.  The Hogs in their usual way helped make the typhoid outbreak more efficient in Cumberland in the late 1800s.  Cattle spread their Tb across numerous states by train between 1850 and 1855.  Texas Longhorns gave us Texas Fever out of Mexico by way of ticks.  

 

Over the years, I posted extensively about the history of these diseases that were developed because of industrial farming and the late 20th C livestock industry.

 

Examples:

 

 

Turkey Farms — https://brianaltonenmph.com/historical-buildings-and-sites/the-james-way-for-hens-and-turkeys/ 

 

Texas Fever — https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/zoonoses/1866-1885-the-texas-cattle-drives-and-texas-fever/ 

 

Bovine Tb — https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/zoonoses/contagious-lung-plague-of-cattle-1843-to-1892/ 

 

Zoonotic Diseases in general — https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/zoonoses/ 

 

Atlantic Veterinary College hour long class on this:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcxR5kgS8zs 

 

My Youtube video on the distribution of zoonotic diseases brought in from other continents/regions, at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWYslHBLzeI  

 

Results of my study of traditional Anthrax in the U.S. –  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YpdAZjH2m60&list=PLWrApErk5byYGS5oG0u575xDIEwmANtyD 

 

These continents/regions are also reviewed separately in the Youtube.  Many zoonotic diseases can be found on my Youtube page.

See on Scoop.itGlobal∑os® (GlobalEOS)

Ethiopia now has a national plan for eliminating neglected tropical diseases, but success depends on disease mapping, monitoring, and making data accessible for policymakers

Source: www.theguardian.com

I have a couple of projects I posted the results for on mapping history for elephantiasis.  The figure provided ("Elephantiasis, IP") pertains to my study of the recent or modern history of importation of this disease into the United States.

 

By the mid-19th century, elephantiasis was considered a "latitudinal disease" by famous disease cartographers like Heinrich Berghaus (1847), Adolph Muhry (1856), Alexander Keith Johnston (1856),  William Aitken (1872), and Robert William Felkin (1889) (the links to the pages I developed on these scientists are below).  Its method and pattern of spread globally changed little over the next 75 years.

 

The history of mapping elephantiasis can be reviewed, starting with the links and maps below.

 

My spatial review of EMR claims noting Elephantiasis history, in video form, is at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uc6zvqutU3g

 

FRIEDRICH SCHNURRER (1784-1833)

 

1827 ‘Charte Uber die geographische Ausbreitung der Krankheiten’ (1827) — TRANSLATION & REVIEW IN PROCESS 

 

R. Brömer.  The first global map of the distribution of human diseases: Friedrich Schnurrer’s ‘Charte über die geographische Ausbreitung der Krankheiten’ (1827).  Med Hist Suppl. 2000; (20): 176–185.  At http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2530995/?page=1

 

HEINRICH BERGHAUS (1797-1884) 

 

(1848 Map, translated, with review) –  

https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/heinrich-berghauss-physikalischer-atlas-1848/

 

ADOLPH MUHRY (1810-1888)

 

(1856 Map, partially translated, with discussion) – https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/adolph-muhrys-global-disease-map/ 

 

ALEXANDER KEITH JOHNSTON (1844-1879)

 

(his 1856 world map) – https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/alexander-keith-johnstons-famous-map-a-detailed-review-1856/ 

 

(the North America portion, reviewed in detail) – https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/alexander-keith-johnston-health-disease/ 

 

(his philosophy and such) –  https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-medical-geography/1856-alexkeithjohnstonsmay5thpresentation/ 

WILLIAM AITKEN (1825-1892)

 

(his 1872 map, compared with others) – https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/aitkenglobaldiseasenosogeography/

 

(more) – https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/more-historical-disease-maps/1872-william-aitken-book/

ROBERT WILLIAM FELKINS (1853-1926)

 

(full 1889 map) –  https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-disease-maps/robert-william-felkin-1889-tropical-diseases/ 

 

and (parts of his writings) –

https://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/more-historical-disease-maps/1889-robert-william-felkins-on-the-geographical-distribution-of-some-tropical-diseases/

 

(His work as a Google Book) –  https://books.google.com/books?id=0t1TAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA43 

 

 

See on Scoop.itGlobal Health Care

This sites received 91,000 hits per year.  My page on hexagonal grid analysis receives a consistent percentage of these hits.

The reason is the description on how to use and manipulate the hex grid method of mapping, my arguments as to how it reduces error production in spatial analysis by 25% +/-, and the value of downloading the hexagonal grid modeling tool that I posted 5 years ago, for students in search of a unique final project.

I developed this method of analyzing health in the winter of 2002/3, twelve years ago.

It was successfully applied at the state level to demonstrate the spatial relationship between exposure to chemicals and leukemia/lymphoma case reporting.

Source: brianaltonenmph.com

The isolines that are developed from hexagonal grids are more accurate and visually appealing than those generated using a traditional square cell grid technique.

A fairly detailed statistical analysis I performed comparing square cell grids to hex cell grids demonstrated there to be a 42% of error with square grid cells due to corner-centroid spatial relationships.  With hex grids, this relationship is reduced to 16%-17% potential for error in spatial assignments.

The hex cell method is by far more reliable and useful than the traditional square cell method, yet 90% or more of GIS analysts rely upon the more error prone older methods.

The number of visitors at my site on medical GIS for hex grid training is unique, and consists mostly of students, who are engaged in some sort of GIS lab project or producing a project in GIS to hand in as a term project or paper.

One way to understand the ingenuity of a GIS user is to determine how exposed and familiar he/she is to the applications of grid modeling, and the benefits of hex grid methods over square grid methods.

For grid mapping spatial analysts, until hex grid cell methods are employed, esp. for medical GIS, we will always be dealing with the >40% spatial error problem for our work.

The major advantage of grid mapping is that it does not require base mapping, or even the use of a background GIS to produce your results.  With the hex grid method, we could avoid the need for a regular GIS to produce our results (a popular early 1990s philosophy amongst us grid analysts), but hex grid mapping techniques provide a greater benefit and more useful graphic output when developing using a standard vector GIS tool for the spatial analysis.

See on Scoop.itEpisurveillance

The bacteria causes a condition called shigellosis, which is marked by bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Source: www.yahoo.com

There are some very unique regional differences in the distribution of cases linked to the four major Shigella species in the USA over the past decade . . . . .  

 

It is one of a number of important epidemiology topics proposed in my dissertation that are in need of extensive development at the GIS-spatial analysis level in the next few years.  

 

In order to surveill more than 2500 diagnostic metrics per day, an effective tool has to be implemented which can manage that task.  

 

The NPHG algorithms I developed are designed for spatial analyses without the need for standard GIS implementation.  

 

The results of this surveillance technique can be used to define whatever special topics, case report clusters, and population health indicator metrics are in need of a more extensive implemetation of GIS for detailed, routine analysis.  

 

This method was specifically designed for use in rapid surveillance and small area analysis, to be performed on a daily or weekly basis.  It can perform a de novo surveillance request in just a few minutes.

 

With the following four videos, I demonstrate the important spatial differences of Shigella case distribution for the U.S., via the following 3D videos of cases:

 

Shigella A  (Shigella dysenterica) —  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoswDjnOT40 

 

Shigella B  (S. flexneri) — 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nma43unktsw

 

Shigella C  (S. boydii) — 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Yy0vqDYEY4

 

Shigella D  (S. sonnei) — 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qITvXrXeUsY

See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

LINK —>   https://www.youtube.com/v/LOp-KGd4hV0?fs=1&hl=fr_FR

Produced 1-29-15.

Source: www.youtube.com

This is a video, minus the audio, produced from a powerpoint that I developed on the history of vaccinated diseases.

The focus of this presentation is kids or young adults who come down with an immunizable disease.

In the figure provided above, the two pictures present views down the pharynx of a child with diphtheria.  The white covering on the mucous membranes is due to dead organisms, respiratory passage tissue, and debris left behind by a bacterial colony residing on the air passage.  This debris essentially forms a perfect casting of the lung, and can extending more than a foot into the lung in some sections.  For the worst cases, it may extend as far down as the upper to middle bronchioles, stopping just before the alveoli are reached.  In the alveoli, oxygen – carbon dioxide exchange takes place.

In severe cases of airway blockage, the best treatment is typically a tracheotomy and/or intubation.

See on Scoop.itGlobal∑os® (GlobalEOS)

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