Shaker Herbs

This page is being prepared and tested for use in the field.


The notes that follow are for the most part the herbs discussed in Amy Bess Miller’s Shaker Herbs.   They are arranged in groups based on overall appearances, not necessarily their taxonomy.  

The order in which they are presented is based on the groupings, staring with native to naturalized to domestic to foreign.   Each of these groups is then listed alphabetically based on the Genera (single=Genus) names.

An alphabetical listing of Genera regardless of taxonomic relationships appears at the end of this page.

PART 1.  By major botanical groups.


COMMON NAME–the common name for the plant used to refer to it in the book.  Some herbs have duplicate entries for the Latin name due to  manner in which this information was presented in the book. 

LATIN NAME–as it states, with most Latin names provided as they appeared in the text; a few Latin name identification had to be clarified.

COMMON NAMES–these are the other common names recorded by the Amy Bess Miller.  These names were presumably used by the Shakers she met with and interviewed for this work.  Some of the common names appear misapplied, and seem better suited for another plant.  These names were presumably noted to Miller by the individuals she reviewed or interviewed.  They could be in error, or used to refer to a very similar plant with a different background regarding uses.

PART 2.  Gender-Common Name Listing


Only Latin Name and Common Name are provided.  Only the major column with a common name is applied to this listing.  Alternative common names are not included in this list.  The columns are self explanatory.

Note: The most important reference for Common plant names ever published in A. B. Lyons Plant Names Scientific and Popular . . . . ca. 1907 (several editions), printed by Nelson, Baker & Co., Detroit.  This book is on Google Books. 

Over the years, this book has answered many questions about plant identities, including a number of  secondary historians who misidentified the plants in their recent writings. 

This book provides its reader most to all plant names ever documented prior to the year it was published.  These are provided in alphabetical order in the book, by Genus and species.  Althouh the Latin names are old, the taxonomic names and their citations for the source of the Latin name are invaluable for tracing the history of 19th century medicinal plants.  Very local or personal plants names are of course not expected to be included in this book, so some of the personal, slang or highly local names for these plants provided by Shakers are not expected to be found in this book. 

Lyons’ book remains the best reference out there, in spite of numerous attempts made by publishers in recent decades to produce a very useful botanical name dictionary. 




Ferns, Liverworts, Moss, and Fungi

FERN, MAIDENHAIR Adiantum pedatum  
SHIELD FERN Aspidium spinulosum  
SPLEENWORT, COMMON Asplenium angustifolium  
BACKACHE BRAKE Athyrium filix-femina Female Fern
CONSUMPTION BRAKE Botrychium lunaria Moonwort
FERN, MALE Dryopteris filix-mas Male shield fern
BUCKHORN BRAKE Osmunda regalis Male fern, royal fern, king’s fern
FERN, POLYPODY Polypodium vulgare Rock Polypod, rock brake, brake root, female fern
SPURRED RYE Secale cereale Smut rye, ergot (ergot on rye)
ERGOT Secale cornatum Spurred rye, smut rye
MOSS, HAIRCAP Polytrichum juniperum Robin’s eye, ground moss, bear’s bud
ICELAND MOSS Cetraria islandica Eryngo-leaved liverwort


Adriaen VanderDonck, whom Yonkers was named after, wrote a natural history description about the land he was provided for settlement.  The purpose of this book was to promote the colonization of this part of the New World.  It contains a description of several dozen herbal medicines, and represents one of the first such listings of medicinal plants related to New York Hudson Valley history.  A number of VanderDonck’s plants are named for their European similars or look-alikes.  Others are provided very local names, a few of which are not found in Lyon’s reference noted above in the Preface.


Native Trees


HEMLOCK Abies canadensis Hemlock spruce
MAPLE, STRIPED Acer pennsylvanica Canada maple, moosewood
MAPLE, RED Acer rubrum Soft maple, whistle wood
ALDER, RED or TAG Alnus serrulata Tag alder, smooth alder, brook alder
BIRCH, BLACK Betula lenta Cherry birch, sweet birch, mahogany birch, spice birch
BOXWOOD Cornus florida Dogwood, flowering dogwood, flowering cornel, budwood
BEECH Fagus ferruginea  
ASH, WHITE Fraxinum americana  
BUTTERNUT Juglans cinerea White walnut, oil nut, lemon walnut
WALNUT Juglans cinerea Hickory, shagbarks, white walnut, butternut bark, oil nut
TAMARACK Larix americana Hackmatack, American larch
SWEET GUM Liquidambar styraciflua Red gum, star-leaved gum
WHITEWOOD Liriodendron tulipifera Tulip tree, cucumber tree, tulip poplar
MULBERRY Morus rubra Red mulberry
HEMLOCK Pinus rigida Pitch pine
PINE, WHITE Pinus strobus Spanish pine
POPLAR Populus tremuloides White poplar, aspen, American poplar, trembling poplar
ALDER, BLACK Prinos verticillatus Striped alder, winterberry, fake alder
PTELEA Ptelea trifoliata Wingseed, wafer ash, shrubby trefoil
ASH, MOUNTAIN Pyrus americana Roundwood
OAK BARK, WHITE Quercus alba  
OAK BARK, RED Quercus rubra  
OAK BARK, BLACK Quercus tinctoria  
BUCKTHORN Rhamnus cathartica Purging berries, redroot, new jersey tea, arrow wood, alder dogwood, bird cherry
SASSAFRAS Sassafras officinale  
BASSWOOD Tilia americana Linden, Lime Tree, Spoonwood
TILIA FLOWERS Tilia americana Lime tree, linden
ELM, SLIPPERY Ulmus fulva Red elm, Indian elm, sweet elm, moose elm


Cadwallader Colden produced New York’s first lengthy botanical.  This book was written in two parts between 1733 and 1737.  It was then forwarded to botanists from Sweden and England (Peter Collinson) for review; they ultimately forwarded it to Carl von Linne.  A few years later, a Swedish society of scientists overseeing the work of Linne and other scholars approved Colden’s work for publication.  It was then printed and distributed as a part of their annals for 1749 and 1751.  Cadwallader Colden’s daughter, Jane, is the first female botanist.  Her skills often appear to be more like those of a botanical artist or illustrator.  However, she was favored strongly by Linne, who referred to her as a botanist.  No evidence exists however demonstrating the skills of Latin required for her to receive this recognition officially.  Jane’s work surpassed that of her father in regard to her review of additional species not reviewed by Cadwallader.  She also documented some of the local ethnobotany, referring to the local culture as a unique breed of people whom she referred to as Hudsonians, or “Hudson’ns”.


Native Shrubs


BARBERRY Berberis vulgaris Sowberry
SENNA, AMERICAN Cassia marilandica Locust plant
OSIER, GREEN Cornus circinata Broad-leaved dogwood, dogachamus, alder-leaved dogwood, round-leaved cornel
DOGWOOD Cornus sericea Boxwood, Green Ozier, Flowering Cornel, rose willow
WILLOW, ROSE Cornus sericea Red-rod, swamp dogwood
MEZEREON Daphne mezereum Spurge olive, American mezereon, leatherwood
LEATHERWOOD Dirca palustris Moosewood, American mezereon
GELSEMIUM Gelsemium sempervirens Yellow jasmine, wild woodbine, false jasmine
YELLOW JESSAMINE Gelsemium sempervirens Wild jessamine, woodbine
WITCHHAZEL Hamamaelis virginiana Winterbloom, snapping hazel, snapping hazel nut, spotted alder
JUNIPER Juniperus communis Juniper bush
CEDAR, RED Juniperus virginiana  
LAUREL, SHEEP Kalmia angustifolia Laurel, lambkill
LABRADOR TEA Ledum latifolium  
FEVERBUSH Lindera benzoin Wil allspice, spice bush, snap wood, fever wood, benjamin bush
SPICEBUSH Lindera benzoin Fever bush, feverwood
BAYBERRY Myrica cerifera Wax Myrtle, myrtle, wax berry, candle berry
SWEET GALE Myrica gale Meadowfern, bog myrtle, gale fern, sweet willow
SUMACH Rhus glabra Upland sumac, smooth sumac, Pennsylvania sumac
BLACKBERRY Rubus villosus, Rubus occidentalis Dewberry, bramble, gout berry, cloudberry
WILLOW, WHITE Salix alba  
WILLOW, PUSSY Salix discolor  
SAGE WILLOW Salix tristis Rainbow weed, purple willow herb, loose strife
ELDER Sambucus canadensis Sweet elder, American elder, panicle elder, sambucus
HARDHACK Spiraea tomentosa Meadowsweet, white leaf, steeple bush
STEEPLEBUSH Spiraea tomentosa Meadowsweet, hardhack
WHORTLEBERRY Vaccinium myrtillus Bilberry, blue berry, burren myrtle
CRAMP BARK Viburnum opulus High Cranberry, Squawbush
ASH, PRICKLY Zanthoxylum americanum Yellowwood, toothache bush, suter berry



John Bartram is one of a number of botanists from the Philadelphia area that Colden and other New York botanists would inevitably come to know.  As a natural he was learned in botanical medicine and contributed to the first documented knowledge about American herbal medicine plants.  Other Philadelphia botanists of importance to local history include John’s son William (middle portrait in the above image) and their successor Benjamin Smith Barton (right).

Native Vines

UVA-URSI Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Bearberry, upland cranberry, mountain cranberry, mountain box, arbutus uva ursi
BITTERSWEET, FALSE Celastrus scandens Staff Tree, staff vine,climbing orange root, waxwort
VIRGIN’S BOWER Clematis virginiana Traveller’s joy, clematis
COLOMBO, AMERICAN Cocculus carolinus  
MAN ROOT Convolvulus panduratus Wild jalap, man-in-the-ground, man-in-the-earth, wild potato, bindweed, wild scammony
PARILLA, YELLOW Menispermum canadense Canadian moonseed, vine maple
POISON IVY Rhus toxicodendron Poison vine



Dr. Manessah Cutler produced the first American Indian ethnobotany essay for Massachusetts as his Thesis for Harvard.  This book would later develop a very strong following of religious leaders interested in and supportive of local herbal medicine use.   Other metaphysicians who became doctors in New York and the Hudson valley were usually well-read in the writings of Cutler.

Native Herbs – Dicots

COHOSH, WHITE Actaea alba Baneberry
COHOSH, RED Actaea rubra  
AGRIMONY Agrimonia eupatoria Cocklebur, stickwort
BLAZING STAR Aletris farinosa Devil’s Bit, Unicorn, Stargrass, Colic Root, Ague Root
STAR ROOT Aletris farinosa Star grass, ague root, colic root
PILEWORT Amaranthus hypochondriacus Prince’s feather, lovely bleeding, red cockscomb
BITTERROOT Apocynum androsaemifolium Honeybloom, milk ipecac, dogbane, dogsbone, wandering milkweed, flytrap
INDIAN HEMP Apocynum cannabinum Canadian hemp, indian physic, indian hemp
ELDER, DWARF Aralia hispida Wild Elder, bristlestem sarsaparilla
SARSAPARILLA, AMERICAN WILD Aralia nudicaulis Wild Licorice, small spikenard, dwarf elder, bristly stem
SPIKENARD Aralia racemosa Life-of-man, petty morrel, spignet
SNAKEROOT, VIRGINIA Aristolochia serpentaria Snakeroot, Snake weed, Snagrel
ARNICA Arnica montana Mountain Tobacco, Leopardsbane
MUGWORT Artemisia vulgaris  
GINGER Asarum canadense Wild ginger, canada snakeroot
SNAKEROOT, CANADA Asarum canadense Indian ginger, Vermont snake root, heart snakeroot
INDIAN HEMP, WHITE Asclepias incarnata Swamp milkweed, rose-colored silk weed, water nerve root
MILKWEED Asclepias syriaca Silkweed
PLEURISY ROOT Asclepias tuberosa Butterfly weed, wind root, tuber root
STARFLOWER Aster novae-angliae Starwort, New England Aster
COCASH Aster puniceus Squawweed, life root, cocash weed, red-stalked aster, cold water root, september weed
INDIGO, WILD Baptisia tinctoria Horsefly weed, rattlebush, indigo weed, indigo broom, yellow broom
BETONY, WOOD Betonica officinalis  
HARVEST LICE Bidens connata Cockhold herb, beggar’s tick, swamp beggar’s tick
CUCKOLD Bidens frondosa Swamp Beggar’s Tick, Leafy Bur Marigold, Spanish Needles, Cow Lice, leafy burr marigold
COHOSH, BLUE Caulophyllum thalictrioides Squaw Root, Pappoose Root, Blue Berry
PAPOOSE ROOT Caulophyllum thalictrioides Blue Cohosh, blueberry root, squaw root
RED ROOT Ceanothus americanus New jersey tea, jersey tea, wild snowball
UNICORN ROOT, FALSE Chamaelirium luteum Drooping starwort, starwort, star root, helonias
BALMONY Chelone glabra Snakehead, Turtlebloom, turtlehead, Salt Rheum weed, fishmouth, shell flower, bitter herb
SNAKEHEAD Chelone glabra Balmony, bitter herb, shell flower, white turtlehead, turtlebloom
PIPSISSEWA Chimaphila umbellata Prince’s pine, noble pine, ground holly, rheumatic weed, false wintergreen
COHOSH, YELLOW Cimicifuga americana (see Black Cohosh) aka Actaea racemosa  Flavus pulvus.  See
COHOSH, BLACK Cimicifuga racemosa Rattle Root, Black Snakeroot, Bugbane, rattle weed, Squawroot, baneberry
SNAKEROOT, BLACK Cimicifuga racemosa Black cohosh, snakeroot
THISTLE  ROOT Cirsium arvense Canada root, Canada thistle, cursed thistle
RICHWEED Collinsonia canadensis Stoneroot, hardrock, horseweed, wild citronella, oxbalm
STONE ROOT Collinsonia canadensis Horseweed, rish weed, ox balm, wound wort
FERN, SWEET Comptonia peregrina Spleenwort bush, fern gale, sweet fern, sweet bush
CICUTA Conium maculatum Spotted Cowbane, spotted hemlock, Beaver poison, Musquash Root, Poison Hemlock, Water Hemlock, Poison parsley, poison root
GOLDTHREAD Coptis trifolia Mouth root, canker root, yellow root
CRAWLEY Corallorhiza odontorhiza Dragon’s Claw, Coral Root, Fever Root, chicken toe
DITTANY Cunila mariana Stone Mint, Mountain Dittany, American Dittany, Wild Basil
MOUNTAIN DITTANY Cunila origanoides Wild basil, stone mint, American dittany
THORN-APPLE Datura stramonium Apple of Peru, Jamestown weed, jimsonweed, stink weed, stramonium
LARKSPUR Delphinium consolida Stave’s acre
TURKEY CORN Dicentra canadensis Corydalis, turkey pea, stagger weed, squirrel corn
BEECHDROPS Epifagus virginiana  
GRAVEL PLANT Epigaea repens Trailing arbutus, winter pink, gravel weed, mountain pink, mayflower, ground laurel
WICKUP Epilobium angustifolium Mare’s tail, rose bay, willow-herb
FIREWEED Erechtites hieracifolia Pilewort
FLEABANE Erigeron canadense Colt’s tail, pride weed, scabious, horse weed, butter weed
WHITE ROOT Erigeron philadelphicus White weed, ox-eye daisy, white daisy
BONESET Eupatorium perfoliatum Thoroughwort, feverwort, throughstem, vegetable antimony, crosswort, sweating plant, Indian sage, ague weed, eupatorium
QUEEN OF THE MEADOW Eupatorium purpureum Joepye, trumpet weed, gravel root, purple bonseset
STONE BRAKE Eupatorium purpureum Queen of the meadow, gravel root
EUPHORBIA Euphorbia ipecacuanha Spreading spurge, dysentery-weed, milk purslance, American ipecac
IPECAC, AMERICAN Euphorbia ipecacuanha Indian physic, bitter root, ipecac milk, fever root, emetic root, blooming spurge
STRAWBERRY Frageria virginiana  
FUMITORY Fumaria officinalis Hedge fumitory, earth smoke, fumatory
BOXBERRY Gaultheria procumbens Wintergreen
CHECKERBERRY Gaultheria procumbens Wintergreen, Tea Berry, Box Berry
WINTERGREEN Gaultheria procumbens Tea berry plant, checkerberry, pipsissewa, spicy wintergreen, boxberry
GENTIAN, BLUE-FRINGED Gentiana crinita  
CRANESBILL Geranium maculatum Spotted Geranium, Alum Root, Storksbill, American Tormentilla
AVENS, WATER Geum rivale Chocolate root, throat root, cure-all, evan’s root
INDIAN PHYSIC Gillenia trifoliata Bowman’s root, dropwort
LIQUORICE Glycyrrhiza glabra Licorice
BALSAM, SWEET Gnaphalium polycephalum white balsam, Indian Posy, Old Field Balsam
LIFE, EVERLASTING Gnaphalium polycephalum White balsam, indian posey, field balsma, sweet balsam
MOUSE EAR Gnaphalium uliginosum Dysentery weed, cud weed, everlasting
PLANTAIN, DOWNY RATTLESNAKE Goodyera pubescens Adder’s violet, rattlesnake leaf, spotted plantain, rattlesnake root
PENNYROYAL Hedeoma pulegioides Tickweed, squaw mint
FROSTWORT Helianthemum canadense Rock rose, frost plant, scrofula weed
SUNFLOWER, GARDEN Helianthus annuus  
SUNFLOWER, WILD Helianthus divaricatus  
LIVERWORT Hepatica americana Noble liverleaf, kidney liver leaf, liver leaf
COW PARSNIP Heracleum lanatum  
ALUM ROOT Heuchera pubescens Cranesbill, splitrock
GOLDENSEAL Hydrastis canadensis Yellow puccoon, Ohio cucurma, ground raspberry, eye balm, orange root, turmeric root
CELANDINE, WILD Impatiens pallida Jewelweed, Touch-me-not, Balsamweed
COWPARSNIP, ROYAL Imperatoria ostruthium Masterwort, golden alexanders
MASTERWORT Imperatoria ostruthium Cow parsnip, royal cow parsnip
ELECAMPANE Inula helenium Scabwort
TWINLEAF Jeffersonia diphyllum Ground squirrel pea, rheumatism root, helmet pod.
LETTUCE, WILD Lactuca virosa Poison lettuce, acrid lettuce
CULVER’S ROOT Leptandra virginiana Blackroot, Culver’s Physic, Tall Speedwell, Tall Veronica
SNAKEROOT, BUTTON Liatris spicata Gayfeather, devil’s bit, blazing star
CARDINAL, RED Lobelia cardinalis Red Lobelia, Hog Physic, Cardinal Flower, Indian Pink
LOBELIA Lobelia inflata Wild tobacco, indian tobacco, emetic root, puke weed, eye-bright, asthma weed
CARDINAL, BLUE Lobelia syphilitica Blue lobelia
BUGLE, SWEET Lycopus americanus Water bugle, water horehound, green archangel, Paul Betony
WATER HOARHOUND Lycopus europaeus Water bugle, gipsy wort
BUCKBEAN Menyanthes trifoliata Bogbean, Trefoil, Marsh Trefoil, water shamrock, bitterworm, bog myrtle
SQUAW VINE Mitchella repens Partridge berry, winter clover, deer berry, one berry, checkerberry
COOLWORT Mitella cordifolia Mitrewort, Bishop’s Cap
COOLWORT Mitella cordifolia Mitrewort, bishop’s cap
OSWEGO TEA Monarda didyma Mountain balm, highy balm, bee balm, bergamot, monarda
MONARDA Monarda punctata Horsemint
FITROOT Monotropa uniflora Pipe plant, bird’s nest, ice plant, indian pipe, fit plant, dutchman’s pipe, ghostflower, ova ova
IVY, GROUND Nepeta glechoma Gill run, Cats paw, alehof, gill-over-the-ground, field balm, turnhoof, ground joy
LILY, YELLOW WATER Nuphar advena Spatterdock, frog lily, beaver root
LILY, WHITE WATER Nymphaea odorata Toad lily, pond lily, sweet-scented water lily
JOB’S TEARS Onosmodium virginianum Gromell, false gromwell
CANCER ROOT Orobanche virginiana Beech Drops, Broom Rape
SORREL, LADY’S Oxalis acetosella Wood sorrel, common sorrel
GINSENG Panax quinquefolium Ninsin, Chinese seng, five fingers, garantogen
ROCKBRAKE Pellea atropurpurea Winter fern, cliff brake, Indian dream
GARGET Phytolacca decandra Pidgeon berry, poke, poke root, skoke, scoke root, coakum
POKE Phytolacca decandra Garget, pigeon berry, scoke, coakum, inkberry, scokeroot
MANDRAKE Podophyllum peltatum Mayapple, wild lemon, raccoon berry, wild mandrake
ABCESS Polemonium reptans Greek Valerian, blue bells, jacob’s ladder
VALERIAN, GREEK Polemonium reptans  
SNAKEROOT, SENECA Polygala senega Mountain flax, Seneca snakeroot, senega snakeroot
WATER PEPPER Polygonum hydropiper Smartweed, Arsmart, heartweed
HEART’S EASE Polygonum persicaria Ladie’s thumb, spotted knotweed
FIVE-FINGER GRASS Potentilla canadensis Cinquefoil
CANKER ROOT Prenanthes alba Rattlesnake Root
CANKER WEED Prenanthes serpentaria  
HEAL-ALL Prunella vulgaris Self-Heal, figwort, stone root
SELF-HEAL Prunella vulgaris Blue curls, woundwort, all-heal, brownwort, heal-all
LUNGWORT Pulmonaria virginica Virginia cowslip, maple lungwort
MOUNTAIN MINT Pycnanthemum montanum Basil, wild marjoram
BUTTERCUP Ranunculus acris Crowfoot
THIMBLE WEED Rudbeckia laciniata Cone-disk, coneflower
WATER, DOCK Rumex aquaticus Great Water Dock, Sour Dock, Narrow Dock
DOCK, BROADLEAF Rumex obtusifolius  
CENTAURY, AMERICAN Sabatia angularis Red Centaury, Eyebright
BLOODROOT Sanguinaria canadensis Red Puccoon, Indian Paint, Tetterwort
SANICLE, BLACK Sanicula marilandica Pool root, American sanicle, self-heal
PITCHER PLANT Sarracenia purpurea Huntsman’s cup, eve’s cup, fly trap
WATERCUP Sarracenia purpurea Side-saddle flower, pitcher plant, flytrap, huntsman’s cup, small pox plant
CARPENTER’S SQUARE Scrophularia marilandica Heal-all, square stalk, figwort
SCROFULA Scrophularia marilandica Heal-all, square stalk, Carpenter’s square, figwort
SCULLCAP Scutellaria lateriflora Maddog, hoodwort, blue scullcap, virginia scullcap
LIFE ROOT Senecio aureus Ragwort, golden senecio, uncum, squaw weed, female regulator, cocash weed, false valerian
SQUAW-WEED Senecio aureus Life root, golden ragwort, female regulator, blue cohosh, cocash weed
ROSIN-WEED Silphium laciniatum Compass plant, polar plant
INDIAN CUP Silphium perfoliatum Indian cupweed
GOLDENROD Solidago odora Sweet-scented goldenrod, blue mountain tea
PINK ROOT Spigelia marylandica Canadian maryland pink, wormgrass, starbloom
MARSH ROSEMARY Statice caroliniana Sea lavender, ink root, meadow root, American thrift, sea thrift
THYME Thymus serpyllum American wild thyme, Mother of thyme, creeping thyme
CLOVER, YELLOW Trifolium filiforme  
FEVERROOT Triosteum perfoliatum Wild ipecac, horse gentian, tinker’s weed, wild coffee
NETTLE Urtica dioica Stinging nettle
MULLEIN Verbascum thapsus  
IRONWEED Vernonia fasciculata  
BROOKLIME Veronica beccabunga Water Pimpernel, water purslane, beccabunga
NANNY BUSH Viburnum lentago Sheep berry, sweet viburnum, nanny berry
VIOLET Viola pedata Bird’s foot violet
VIOLET, CANKER Viola rostrata  


Early Botanists John Bard, New York, and his son Samuel, and Linnaeus-trained Adam Kuhn of Germantown, PA.  John Bard wrote an early essay on indigenous remedies.  Samuel Bard taught in New York and upon retirement moved the Hyde Park (now the Bard College campus) where he established a garden devoted to this subject.

Native Herbs – Monocots

DRAGON ROOT Arum triphyllum Jack-in-the-Pulpit, wild turnip, Indian turnip, wake robin
INDIAN TURNIP Arum triphyllum Wake robin, wild turnip, dragon root
WILD TURNIP Arum triphyllum Wake robin, jack-in-the-pulpit, dragon root
SKUNK CABBAGE Symplocarpus foetidus Meadow cabbage, skunk weed, polecat week
DOG GRASS Agropyron repens Witch Grass, Quick Grass, Couch Grass, Scratch Grass, Triticum, Durfa Grass
KNOT GRASS Triticum repens Dog grass, couch grass, quickens, witch grass
FLOWER DE LUCE Iris sambucina Fleur-de-lis, blue flag, water flag
BLUE FLAG Iris versicolor Poison flag, flag lily, water flag, fleur-de-lis, liver lily, snake lily
SOLOMON’S SEAL, SMALL Smilacina racemosa Seal root, dropberry, false spikenard
BETHROOT Trillium pendulum Birthroot, indian balm, ground lily, wake robin, true love, coughroot, pariswort
TRILLIUM, PURPLE Trillium purpureum Beth flower, bethrooffersonia diphylla
BELLWORT Uvularia perfoliata Mohawkweed
HELLEBORE, WHITE Veratrum viride Swamp hellebore, American hellbore, false hellebore, itchweed, indian poke
LADY’S SLIPPER Cypripedium flavum  
VALERIAN, AMERICAN Cypripedium pubescens Nerve root, yellow moccasin flower, yellow ladies’ slipper
LADY’S SLIPPER, YELLOW Cypripedium pubescens  



David Hosack was a British trained scientist who commenced his work as a professor at the Columbia College in New York City.  His work in New York included managing the medicine garden.  Upon retirement he bought the Bard’s property in Hyde Park and maintained the garden.  American herbalism had yet to become very popular when he commenced his teaching career, but in just a few years, American botany was one of the most important fields of study.  It was up to botanists like Hosack to continue documenting the local knowledge of herbal medicine.  It is now about 75 years since Cadwallader Colden first wrote his flora of the region, published around 1750 by Linne.  Many of Hosack’s writings suggest lack of familiarity with the non-nativity history of some of the plants he reviewed.  In part this may have been due to the reduced interest physicians were expressing for herbs, in exchange for spending more time on the much stronger mineral remedies and certain poisons removed from traditional plant medicines.  By the turn of the 19th century, this focus on chemistry led to the extraction of the first alkaloid, “morphium” (later called morphine), from Papaver somniferum by German Chemist Friedrich Sertürner in 1804.



YARROW Achillea millefolium Millefoil, noble yarrow, lady’s mantle
CHAMOMILE, LOW Anthemis arvensis Garden Chamomile, Corn Chamomile
MAYWEED Anthemis cotula Wild chamomile, dog fennel
CHAMOMILE Anthemis nobilis Roman Chamomile, Mayweed
BURDOCK Arctium lappa Clotbur, bardana
HORSERADISH Armoracia lapathifolia  
WORMSEED Artemisia ambrosioides Oak Jerusalem seed, goosefoot
BELLADONNA Atropa belladonna Deadly Nightshade, dwale
MUSTARD, WHITE Brassica alba  
MUSTARD, BLACK Brassica nigra  
SHEPHERD’S PURSE Capsella bursa-pastoris Shepherd’s heart
CHESTNUT Cerastium vulgare  
CELANDINE, GARDEN Chelidonium majus Tetterwort, Turmeric, Great Celandine
OAK OF JERUSALEM Chenopodium anthelminthicum Worm seed, Jesuit tea, Jerusalem tea, Jerusalem oak
OAK OF JERUSALEM Chenopodium botyris Worm seed, Jesuit tea, Jerusalem tea, Jerusalem oak
FEVERFEW Chrysanthemum parthenium Featherfew
CHICORY Cichorium intybus Succory, wild succory, endive, centaury
CARDUIS, SPOTTED Cnicus benedictus Blessed Thistle, Holy Thistle, Milk Thistle
CARROT, WILD Daucus carota Bee’s nest seed, Queen Anne’s Lace
CLEAVERS Galium aparine Goose grass, clivers, catchweed, bedstraw, rough cleavers
JOHNSWORT Hypericum perfoliatum Saint Johnswort
LETTUCE, GARDEN Lactuca sativa  
MOTHERWORT Leonurus cardiaca Roman motherwort, lion’s tail, throwwort
DAISY, WHITE Leucanthemum vulgare White Weed, Ox-Eye Daisy
FLAX Linum usitatissimum Linseed, lint bells, toad flax, flax
BUGLE, BITTER Lycopus europaeus Bugleweed, gipseywort
MALLOW, LOW Malva rotundifolia Cheeses, cheese plant, maller
HOREHOUND Marrubium vulgare  
CLOVER, WHITE Melilotus alba Sweet white clover, sweet melilot
KING’S CLOVER Melilotus officinalis Melilote, sweet clover
SWEET CLOVER Melilotus officinalis King’s clover, melilot, yellow sweet clover
BALM, LEMON Melissa officinalis Bee balm, blue balm, cure-all, dropsy plant
HORSEMINT Monarda punctata  
CATMINT Nepeta cataria catnip
SCABBISH Oenothera biennis Tree primrose, wild evening primrose
PLANTAIN Plantago major Common plantain, greater plantain, bitter plantain
SOLOMON’S SEAL, GIANT Polygonum multiflorum  
SORREL, SHEEP Rumex acetosella Red top sorrel, field sorrel
DOCK ROOT, YELLOW Rumex crispus Sour Dock, Narrow Dock, Curled Dock
SOAPWORT Saponaria officinalis Bouncing bet, old maid’s pink, London pride
BITTERSWEET Solanum dulcamara Garden nightshade, woody nightshade, violet bloom, fever twig, scarlet berry
NIGHTSHADE, BLACK Solanum nigrum Black cherry, garden nightshade
CHICKWEED Stellaria media Mouse Ear
DANDELION Taraxacum officinale Blow Ball, Cankerwort
CLOVER, RED Trifolium pratense Sweet clover, king’s clover, clover blows
COLTSFOOT Tussilago farfara Bullsfoot, ginger root, Coughwort
VERVAIN Verbena hastata Wild hyssop, simpler’s joy, erect vervain, blue vervain
SPEEDWELL, COMMON Veronica officinalis Paul betony
BROOM Cytisus scoparius Link, genista, banal
RASPBERRY Rubus strigosus Red raspberry
ASPEN, QUAKING Populus tremuloides European poplar
CHERRY, WILD Prunus serotina Black Cherry, Choke cherry
HOPS Humulus lupulus  


Samuel Thomson probably developed his interest in American herbal medicine as a child prior to 1806 or 1807.  Since the late 1790s, the notion of poisons or toxins was one of the points of focus physicians were taking when trying to assess their medical value and the various causes for their clinical activities.  The alkaloids were discovered during this time,  Papaver latex was further concentrated resulting in production of some of the first fairly pure opium products.  Salts and mineral were being assigned medicinal values.  Certain substances like arsenic, lead and mercury salts were assumed to be stronger medicines due to their stronger, more potent, toxic effects upon the human body.  Many lay people were against the increasing popularity of these mineral remedies, and so, like Samuel Thomson, began  searching for the simpler alternatives to the mineral remedies like opium and mercurials, and a much safer way to be treated for illness without the use of the lancet.  William Currie, a regular physician from England, did much to promote the bath as one possible means for achieving a cure .  The American herbal medicine movement led to recommendations that American products be used as substitutes for imported medicines–in Thomson’s case, Lobelia was used instead of the imported Ipecac since it was found to ne an effective emetic on his friends (knowledge learned by performing a practical joke).   Thomson’s protocols were fairly simple, and his book, although written primitively, had a ring to its content and structure that resulted in the rapid rise in popularity of Thomsonianism after 1820/1825.   Between 1815 and 1820/1822, Thomsonianism was mostly a practice preached by way of pamphlets and small books.  Once it became regionally popular in the valley and western NewYork, entire books replaced Thomson’s original works, some authored specifically by the local physician (see Elias Smith, for example, western NY), with ca. 1825-1832 publications on Thomsonianism).  In the case of the Hudson valley, Thomas Lapham of Poughkeepsie was the primary promoter of Thomsonianism, first promoting these medicines out of his home and in his shop.  He later became the primary publisher of Thomsonianism books and trade magazines from about 1844 to 1850.  Shaker herbal medicine manufactories were the primary producers of these medicines.


Domestic (some escaped into the wild)

ACONITE Aconitum napellus Monkshood, wolfbane
SWEET FLAG Acorus calamus Calamus, sweet rush
GARLIC Allium sativum  
MALLOW, MARSH Althaea officinalis  
HOLLYHOCK Althaea rosea  
PEACH Amygdalis persica  
DILL Anethum graveolens Dilly, Dillseed
ANGELICA Angelica atropurpurea Purple angelia, masterwort, high angelica, archangel
SOUTHERNWOOD Artemisia abrotanum Old man’s tree, boy’s love
WORMWOOD, COMMON Artemisia absinthium  
ROMAN WORMWOOD Artemisia pontica Ragweed, hogweed
ASPARAGUS ROOT Asparagus officinalis  
BORAGE Borago officinalis Burrage, bugloss
MARIGOLD Calendula officinalis Pot marigold, marygold
CAYENNE Capsicum annuum Bird Pepper Chilies
BIRD PEPPER Capsicum frutescens Cayenne Pepper, chillies
CARAWAY Carum carui  
ORANGE Citrus aurantium  
SCURVY GRASS Cochlearia officinalis  
COLCHICUM Colchicum autumnale  
MEADOW SAFFRON Colchicum autumnale Colchicum
CORIANDER Coriandrum sativum  
SAFFRON Crocus sativus  
PUMPKIN Cucurbita pepo  
WATERMELON Cucurbita vulgaris  
TURMERIC Cucurma longa  
FOXGLOVE Digitalis purpurea  
BALM, MOLDAVIAN Dracocephalum moldavica Sweet balm, tea balm, Dragonhead
BITTER HERB Erythraea centaurium Lesser centaury, European centaury
WA-A-HOO Euonymus atropurpureus Euonymus, Indian arrowwood, burning bush, spindle tree
FENNEL Foeniculum vulgare Wild fennel, sweet fennel, large fennel
COTTON ROOT Gossypium herbaceum  
HELLEBORE, BLACK Helleborus niger Christmas rose
HYDRANGEA HydrangEa arborescens Seven barks, wild hydrangea
HENBANE, BLACK Hyoscyamus niger  
HYSSOP Hyssopus officinalis  
SAVIN Juniperus sabina  
RHATANY Krameria triandria  
LAVENDAR, ENGLISH Lavandula vera  
LOVAGE Levisticum officinale Smellage, lavose
PRIVET Ligustrum vulgare Privy, prim
TOMATO Lycopersicum esculetum  
PEPPERMINT Mentha piperita  
SPEARMINT Mentha viridis  
DAFFODIL Narcissus pseudo-narcissus Daffy Downdillies
BASIL, SWEET Ocimum basilicum  
MARJORAM, SWEET Origanum marjorana  
CICELY, SWEET Osmorhiza longistylus Anise Root, Sweet Anise, Sweet Jarvil
PEONY Paeonia officinalis  
POPPY Papaver somniferum Opium poppy, white poppy
PARSLEY Petroselenium sativum Rock parsley
ANISE Pimpinella anisum  
JACOB’S LADDER Polemonium coeruleum  
SILVER WEED Potentialla anserina Silver cinquefoil, cramp weed, goose tansy, moor grass
POMEGRANATE Punica granatum  
APPLETREE Pyrus malus  
RHUBARB Rheum palmatum  
CASTOR OIL PLANT Ricinus communis Castor Bean
ROSE, WHITE Rosa alba  
ROSE Rosa centifolia Hundred-leaved rose, cabbage rose
ROSE, DAMASK Rosa damascena Pale rose
ROSE, RED Rosa gallica officinalis  
ROSEMARY Rosmarinus officinalis  
RUE Ruta graveolens  
SAGE Salvia officinalis  
CLARY Salvia sclarea Clammy sage, clarry
BURNET, GREAT Sanguisorba officinalis Garden or Common Burnet
SAVORY, SUMMER Satureia hortensis Bean herb, Bohnenkraut
SAVORY, WINTER Satureia montana  
SCABIOUS Scabiosa succisa Sweet scabious, devil’s bit, primrose scabious
STILLINGIA Stillingia sylvatica Queen’s root, queen’s delight, silver leaf
COMFREY Symphytum officinale Gum plant, healing herb, slippery root
TANSY Tanacetum vulgare Double tansy, sweet tansy
THYME, ENGLISH Thymus vulgaris Common or garden thyme
SQUILL Urginea scilla Scilla, sea onion
VALERIAN, ENGLISH Valeriana officinalis Great wild valerian, vandal root




Wooster Beach graduated from a New York City medical school in 1824.  In 1825, he was promoting his concept of “Reformed Medicine,” claiming that regular medicine was in need of significant change.  He opened a school in New York City, but was soon after run out of the city by a mob.  He migrated westward toward Ohio, where he was finally accepted by a medical school in Columbus, Ohio around 1834.    Between 1820 and 1834, he like others promoted Thomsonianism, and attended their regional and national Friends’ meetings.  But Beach’s Reformed Medicine was also into certain allopathic principles as well, and so soon came to be called “Eclectic Medicine” according to the recollections of a fellow student, historian and practitioner of this field), due to comments about “the eclectic nature” of how its practitioners selected their remedies.  This field allowed for most kinds of treatment then popular with the exception of blood-letting and the use of mineral remedies (although some exceptions exist), and due to some ongoing politics then developing, the practice of homeopathy.  This form of non-allopathic medicine had a very strong following between upstate New York and Ohio.  Its assocaition with the Shaker’s herbal medicine market however is uncertain during the early years (pre-1835).  Between 1837 and 1842, Dr. John King of the Eclectic accidentally produced a highly concentrated extract of a plant that he was boiling.  Finding it to still be effective, he promoted the use of these “concentrated extract” and tried to patent his formulas.  This method of manufacturing herbal medicines was subsequently taken up by a number of companies, at least one of which was a regular medicine company.   From about 1845 to 1850/1853, the Eclectics were most strongly assocaited with this drug production technique.  By the mid-1850s, the Shakers ultimately had their own producers engaged in this, which ultimately led to the formation of companies that specializing in these products using their herbs.

FOREIGN IMPORTS (most not grown)

GALANGAL Alpinia galangal East India catarrh root, catarrh root, kassamak root
BUCHU Barosma betulina Bookoo, bucku, diosma belutina
CANELLA Canella alba Wild Cinnamon, White Wood
PEREIRA BRAVA Chondrodendron tomentosum Velvet leaf, ice vine, cissampelos
CINCHONA Cinchona succirubra Peruvian bark, foso bark, red bark, crown bark
CINNAMON Cinnamomum zeylanicum  
COLOMBO Cocculus palmatus Indian Lettuce, Yellow Gentian, pyramid flower, meadowpride, yellow gentian
BALM OF GILEAD Commiphora opobalsamum  
COLOCYNTH Cucumis colocynthis Bitter Cucumber, Bitter Apple
CHOLIC ROOT Dioscorea villosa Colic Root, Rheumatism Root
WILD YAM Dioscorea villosa Colic root
TONQUA Dipteryx odorata Tonka bean, ground squirrel pea, rheumatism root, helmet pod
CARDAMOM Elattaria cardamomum  
CLOVES Eugenia caryophyllata  
ANGOSTURA Galipea officinalis  
LOGWOOD Haematoxylon campechianum Peachwood, bloodwood
IGNATIA BEAN Ignatius amara Saint Ignatius’s bean
JALAP Ipomoea jalapa Bindweed
IRIS Iris florentina Orris root
QUASSIA Picraena excelsa Bitter wood, bitter ash
MATICO Piper angustifolium Soldier’s herb
CUBEBS Piper cubeba Tail peper, java pepper
MILKWORT Polygala vulgaris European seneca
BENNE Sesamum indicum Sesame, gingili, tell
QUEEN’S ROOT Stillingia sylvatica Queen’s delight, yaw root, silver leaf, cock-up hat
NUX VOMICA Strychnos nux-vomica Poison nut, ratsbane
GINGER, AFRICAN Zingiber officinale Jamaican ginger


Pehr Kalm from Finland-Sweden toured the mid-Atlantic colonies up to Niagara Fall, 1749-1750.  Constantine Rafinesque was a French Botanist from France who produced on the first extensive multivolume review of the local flora, although in French rather than English.  Thomas Nuttall is one of several naturalists who toured this part of the United States and documented the local herbal medicines as well as the local zoology, often focusing on ornithology. 




Abies canadensis HEMLOCK
Acer pennsylvanica MAPLE, STRIPED
Acer rubrum MAPLE, RED
Achillea millefolium YARROW
Aconitum napellus ACONITE
Acorus calamus SWEET FLAG
Actaea alba COHOSH, WHITE
Actaea rubra COHOSH, RED
Adiantum pedatum FERN, MAIDENHAIR
Agrimona eupatoria AGRIMONY
Agropyron repens DOG GRASS
Aletris farinosa BLAZING STAR
Aletris farinosa STAR ROOT
Allium sativum GARLIC
Alnus serrulata ALDER, RED or TAG
Alpinia galangal GALANGAL
Althaea officinalis MALLOW, MARSH
Althaea rosea HOLLYHOCK
Amaranthus hypochondriacus PILEWORT
Amygdalis persica PEACH
Anethum graveolens DILL
Angelica atropurpurea ANGELICA
Anthemis arvensis CHAMOMILE, LOW
Anthemis cotula MAYWEED
Anthemis nobilis CHAMOMILE
Apocynum androsaemifolium BITTERROOT
Apocynum cannabinum INDIAN HEMP
Aralia hispida ELDER, DWARF
Aralia racemosa SPIKENARD
Arctium lappa BURDOCK
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi UVA-URSI
Aristolochia serpentaria SNAKEROOT, VIRGINIA
Armoracia lapathifolia HORSERADISH
Arnica montana ARNICA
Artemisia abrotanum SOUTHERNWOOD
Artemisia absinthium WORMWOOD, COMMON
Artemisia ambrosioides WORMSEED
Artemisia pontica ROMAN WORMWOOD
Artemisia vulgaris MUGWORT
Arum triphyllum DRAGON ROOT
Arum triphyllum INDIAN TURNIP
Arum triphyllum WILD TURNIP
Asarum canadense GINGER, AMERICAN
Asarum canadense SNAKEROOT, CANADA
Asclepias incarnata INDIAN HEMP, WHITE
Asclepias syriaca MILKWEED
Asclepias tuberosa PLEURISY ROOT
Asparagus officinalis ASPARAGUS ROOT
Aspidium spinulosum SHIELD FERN
Asplenium angustifolium SPLEENWORT, COMMON
Aster novae-angliae STARFLOWER
Aster puniceus COCASH
Athyrium filix-femina BACKACHE BRAKE
Atropa belladonna BELLADONNA
Baptisia tinctoria INDIGO, WILD
Barosma betulina BUCHU
Berberis vulgaris BARBERRY
Betonica officinalis BETONY, WOOD
Betula lenta BIRCH, BLACK
Biden frondosa CUCKOLD
Bidens connata HARVEST LICE
Borago officinalis BORAGE
Botrychium lunaria CONSUMPTION BRAKE
Brassica alba MUSTARD, WHITE
Brassica nigra MUSTARD, BLACK
Calendula officinalis MARIGOLD
Canella alba CANELLA
Capsella bursa-pastoris SHEPHERD’S PURSE
Capsicum annuum CAYENNE
Capsicum frutescens BIRD PEPPER
Carum carui CARAWAY
Cassia marilandica SENNA, AMERICAN
Caulophyllum thalictrioides COHOSH, BLUE
Caulophyllum thalictrioides PAPOOSE ROOT
Ceanothus americanus RED ROOT
Celastrus scandens BITTERSWEET, FALSE
Cerastium vulgare CHESTNUT
Cetraria islandica ICELAND MOSS
Chamaelirium luteum UNICORN ROOT, FALSE
Chelidonium majus CELANDINE, GARDEN
Chelone glabra BALMONY
Chelone glabra SNAKEHEAD
Chenopodium anthelminthicum OAK OF JERUSALEM
Chenopodium botyris OAK OF JERUSALEM
Chimaphila umbellata PIPSISSEWA
Chondrodendron tomentosum PEREIRA BRAVA
Chrysanthemum parthenium FEVERFEW
Cichorium intybus CHICORY
Cimicifuga racemosa COHOSH, BLACK
Cimicifuga racemosa SNAKEROOT, BLACK
Cinchona succirubra CINCHONA
Cinnamomum zeylanicum CINNAMON
Cirsium arvense THISTLE  ROOT
Citrus aurantium ORANGE
Clematis virginiana VIRGIN’S BOWER
Cnicus benedictus CARDUIS, SPOTTED
Cocculus carolinus COLOMBO, AMERICAN
Cocculus palmatus COLOMBO
Cochlearia officinalis SCURVY GRASS
Colchicum autumnale COLCHICUM
Colchicum autumnale MEADOW SAFFRON
Collinsonia canadensis RICHWEED
Collinsonia canadensis STONE ROOT
Commiphora opobalsamum BALM OF GILEAD
Comtonia peregrina FERN, SWEET
Conium maculatum CICUTA
Convolvulus panduratus MAN ROOT
Coptis trifolia GOLDTHREAD
Corallorhiza odontorhiza CRAWLEY
Coriandrum sativum CORIANDER
Cornus circinata OSIER, GREEN
Cornus florida BOXWOOD
Cornus sericea DOGWOOD
Cornus sericea WILLOW, ROSE
Crocus sativus SAFFRON
Cucumis colocynthis COLOCYNTH
Cucurbita pepo PUMPKIN
Cucurbita vulgaris WATERMELON
Cucurma longa TURMERIC
Cunila mariana DITTANY
Cunila origanoides MOUNTAIN DITTANY
Cypripedium flavum LADY’S SLIPPER
Cypripedium pubescens LADY’S SLIPPER, YELLOW
Cypripedium pubescens VALERIAN, AMERICAN
Cytisus scoparius BROOM
Daphne mezereum MEZEREON
Datura stramonium THORN-APPLE
Daucus carota CARROT, WILD
Delphinium consolida LARKSPUR
Dicentra canadensis TURKEY CORN
Digitalis purpurea FOXGLOVE
Dioscorea villosa CHOLIC ROOT
Dioscorea villosa WILD YAM
Dipteryx odorata TONQUA
Dirca palustris LEATHERWOOD
Dracocephalum moldavica BALM, MOLDAVIAN
Dryopteris filix-mas FERN, MALE
Elattaria cardamomum CARDAMOM
Epifagus virginiana BEECHDROPS
Epigaea repens GRAVEL PLANT
Epilobium angustifolium WICKUP
Erechtites hieracifolia FIREWEED
Erigeron canadense FLEABANE
Erigeron philadelphicus WHITE ROOT
Erythraea centaurium BITTER HERB
Eugenia caryophyllata CLOVES
Euonymus atropurpureus WA-A-HOO
Eupatorium perfoliatum BONESET
Eupatorium purpureum QUEEN OF THE MEADOW
Eupatorium purpureum STONE BRAKE
Euphorbia ipecacuanha EUPHORBIA
Euphorbia ipecacuanha IPECAC, AMERICAN
Fagus ferruginea BEECH
Flavus pulvus COHOSH, YELLOW
Foeniculum vulgare FENNEL
Frageria virginiana STRAWBERRY
Fraxinum americana ASH, WHITE
Fumaria officinalis FUMITORY
Galipea officinalis ANGOSTURA
Galium aparine CLEAVERS
Gaultheria procumbens BOXBERRY
Gaultheria procumbens CHECKERBERRY
Gaultheria procumbens WINTERGREEN
Gelsemium sempervirens GELSEMIUM
Gelsemium sempervirens YELLOW JESSAMINE
Gentiana crinita GENTIAN, BLUE-FRINGED
Geranium maculatum CRANESBILL
Geum rivale AVENS, WATER
Gillenia trifoliata INDIAN PHYSIC
Glycyrrhiza glabra LIQUORICE
Gnaphalium polycephalum BALSAM, SWEET
Gnaphalium polycephalum LIFE, EVERLASTING
Gnaphalium uliginosum MOUSE EAR
Gossypium herbaceum COTTON ROOT
Haematoxylon campechianum LOGWOOD
Hamamaelis virginiana WITCHHAZEL
Hedeoma pulegioides PENNYROYAL
Helianthemum canadense FROSTWORT
Helianthus annuus SUNFLOWER, GARDEN
Helianthus divaricatus SUNFLOWER, WILD
Helleborus niger HELLEBORE, BLACK
Hepatica americana LIVERWORT
Heracleum lanatum COW PARSNIP
Heuchera pubescens ALUM ROOT
Humulus lupulus HOPS
Hydranga arborescens HYDRANGEA
Hydrastis canadensis GOLDENSEAL
Hyoscyamus niger HENBANE, BLACK
Hypericum perfoliatum JOHNSWORT
Hyssopus officanlis HYSSOP
Ignatius amara IGNATIA BEAN
Impatiens pallida CELANDINE, WILD
Imperatoria ostruthium COWPARSNIP, ROYAL
Imperatoria ostruthium MASTERWORT
Inula helenium ELECAMPANE
Ipomoea jalapa JALAP
Iris florentina IRIS
Iris sambucina FLOWER DE LUCE
Iris versicolor BLUE FLAG
Jeffersonia diphyllum TWINLEAF
Juglans cinerea BUTTERNUT
Juglans cinerea WALNUT
Juniperus communis JUNIPER
Juniperus sabina SAVIN
Juniperus virginiana CEDAR, RED
Kalmia angustifolia LAUREL, SHEEP
Krameria triandria RHATANY
Lactuca sativa LETTUCE, GARDEN
Lactuca virosa LETTUCE, WILD
Larix americana TAMARACK
Lavandula vera LAVENDAR, ENGLISH
Ledum latifolium LABRADOR TEA
Leonurus cardiaca MOTHERWORT
Leptandra virginiana CULVER’S ROOT
Leucanthemum vulgare DAISY, WHITE
Levisticum officinale LOVAGE
Liatris spicata SNAKEROOT, BUTTON
Ligustrum vulgare PRIVET
Lindera benzoin FEVERBUSH
Lindera benzoin SPICEBUSH
Linum usitatissimum FLAX
Liquidambar styraciflua SWEET GUM
Liriodendron tulipifera WHITEWOOD
Lobelia cardinalis CARDINAL, RED
Lobelia inflata LOBELIA
Lobelia syphilitica CARDINAL, BLUE
Lycopersicum esculetum TOMATO
Lycopus americanus BUGLE, SWEET
Lycopus europaeus BUGLE, BITTER
Lycopus europaeus WATER HOARHOUND
Malva rotundifolia MALLOW, LOW
Marrubium vulgare HROEHOUND
Melilotus alba CLOVER, WHITE
Melilotus officinalis KING’S CLOVER
Melilotus officinalis SWEET CLOVER
Melissa officinalis BALM, LEMON
Menispermum canadense PARILLA, YELLOW
Mentha piperita PEPPERMINT
Mentha viridis SPEARMINT
Menyanthes trifoliata BUCKBEAN
Mitchella repens SQUAW VINE
Mitella cordifolia COOLWORT
Monarda didyma OSWEGO TEA
Monarda punctata HORSEMINT
Monarda punctata MONARDA
Monotropa uniflora FITROOT
Morus rubra MULBERRY
Myrica cerifera BAYBERRY
Myrical gale SWEET GALE
Narcissus pseudo-narcissus DAFFODIL
Nepeta cataria CATMINT
Nepeta glechoma IVY, GROUND
Nuphar advena LILY, YELLOW WATER
Nymphaea odorata LILY, WHITE WATER
Ocimum basilicum BASIL, SWEET
Oenothera biennis SCABBISH
Onosmodium virginianum JOB’S TEARS
Origanum marjorana MARJORAM, SWEET
Orobanche virginiana CANCER ROOT
Osmorhiza longistylus CICELY, SWEET
Osmunda regalis BUCKHORN BRAKE
Oxalis acetosella SORREL, LADY’S
Paeonia officinalis PEONY
Panax quinquefolium GINSENG
Papaver somniferum POPPY
Pellea atropurpurea ROCKBRAKE
Petroselenium sativum PARSLEY
Phytolacca decandra GARGET
Phytolacca decandra POKE
Picraena excelsa QUASSIA
Pimpinella anisum ANISE
Pinus rigida HEMLOCK
Pinus strobus PINE, WHITE
Piper angustifolium MATICO
Piper cubeba CUBEBS
Plantago major PLANTAIN
Podophyllum peltatum MANDRAKE
Polemonium coeruleum JACOB’S LADDER
Polemonium reptans ABCESS
Polemonium reptans VALERIAN, GREEK
Polygala senega SNAKEROOT, SENECA
Polygala vulgaris MILKWORT
Polygonum hydropiper WATER PEPPER
Polygonum multiflorum SOLOMON’S SEAL, GIANT
Polygonum persicaria HEART’S EASE
Polypodium vulgare FERN, POLYPODY
Polytrichum juniperum MOSS, HAIRCAP
Populus tremuloides ASPEN, QUAKING
Populus tremuloides POPLAR
Potentialla anserina SILVER WEED
Potentialla canadensis FIVE-FINGER GRASS
Prenanthes alba CANKER ROOT
Prenanthes serpentaria CANKER WEED
Prinos verticillatus ALDER, BLACK
Prunella vulgaris HEAL-ALL
Prunella vulgaris SELF-HEAL
Prunus serotina CHERRY, WILD
Ptelea trifoliata PTELEA
Pulmonaria virginica LUNGWORT
Punica granatum POMEGRANATE
Pycnanthemum montanum MOUNTAIN MINT
Pyrus americana ASH, MOUNTAIN
Pyrus malus APPLETREE
Quercus alba OAK BARK, WHITE
Quercus rubra, OAK BARK, RED
Quercus tinctoria OAK BARK, BLACK
Ranunculus acris BUTTERCUP
Rhamnus cathartica BUCKTHORN
Rheum palmatum RHUBARB
Rhus glabra SUMACH
Rhus toxicodendron POISON IVY
Ricinus communis CASTOR OIL PLANT
Rosa alba ROSE, WHITE
Rosa centifolia ROSE
Rosa damascena ROSE, DAMASK
Rosa gallica officinalis ROSE, RED
Rosmarinus officinalis ROSEMARY
Rubus strigosus RASPBERRY
Rubus villosus, Rubus occidentalis BLACKBERRY
Rudbeckia laciniata THIMBLE WEED
Rumex acetosella SORREL, SHEEP
Rumex aquaticus DOCK, WATER
Rumex aquaticus WATER, DOCK
Rumex crispus DOCK, YELLOW
Rumex obtusifolius DOCK, BROADLEAF
Ruta graveolens RUE
Sabatia angularis CENTAURY, AMERICAN
Salix alba WILLOW, WHITE
Salix discolor WILLOW, PUSSY
Salix tristis SAGE WILLOW
Salvia officinalis SAGE
Salvia sclarea CLARY
Sambucus canadensis ELDER
Sanguinaria canadensis BLOODROOT
Sanguisorba officinalis BURNET, GREAT
Sanicula marilandica SANICLE, BLACK
Saponaria officinalis SOAPWORT
Sarracenia purpurea PITCHER PLANT
Sarracenia purpurea WATERCUP
Sassafras officinale SASSAFRAS
Satureia hortensis SAVORY, SUMMER
Satureia montana SAVORY, WINTER
Scabiosa succisa SCABIOUS
Scrophularia marilandica CARPENTER’S SQUARE
Scrophularia marilandica SCROFULA
Scutellaria lateriflora SCULLCAP
Secale cereale SPURRED RYE
Secale cornatum ERGOT
Senecio aureus LIFE ROOT
Senecio aureus SQUAW-WEED
Sesamum indicum BENNE
Silphium laciniatum ROSIN-WEED
Silphium perfoliatum INDIAN CUP
Smilacina racemosa SOLOMON’S SEAL, SMALL
Solanum dulcamara BITTERSWEET
Solanum nurgum NIGHTSHADE, BLACK
Solidago odora GOLDENROD
Spidelia marylandica PINK ROOT
Spiraea tomentosa HARDHACK
Spiraea tomentosa STEEPLEBUSH
Statice caroliniana MARSH ROSEMARY
Stellaria media CHICKWEED
Stillingia sylvatica QUEEN’S ROOT
Stillingia sylvatica STILLINGIA
Strychnos nux-vomica NUX VOMICA
Symphytum officinale COMFREY
Symplocarpus foetidus SKUNK CABBAGE
Tanacetum vulgare TANSY
Taraxacum officianle DANDELION
Thymus serpyllum THYME
Thymus vulgaris THYME, ENGLISH
Tilia americana BASSWOOD
Tilia americana TILIA FLOWERS
Trifolium filiforme CLOVER, YELLOW
Trifolium pratense CLOVER, RED
Trillium pendulum BETHROOT
Trillium purpureum TRILLIUM, PURPLE
Triosteum perfoliatum FEVERROOT
Triticum repens KNOT GRASS
Tussilago farfara COLTSFOOT
Ulmus fulva ELM, SLIPPERY
Urginea scilla SQUILL
Urtica dioica NETTLE
Uvularia perfoliata BELLWORT
Vaccinium myrtillus WHORTLEBERRY
Valeriana officinalis VALERIAN, ENGLISH
Veratrum viride HELLEBORE, WHITE
Verbascum thapsus MULLEIN
Verbena hastata VERVAIN
Vernonia fasciculata IRONWEED
Veronica beccabunga BROOKLIME
Veronica officinalis SPEEDWELL, COMMON
Viburnum lentago NANNY BUSH
Viburnum opulus CRAMP BARK
Viola pedata VIOLET
Viola rostrata VIOLET, CANKER
Zanthoxylum americanum ASH, PRICKLY
Zingiber officinale GINGER, AFRICAN




2 Responses to “Shaker Herbs for the Field”

  1. Dr. John Ruhland Says:

    Your history is a very impressive body of work.

    1. Brian Altonen, MPH, MS Says:

      Thank you

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