See on Scoop.itEpisurveillance

Child Abuse of kids upon kids, or bullying, is one of those things we can monitor in any managed care system.

Brian Altonen‘s insight:

The current technology exists to monitor child abuse, bullying, adult abuse, or any form of abuse and mistreatment using a basic statistical program.  We do not need a GIS to map many of the conditions that should be monitored by a managed care system, just the right knowledge and manpower.  

Unfortunately, many companies choose to not engage in this very detailed review of the healthcare that our population receives.  This is either because we lack the desire to engage in this work, think we lack the software to accomplish such a brutal endeavour, or believe we haven’t got the manpower we need to accomplish it.  

All of these limits we place upon our self in managed care.  Either we place them upon ourselves, or higher up decisions limit us from reaching these potentials.  Some of the most important social issues in medicine and public health are poorly managed due to this lack of engagement.

See on www.pacer.org

See on Scoop.itNational Population Health Grid

Managed Care Organizations benefit from GIS software’s use of patient demographics and market and provider data to make better decisions regarding Medicaid, disease management & utilization.

Brian Altonen‘s insight:

In some of my past discussions with student about population health monitoring, I referred to a successful GIS that is already operating and managing several hundred metrics or more per month as our "sixth sense."
Even when nothing appears in the forefront about health matters, viewing the images you are used to seeing every day  can often bring about new attention whenever a new health problem is surfacing, and its appearance on the map suddenly changes.
This is the major reason GIS works better for population health analyses and surveillance than any other method out there that is predominantly word or table based.
On a single page, single screen, one can review several dozen outcomes in just a few seconds.  This rapid processing is what enables us to utilize these methods as a ‘sixth sense" approach to analyzing population health.

 

See on www.esri.com

See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

Finally, NoBullying.com presents Bullying Statistics 2014 for researchers, students, parents and teachers. Explore our essential Bullying Statistics 2014!

Brian Altonen‘s insight:

Mapping childhood aggressive behavior will probably not resolve the problem or help define its exact cause(s).  

But it may provide us with insights into the social situations or environments that help lead to this growing problem, and/or provide us with the knowledge needed to better understand these events as possible personal behavior induced events.

The relationships between grade level and age, gender, ethnicity, family poverty history, school-derived cultural definitions about certain people, and the nature of ongoing staff-student relationships help shed some light into the social aspects of this problem.

We once believed that the causes for this behavior were very much related to mostly poverty, and crime and gang-related activities.  More recent cases suggest that these social behaviors can occur independent of such causes, tending to be individually derived rather than socially derived.  

 Bullies themselves can be broken down into different groups (http://bullying.about.com/od/Bullies/a/6-Common-Types-Of-Bullies.htm&nbsp ;).

 

Chances are, many GIS interpretations of bullying and other activities related to violence (spouse or child abuse, drug activity, certain crime events) may in fact show it is not as predictable through spatial analyses as we would like.  However, with spatial analyses we can still see certain large area features being shared by these cases (i.e. mostly within urban settings, or certain SES  and poverty settings). 

 

For more on this topic . . . . see

 

Bullying Statistics:

http://nobullying.com/bullying-statistics-2014/

http://www.a4kclub.org/get-the-facts/bullying-statistics

Signs of bullying at school:

http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/03/prweb11654053.htm

National Association of Nursing opinion on this subject:  http://www.nasn.org/PolicyAdvocacy/PositionPapersandReports/NASNPositionStatementsFullView/tabid/462/ArticleId/638/Bullying-Prevention-in-Schools-Adopted-January-2014

American Psychological Association stance:  http://www.prweb.com/releases/2014/03/prweb11654053.htm

Graphic depiction, caught on tape:  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/01/22/high-school-bullying-video_n_4644787.html

Who is in fact liable?  http://www.nj.com/opinion/index.ssf/2014/03/if_schools_are_liable_for_bullying_parents_can_be_too_editorial.html

 

 

See on nobullying.com

See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

“There are many assumptions about homeless people. Perhaps the most common is that they are too lazy to work. Having been there myself and having worked with many others in the same situation, I have to say that for the vast majority of homeless people . . . “

Brian Altonen‘s insight:

But what about kids?

 

Does the health of homeless people impact you?

 

At Catholic Online, the article ‘Tuberculosis sweeping through Los Angeles’s population’ attempts to explain this (https://www.catholic.org/news/health/story.php?id=49847).  The authors state:

 

[begin]

"Tuberculosis is also common among the homeless as they live in overcrowded areas and are constantly moving among hospitals, shelters and the streets. In addition, many have substance abuse or mental health issues that can impede treatment.

"’They go from place to place and the likelihood of passing it along is much greater,’ Paul Gregerson, chief medical officer of the JWCH Institute says. The organization runs a homeless healthcare program on skid row. ‘It makes everybody more susceptible.’

"Tuberculosis is easily transmitted by inhaling droplets from infected patients when they sneeze, cough — or even laugh. TB can be deadly if left untreated. The skid row strain can be treated with all anti-TB medications. Treatment lasts six to nine months.

Most of the TB patients are men. Twenty percent are also HIV-positive, according to the alert. Six of the eight patients who also had HIV have died.

The increase of TB among the homeless population is occurring even as the county is seeing a decline in overall cases."

[end]

 

The majority of homeless people with Tb are adults.  The majority of Congenital Tb cases in newborn children is coincidentally distributed around many of the same urban settings where homeless is more common.  Both are products of urban settings with dense populations and desirable living space (even on behalf of the homeless).

 

"One of the four goals of Opening Doors is to finish the job of ending chronic homelessness by 2015.  Working together to implement proven solutions, we can continue to make progress towards our goal."  (Source:  http://usich.gov/population/chronic)

According to Opening Doors . . . 

As long as there are homeless populations, there will be pockets of families and individuals who never receive complete health care.  Typically we hear about Mental Health, HIV, poor nutrition, drug use, the poor management of chronic diseases such as diabetes or epilepsy as primary concerns of community health groups.    

 

But there is more to this public health issue than normally considered.

 

http://eurpub.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/4/398.full.pdf?origin=publication_detail

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC80688/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1883152/pdf/bmj00087-0017.pdf

http://www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/health.html

http://www.nhchc.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Hln_health_factsheet_Jan10.pdf

 

My page which includes a review of this topic for Portland, Oregon, is:  

http://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/population-health-surveillance/production-examples/regions-and-health/

 

 

See on kylyssa.squidoo.com

See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

National and regional NPHG Video mapping.  NPHG depictions of everything from people to cost and utilization in managed care may be presented as national, regional or close up images.  The uses for these techniques are diverse and are applicable to the insurance, healthcare, health economics, and PBM industries.

Brian Altonen‘s insight:

During the late 1990s (ca. 1997), a number of west coast reviews of GIS  included research teams devoted to animated mapping.  Within a year, a leader in this field was Sonoma College in California, where GIS was successfully used to map out crime in an animated fashion (Lodha and Verma 1999).   The same year, a University of Georgia student completed his assessment of the same for evaluating densely populated urban settings (Beavers 1999).  In 2003, Bidoshi (2003) completed his dissertation on the virtual visualization of mapped data at Ohio State University.  By 2009, Yale University students at G-Econ created a 3D global mapping program based on spherical geometric formulas.

 

The use of three-dimensional GIS for tracking population features is now more than 15 years of age.  Its most common uses have been mapping crime and demographic features.  Recent works by Alfarhan (2010), Kim (2012), and Zhang (2012) suggest that new cloud and EMR technology might pave the way for the development of more successful use of this Medical GIS technology.  

 

This is the purpose of the NationalPopulationHealthGrid (NPHG) program I developed.  NPHG algorithms produce maps on population health that are much faster to run than the traditional methods already in place for developing these maps. NPHG is designed for use in weekly and daily reporting on hundreds to thousands of population health metrics.

 

References

 

Alfarhan, M. S. (2010). Geosciences information system (GeoIS): A geospatial paradigm for real and virtual three-dimensional worlds. (Order No. 3414888, The University of Texas at Dallas). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 135. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/734622078?accountid=28180. (734622078).

Beavers, R. M. (1999). An evaluation of cartographic visualization’s utility in the spatial analysis of urban social dynamics. (Order No. 3022089, University of Georgia). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 164-164 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/304516996?accountid=28180. (304516996).

Bidoshi, K. (2003). Virtual reality visualization for maps of the future. (Order No. 3088842, The Ohio State University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 186-186 p. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/305319198?accountid=28180. (305319198).

Kim, I. H. (2012). Developing high performance GIS simulation models on geospatial cyberinfrastructure: a case study of population change models with grid computing and cloud computing technologies. (Order No. 3545065, University of California, Santa Barbara). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 250. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/1237250056?accountid=28180. (1237250056).

Lodha, Suresh K. and Verma, Arvind . 1999. "Animations of Crime Maps Using Virtual Reality Modeling Language." Western Criminology Review 1 (2). [Online]. Available: http://wcr.sonoma.edu/v1n2/lodha.html.

Nordhaus W.  (2009).  Geographically based Economic data (G-Econ), Yale University.  Accessed at http://gecon.yale.edu/

Nordhaus W.  (2009).  G-Econ Project, Yale University, September 2009.  http://gecon.yale.edu/g-econ-project-yale-university-september-2009. 

Zhang, C. (2012). Interfaces and visual analytics for visualizing spatio-temporal data with micromaps. (Order No. 3504130, George Mason University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 156. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.proxy1.ncu.edu/docview/1011001290?accountid=28180. (1011001290). 

See on wcr.sonoma.edu

See on Scoop.itEpisurveillance

http://youtu.be/nk2HMqICMd8 IMG 0724 OmskFever

Brian Altonen‘s insight:

In 2006, I was asked by two companies in Atlanta, Georgia to develop a model for surveilling in-migrating disease patterns.  

.

This is why I re-developed my algorithm used to map cholera outbreaks back in the late 1990s.

.

I then tested this technique on dozens of very unusual foreign-born diseases migrating into this country and resulting in cases being documented in a national EMR database.

.

After producing more than one hundred maps of international disease patterns, I merged these into disease patterns for combinations of ICDs linked to certain parts of the world.  By merging so many ICDs together, patterns emerged enabling you to tell if diseases are spread across land based international borders with the U.S., by air-water travel Pacific Rim routes, or via traditional commercial air-water routes involving the East Coast, Saint Lawrence and the Great Lakes, or the Mississippi River.
.
The Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever, named for its first descriptions published for Omsk, U.S.S.R. in the 1940s and 1950s, is an example of a disease pattern that can take either the east coast or west coast route.  

.

Contaminated water, ticks and an animal host like the muskrat are important natural ecological requirements for its distribution. Human population density and cultural demographic patterns define its human ecological distribution patterns.

.

This video map depicts numerous isolated cases in EMRs which are probably the result of in-migrating people with a history of exposure or need for "rule-outs" for this diagnosis. (Rule-outs typically include the ICD for a specific case the lab is asked to remove from a list of possible diagnoses, and so these appear in the EMRs, but as single hits.)
.
The loner peak in the Southwestern U.S. is an exceptionally high number of cases, suggesting (but not at all proving): i) possible Pacific Rim in-migration behavior and therefore ecological origin , and ii) a probable rule out of human ecology and population density as the sole explanations for this particular outbreak.
.
One role of the spatial epidemiologist in disease surveillance is to locate potential niduses, so they can be ruled out where appropriate or added to local surveillance programs.

See on www.youtube.com

See on Scoop.itNational Population Health Grid

A now-retracted British study that linked autism to childhood vaccines was an “elaborate fraud” that has done long-lasting damage to public health, a leading medical publication reported Wednesday.

Brian Altonen‘s insight:

How did the refusal to vaccinate children get so out of hand in the U.S.?  

.

This whole problem began when an article  was published in 1998 that provided falsified results to support its claim.  

.

The Jan. 5, 2011 news story and related video describing this event are at:  http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/

.

According to a krigged analysis of the distribution of these behaviors, the two niduses for this social pattern are the tristate area near Manhattan (high density), and the Pacific Northwest (statistically significant z-axis values).  

.

A third nidus for this human behavior is surfacing in southern California.  

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A number of secondary sites defining potential entry points are in the Great Lakes region, in Florida, and in the southern (Houston) Texas area.

See on edition.cnn.com

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