Florida’s hot, humid climate puts its 20 million residents at risk — along with millions more tourists

Sourced through Scoop.it from: www.cbsnews.com

It is one week into February.  For New York that means we are5 or 6 weeks away from paying close attention to the first mosquitoes.  The first pests are those that successfully  overwintered.  This spring will be full of those pests, because this winter has managed to steer clear of too many El Nino-La Nina effects.  It has snowed only once up in my county, and been miserably cold for just a week or two.


But the first adults to re-emerge from their winter hibernation should be carrying much, we hope.  There haven’t been too many positive testing cases with West Nile and Chikungunya like we feared late last summer.


So weather and climate determine when the first southern disease bearers will impact this part of the States.  Whereas Aedes aegypti is the vector epidemiologists have to watch to the south, Anopheles are the pests we may have to pay close attention to up here, perhaps Aedes.  


So where do the Aedes mosquitoes penetrate the US with their tropical diseases?


I mapped the answer to this questions years ago.  See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eHyehbfOwFo   


West Nile is a related disease; but it rapidly migrated across this country ecologically.  Can Zika virus do the same?  This video is of the success that West Nile had crossing this country in just a few years: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKtREeEtkaY 


The way Mosquito Viral Encephalitis is distributed in this country is at : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGu_hY_r0Ko 


It shows where the Dengue is brought into the US by Aedes, via people.  NY is the center for possible in-migration of the disease by infected people.  Whereas Florida, Louisiana, and numerous southern states riddles with mosquitoes are how it will enter this country ecologically.  


I produced a rich resource on how to evaluate mosquito-vectored diseases using GIS.  I developed a method for ecologically profiling places, to determine where these critters are most likely to run rampant, and where they will mathematically cause to most chaos to ensue and the likelihood for unexpected diseases to penetrate the local wetlands and swamp-ridden areas.


The following is how I used a light sensing device to develop a better ecological understanding of mosquitoes, in relation to land use patterns and ecological vegetation-domain status:  http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/west-nile-surveillance-2/

Remote sensing tells us plenty about an ecosystem and whether or not it has the features to develop a stable ecosystem for vectored diseases to survive.  See http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/6-remote-sensing/ 

My study of species for these vectors:  http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/vectors/ 

My vegetation survey derived plant ecology study: http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/3a-west-nile-surveillance-1/ 

My surveillance of cases:  http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/case-related-surveillance/ 

My method of assigning risk to areas:  http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/assigning-risk/ 

My review of topography, landform and vector patterns (won an award for this): http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/topography/ 

My NLCD grid mapping method of evaluating vector and host distributions: http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/nlcd-grid-mapping-and-west-nile/ 

My introductory page on how to do this monitoring of diseases using a GIS, with plenty of pages to follow, is http://brianaltonenmph.com/west-nile/

My award winning west nile ecology poster, 2006: http://brianaltonenmph.com/about/west-nile-ecology-poster-session-at-2006-esri-conference-denver-co/ 


I posted numerous videos of zoonotic disease behaviors in the US based on 1998-2012 EHRs (the past 15 years), at https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLWrApErk5byYvO6ZHvDzgzmPqOGs1WI9B 







See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

. PREFACE I can start off by stating that “the Extraordinary disease” that struck Nantucket in 1763, and referred to by the writer of this article, was not yellow fever, or at least not just yellow…

Sourced through Scoop.it from: brianaltonenmph.com

A few days ago, November 24th, I had 450 people visit one of my historic medical geography pages.  This page reviewed the epidemic that stuck Martha’s Vineyard in 1763.


I use two well tested theories to evaluate this diseases most likely to strike this setting during some of the earliest years of colonial history.  Sequent Occupancy and its equivalent idea penned around the same time by Benjamin Rush as a variation on the newly population Erasmus Darwinian evolution theory.


Erasmus Darwin (grandfather of the famous Charles Darwin, founder of the more modernly accepted evolution theory), identified the concept of speciation [“Speciation transition theory”], in which beings develop as a consequence of their ecosystem.  Applying this to humans, Rush stated that as people mature and their work environment and community mature, so too does their way of living and occupation (see “1786 – Benjamin Rush – An early rendering of Sequent Occupancy”  at http://brianaltonenmph.com/gis/historical-medical-geography/1786-benjamin-rush-an-early-rendering-of-the-sequent-occupancy-philosophy/&nbsp ;).  Rush referred to these periods of sequential development in reference to the different “species” of mankind they produced. Man’s way of living, building houses, setting up business, raising or grown food, all changed as well as a result of these changes in the colonial setting.  To contemporary readers, this seems figurative at first, but a review of the Erasmus Darwinian theory makes sense of it–that theory claims the same natural events and forces occurred throughout nature, not just to plants and animals, but also to stones, the environment, mankind, etc.


In the late 1800s, the geographers reiterated Rush’s theory, without knowing he had in fact already invented it, when they described the sequent occupancy theory for how people evolve and change as the place they live in changes as well (“Epidemiological transition”, at http://brianaltonenmph.com/6-history-of-medicine-and-pharmacy/hudson-valley-medical-history/european-multiculturalism/moravian-indian-medicine/medical-changes-over-time/&nbsp ;).  These changes in the immediate environment are a consequence of changes in prevailing occupation patterns, prevailing resource and product needs, and prevailing skills and knowledge based needs in order for that business and its factory or industry setting to develop.


For each of these E-Darwinian evolution-ecology states, or Rush species periods, or sequent occupancy stages, come a specific set of medical conditions and disease types.  This direct relation of these three paradigms all precede the contemporary epidemiological transition theory by just a few decades.


Now of course, sequent occupancy, speciation, and early E-Darwinian ecology are not perfect matches for epidemiological transition.  Like any theory that exists in today’s scientific community, older theories undergo change and upgrading every now and then.  Sometimes they fade out, only to return years or decades later in some new form, supported by some new paradigm.


Sequent occupancy is a far better way to map diseases and health over space and time today, as much as a century or two ago.  It is as much a valid theory for geographers to use in their studies of spatiotemporal disease patterns, as the traditional ecological theories are for the biological fields, or the demographic-environment theories are for pathogenesis.


Sequent occupancy is here for spatial analysts to use to study their topics with.  It provides a much better, more specific format to carry out this research with, defining as well the observations that need to be recorded and discussed to help show a value to sequent occupancy theory to the modern spatial epidemiology studies.


This page more than likely had such a great following during the first days of this week due to its sequent occupancy and review of history and health for a time when colonial medical theories prevailed.  Colonial medicine beliefs were very different from those of today–few overlap, except at the sentence level–we still occasionally uses leeches to treat the human body for specific conditions.  We bloodlet patients, but only those who are hyperemic.  We reserve religious beliefs for disease, but fall upon other culturally-related belief systems to try and explain our sickest behavioral health patients.  Some doctors believed in metaphysical theory and applied acupuncture to patients, for the electric energy or vital force it transferred, spread or helped to develop.  Such a philosophy differs extremely little from today’s reasons for why we want to rely upon acupuncture for treating certain medical conditions, such as back pain or even cancer.


Whatever the reason for its high popularity right now, this item out of the U.S. medical history represents one of many examples of the value of historical medical research, for use by today’s healthcare and medical research projects.  Very few medical scholars know and understand medical history.  They often re-write its meaning, purpose, definition and intent for the philosophy, in order to make it fit better with their own modern paradigm.


But theory is theory.  Theory works when we can make it work, and when if works real well, deserves to be tested for more applicability.  The sequent occupance part of this highly popular page, and its example of how epidemics in the past can be so hard to recognize and decipher when penned by non-medical writers, and why we must engage in this kind of work to better understand some of today’s medical and public health issues, are the main reasons this many people took to this page on the epidemic that struck Martha’s Vineyard, nearly 250 years ago.  In it, I provide as well as contemporary historian’s take on the cause for this disease centuries ago; but the underlying basis for this modern diagnosis is so wrong in terms of time and place.  To make the right diagnosis today, it helps if we know the full history, even of the disease we are trying to decipher and diagnose.

See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

Arguments over whether the city can require pre-K students to get flu shots reached a fever pitch in Manhattan Wednesday, with a courtroom full of anti-vaccination activists railing against everyth…

Sourced through Scoop.it from: nypost.com

I spent the past three months reproducing my 3D maps of disease, that I developed the NPHG program for several years ago.  


For those unfamiliar with my NPHG work, years ago I developed an algorithm for analyzing population health data, and then mapping the results of my analysis at the small area level (adjusted for particular density features), in order to produce a video of my results that depicts the US turning.  This presentation can be zoomed in on, and looked at using any 3D angle.  The purpose was to determine the best way to demonstrate disease outbreak clusters, ICD clusters, human behavior clusters.  I produced more than 1000 of these 3D videos, each with 1000 or more maps in them.  


Duplicating this statistical method for a smaller area, large medical data company, focused on NYC, I produced identical maps for this part of the US megalopolis.  Most important to me was the fact that with the smaller dataset (1.5M-8M patients, 1B records), my results mimicked the results I produced for my 80M-120M patient population reviewed, that I posted quite a bit from over the past few years.


What is evident from thus duplication of findings is confirmation of a number of unexplored disease topics, in dire need of closer attention to culture, race and religion-related influences on the diagnoses, and the places where these events tend to cluster.  This is certainly a way to uncover both the genetic and the cultural makings of the many neighborhoods that make up a healthcare populations "region" of distribution.  It can be used to map out the value of where your facilities are placed, and how to link that info to community income level and types of medical needs.


The most controversial outcomes for these projects pertain to intercultural findings–behaviors, genomics, and culturally-linked ICDs that cross over into unexpected families and cultural communities.  


The refusal to immunize your children is in part ethnic-culturally based, for two very clear reasons, and it is neodarwinian, U.S. based cultural beliefs–the notion that avoiding the vaccine is the safer way for a child to live.


It is up to the healthcare, managed care systems to be able to utilize findings like those produced using highly detailed spatial approaches to analyzing healthcare related needs, services and costs.  The single most reason managed care groups have enabled these behaviors to happen in the NYC community is obvious–leaders of healthcare systems are inexperienced in producing an impact on the health of their local community.  Another leadership related reason for the failure to improve healthcare practices and outcomes in recent years is also based upon poor experience and lack of adequate background in directing a managed care program as a healthcare system and business, not just one of either of these two.


Due to an efficient EHR, EMR, I can go to work and in an hour or two map the entire region and tell you where the most frequent use of these v-codes related to immunization refusal are documented.  I can then map these results and produce a video well before the day is even half over.  


So, for a while, I wasn’t sure why managed care programs still cannot engage in this level of spatial epidemiological research, much less get their act together with EHR and EMR.  But this new "theory" in the dissertations that have been published in recent years, demonstrates this problem due to be to management and directors.  Many if not most medical institutions have the employees with the skills for doing exactly what I do, map the results in record time, and analyze thousands of health related metrics per year.


My NationalPopulationHealthGrid.com page, personal blog site (brianaltonenmph.com), and YouTube sites provide numerous examples of this mapping technology.  Once my dissertation is over (or just before), I’ll put out there the simple formulas I use to produce valuable epidemiological surveillance tools, without the need for a GIS.

See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

Solving the crisis?!  Well, not really.  2016 is the year when managed care programs will either suffer and succumb to the pressures of HIT, or successfully find new talents and leaders to advance their system ahead of the rest and implement a  Medical GIS.

2016 is also the year when a significant percentage of healthcare programs will fall behind in the most basic IT and HIT requirements even further.  Some may even fall so far behind their competitors, that it becomes necessary to sell, or initiate a major overhaul.

The first thing to go with a successful overhaul are the “leaders” of the past.  They are the ones who are dragging your managed care system behind, not only in its technology, but also it economic potentials, in the form of rewards and benefits for . . . . need I say? . . . .  “good service.”.

Sourced through Scoop.it from: brianaltonenphd.wordpress.com

This philosophy defines the neoinstitutional theory of health care administration, the primary theory by which my dissertation work on managed care and the current barriers that exist for GIS implementation.  The lack of success and rapid growth, when compared with the advancements epidemiologists, marketing companies, surveillance specialists, and climatic health experts have made using GIS, is due to the absence of upper level management having any direct, first hand knowledge or field and hands on experience with GIS and the use of GIS skills to create your own maps . . . from scratch. . . . by hand . . . not just by using the routine shapefiles that most GIS’s are provided.

Some very old habits have resurfaced again, due to the last two year’s worth of failed healthcare information technology improvements.  The primary proofs of these failures are demonstrated best by programs still unable to produce an entire and effective HIT information management system.  realize, the bulk of these programs have only a few dozen metrics that are required of them, about 60 meaningful use metrics.

I have identified thirty-four major SETS of metrics that need to be developed, and then managed regularly on a monthly, quarterly or annual basis, for any managed care system to demonstrate its expertise in understanding population health and the roles of medical GIS in producing more cost effective HIT-GIS guided Managed Care programs.

These 34 classes I came up with define about 1500 to 2000 metrics.  Most of them were developed as part of a major MC program I was involved with back when the first contemporary forms of these systems came to be (more than 10 years ago). So these 34 classes on population health/meaningful use reporting shouldn’t be too difficult to develop in three years or less.

Now I admit, this is just my preliminary set, and is based upon projects in which I was able to develop these reports in very little time over the past 10-15 years.  I suspect a few more details will need to be added as I recheck my sql and sas algorithms and rewrite them to more rapidly produce the end products that are required.  This project is based upon real life, real time data.  There is a real need for managed care systems to develop a programs that are more robust, not scripted as just a bunch of various “silo” projects, by unmanaged, non-integrated research teams and offices.  Working together as part of an HIT-GIS program, these programs can have a very significant impact.

On the page this ‘blurb’ is linked to, I define the following sets of skills and applications of GIS as the directions these programs need to be heading.  All but two of these items should be able to be accomplished in under one calendar year, with or without a GIS.

Location/Access improvements; redesigning plans and servicesCost savings by redesigning facilities, determining needsServices — quality and adding new services, documenting thisFuture planning (projection of health and patients and costs; plans/goals)Standardized reporting of valuable QA information; meet MU requirementsPerformance Improvement QI scores, documenting and reporting on 60+ specific metricsPerform Ad hoc reporting, per local needAchieve more recognition and support:Improve professional reputationIncrease Public Support and recognitionPress related support and recognitionObtain other institutional support and recognition (tertiary care settings, university hospitals, npos, clinics, allied health)Improve financier support and recognition; improve investments; improve IT infrastructure.Obtain more allied corporations support (manufacturers, inventors, innovators)Receive more Federal and State support and recognition, and publish more in the literature.

See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

With new infection hot zones developing in Europe, world leaders need to get ahead of potential epidemics.  My map videos for each of three geographically different Leishmaniasis patterns in the US, are [American] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hpxw97tM75k ; 

[Ethopian Leishmaniasis] http://youtu.be/jhw8nfEfNOw ; [Asian]  http://youtu.be/mkHYn-r-5WQ .

Sourced through Scoop.it from: www.washingtonpost.com

Taking a close look at the history of diseases, they appear to recur in different countries as if a "new wave" of outbreaks was developing.  This new event leaders are trying to link to global warming and climate change, which could be very well correct, at least partially.  


Global warming isn’t the same reasons outbreaks of various international diseases occurred in the past.  The past events may have even planted some of the pathogens into our local ecology, long before the first outbreaks even happened. 


Other factors that come into play with new foreign disease outbreaks in this country pertain to the migration diseases underwent centuries ago.  The common factor for most outbreaks brought from afar is travel, and the amount of people travelling.  During the mid-14th century, Taenia (African tapeworm) made its way to Europe by way of merchant and explorer ships.  


During the mid-19th century, there is plenty of evidence suggesting the classical Vibrio cholerae was planted ecologically within the Mississippi River deltaic setting.  On and off it produced a few outbreaks in Mexico and the U.S., which were never considered an indicator suggesting the pathogen was part of the local ecology.  


In the past five decades, travel has been the means by which disease causing organisms provided the opportunity to commute to a new ecosystem.  But, whereas fifty years ago in the 1960s, a plane from New York to the Caribbean was a unique transportation event, today, it is nearly a commuter’s route to some, a recurring ‘frequent flier’ event for others.  


As of this decade, travelers can easily take just a few hours to spread a disease anywhere they want around the world, from western Australia to Chicago in less than one business day.  The migration of a number of foreign borne diseases into the U.S. in 2014 and 2015 proved this inevitability was finally upon us.


Recently, several foreign born pathologies or diagnoses were brought to my attention, due to their "discovery’ in the lower New England-Mid-Atlantic setting.  I remind people to check one or more of my postings, if you want to see the past behaviors of diseases on United States turf, over the past ten years.  Most of these maps are now being reconfirmed, using different data from different sources.  However, if things do get worse, they represent just this moment in US epidemiologic history.  


For a number of examples of map videos I produced on what I termed "Foreign Intruder diseases", go to:



My blog page with a listing of these (no video links), is at 



For those who don’t want to search . . . see . . . 


Ethopian Leishmaniasis – http://youtu.be/jhw8nfEfNOw

Asian Leishmaniasis – http://youtu.be/mkHYn-r-5WQ

See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide

From 1987 to 2000 I ran a lab at the local university that specialized in testing phytochemicals.   My focus was on my own “discovery” of the local yew tree as a source for a new treatment for breast cancer, which would be marketed several years later as Taxol.  That study was second to my study of benzylisoquinoline (BIQ) alkaloids, metabolically active selective toxins capable of being applied as medicines.  I also monitored OTC herbal products for adulteration and counterfeits, and occasionally followed up on complaints of toxicity.

Sourced through Scoop.it from: www.newsweek.com

This current argument, pertaining to antioxidants, mimics similar events that ensued in the late 1980s for Echinacea, when it was promoted for treating AIDs.  Many herbal medicines are potential victims of this slippery slope error, usually made by their most devoted (and highly biased) advocates.

During my 20 years working as a phytochemist and phytotaxonomist specialized in the pathways for developing new products, I attended hundreds of presentations, classroom teachings, and other public events about the new claims to herbal medicines arising over the years.

Echinacea was the first attack I would make on these claims, as the researcher, lecturer and professor in natural products chemistry from 1989 to 2000.  The primary individual promoting Echinacea at this time recommended it for treating AIDs.  Attending one of his sessions, I asked about its mechanisms of action; he was unfamiliar with the contradictory nature of his claim, which stated that an herb stimulating the immune system would help “cure” or minimize AIDs related complications because of its non-specific “immunogenic” effect. (Lucky guess on which pathways to take, I guess.)

For the next decade we contested each other’s claims about what is “efficaciousness”, when it came to herbal medications and their nutriceuticals.  Ultimately, some people in this profession developed a better understanding of the immune system processes, and the varying pharmaceutical nature of the  ‘Chemicals in Plants’ (the name of my most popular course at PSU for 15 years).

Also note, these same incompletely researched arguments have been made for plant seed oils, in particular arguments that posed ideas about prostaglandins and prostacyclins, not to mention the other arachidonates and EPAs.  Such arguments claimed that generically assisting the body in its chemical processes somehow results in a therapeutic effect because nature selects the right side of the pathway to health for its plant chemicals to take. (Or maybe it’s simple “luck of the draw”!)

Similarly, herbalists rarely  take into account the opposing natures by which black cohosh and blue cohosh on uterine muscle and blood vessel walls; the effects of the two, when taken together, are in opposition to each other in some cases.

Over the years, I demonstrated that one of the most embarassing things about phytochemical drug related claims is what little herbalists know about the chemical nature and chemical history of some of their most popular products.

Since I specialized in BIQ alkaloids back then, I reviewed the “curative” BIQs purportedly in Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) from 1990 to 1993; I presented these findings several times, including at OAS.  I found that hydrastine (green to gold on the TLC) rapidly decays to produce hydrastinine (sky blue).  Different products had different amounts of hydrastinine produced, indicating substantial irregularities within the herbal medicine trade.

That second product (light blue hydrastinine) is a result of the oxidation of hydrastine to hydrastinine, by light, heat, exposure to oxygen, free radicalization,  etc.  This chemical conversion also changes the questionably-proven antibiotic Goldenseal powder into a better-documented smooth muscle relaxant (see ‘The Merck Index’, 1970s).  Since the half life of hydrastine (the desired antibiotic chemical) is a just few months in powdered products, this means the capsules, teas, and such that are made from golden seal powder may be totally “ineffective” in therapy in overpriced in terms of their hydrastine content.  [Take them for your IBS instead; I explain all of this on part of my resume/autobiographical page, at http://brianaltonenmph.com/tag/selective-toxicity/ ].

During the 1990s, some of the OTC industries made corrections for these inconsistencies and even tried standardizing the testing of their alkaloids, flavonoids, and other forms of phytochemical content.

But similar problems ensued.  Concerns about the substitution of Devil’s Claw with a closely related “unofficial” species (but perhaps allowable) is currently a major concern.  Since the 1920s, there has been this ongoing problem for identifying the right “Pau d’Arco”.  Adulteration is also still a problem with herbal medicines, for example, the many “legal highs” may be totally bogus, questionably effective neurotonics.  Likewise, the use of “scullcap” for epilepsy has had its non Scutellaria substitutes found in the batches instead.  One Uva Ursi (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) produce sent to me by an Alaskan herbalist ended up being boxwood (Buxus) shrub instead, alkaloids and all.  (Grossly, it is a lookalike at first, and so was perhaps gathered by mistake.)

And as usual, poor management of OTC the plant product manufacturing industry remains a major problem with this unmonitored profession.  Last week, the story was once again countering the Echinacea immunogenic theory claims.

Finally, I find this problem to be very much like another series of legal cases I managed from 1989 to 1990, involving the Oregon patients who took the first bioengineered version of the OTC nutrichemical, tryptophan (TRP).  It was produced by the Japanese company Showa Denko, using aggregate cell culturing (“bacillus soup”) techniques (one of my first professors was Abe Krikorian, who sent the Daucus carota to the Moon and back during one of those Apollo missions, in aggregate rootcap bioengineered form; the cell aggregates survived and produced new plants on earth).

This attempt to make a bioengineered form of TRP for the first time unknowingly resulted in the production of di-TRP, which was undetected, since it never existed before, and found to be neuromyotoxic on skeletal (esp. leg) muscle.   [See http://www.nemsn.org/Articles/summary_tryptophan%20Fagan.htm ]

The misfortune there is that this enabled the FDA to regulate TRP rather than require it be tested and monitored for public health safety.  That move was obviously one of a political nature, not intended to be solely of a public health nature.

Remember, as a medicine, the herb is what you make of it.  As a source for chemicals, however, there’s more to a plant than just a list of compounds, some of which have possible effects.

If only we paid more attention to the highly detailed alchemical history of what’s in a plant.

So many compounds, so many theories. (“So that’s why it worked!”)

PS: Don’t forget the ZMAPP project!  This Ebola drug was bioengineered using Tobacco Plant, and the rights to its product and the genetic engineering processes are patented.  So this process and its unexpected problems it may cause at times may very well continue.  See my related ScoopIt! at http://www.scoop.it/t/episurveillance/p/4026182931/2014/08/12/zmapp-and-the-treatment-of-the-spanish-priest-in-the-madrid-hospital-for-ebola  

See on Scoop.itEpisurveillance

Nearly 10 years ago (time flies!), I performed extensive research on the in-migration of diseases from Africa and other continents and large countries, completing that project more than five years ago.

I identified more than 100 diseases that can be easily monitored, continuously, by a managed care program. I used this project to demonstrate that if the ICDs of these diseases are placed into a single search tool for EMS, and the resulting “hits” assigned locations based upon their latitude and longitude, that plenty of leads can be found about how diseases migrate into this country, not to mention how people behave.  Ebola is one of those diseases I mapped.

Sourced through Scoop.it from: www.newsweek.com

Now, with the possibility of sexual transmission of Ebola, living and working in the vicinity of one of the non-compliant healthcare providers to bring Ebola into this country, these events made me recall my years in medical school, during the early to mid 1980s, when AIDs had yet to receive a formal name, and when the first research into HIV and AIDs migration and sexual transmission patterns came to be, as one of my mentors was forced to leave his position as administrator of the medical school, due to his refusal to publicly refer to the university officials’ desire to link the new epidemic coming to be to a small community located in and about Queens.

Now granted, the organisms behind AIDs and Ebola are very different.  What happened in New York and later California may not be at all like what happened 30 years ago in the U.S.  In an evolutionary sense, as well as a physiological and adaptive one, the organisms responsible for each are very different, although the routes of transmission, sexual behavior, may not be as different as we’d like to think.

What HIV taught us is that carrying and disease and spreading it elsewhere around the world can become a long, drawn out event, enabling the organism to mutate, survive better, change from a rapidly fatal pathogen to a wandering one in search for new hosts.

It will be interesting to see if people behave like they did between 1985 and 1986, and 1986 and 1988, when leaders in my medical communities in NY and later OR tried to lay blame on specific ethnic groups for the introduction of a new disease to specific communities in Long Island where I did my rounds on the hospital floor, and still later in specific parts of California, the second time through.

To understand how African diseases impact this country, back then, in African, and in the U.S., begin by reviewing my work of the Geography of African Diseases that I produced years ago from a large national health dataset . . .

My method of developing the first videos to display the national distribution of these diseases, individually as well as as a collective, appears much like a GIS, but it was produced without GIS software.  I designed my own algorithm for this 3D mapping methodology eons ago.

Begin with:


VIDEOS of the NPHG Product include:

African Diseases


Geophagia as an African behavior:


African Eye Worm


Obscure African Cardiomyopathy:




Guinea Worm


Crimean or Congo Fever




Assorted Videos in a row:




AIDS/Severe Chronic Immune Deficiency


Noma Page


POSTINGS in ScoopIt! about Ebola, each a lesson in itself:

Pages on the Geography of Ebola:



and Mapping the Outbreak of Ebola:



See on Scoop.itMedical GIS Guide


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